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General Library System 
University of Wisconsin - Madison 
728 State Street 
Madison, Wl 53706-1494 

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA AMERICANA. 



A 

POPUIiAB DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, fflSTORY, POLITICS, AND 

BIOGRAPHY, 

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME; 

iircLin>iNO 

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES 

IH 

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY; 

ON 

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN 



FRANCIS LIEBER, 

A8SI0TBD BT 

E- WIGGLUfflVORTV^ND T. G. BRADFORD. 



NEW EDITION. 



yiOahfliriifii: 

DBSILVER, THOMAS, & CO. 
Nob d47, MAHSET STREET. 



Entered, according to the Act of Confjrrees, in the year 1832, bj 
Caret aho Lsa, 
In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



General Ubrary System I 

University of Wsconsin- Madison l 

728 Stale Street^ , 

Madison, WI63706-14«4 \ 



U.S.A. 



RE 



&8Cp3(b^8 



ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA. 



Steuber, Frederic Wiiliam Augustus, 
baion Yon ; a distinffiushed PruflBian offi- 
cer, who attached niznself to the Ameri- 
can cause in the revolution of 1776. He 
bad been aid-de-camp to Frederic the 
Great, and had attained the lauk of Ueu- 
tenantrgeneral in his army. Sacrificing 
his honors and emoluments in Europe, 
Steuben came to America in 1777, and 
tendered his services to congreBE^ as a vol- 
onteer in their army, without cluminc 
any rank or compensation. He received 
the thanks of that body, and jomed the 
main army under the commander-in- 
chief at ValleY Forge. Baron Steuben 
aoon rendered himseu particularly useful 
to the Americans, by disciplinmff the 
fiMces. On the recommendation of sen- 
eral Washington, congress, in May, 1778, 
appointed the baron inspector-general of 
the army, with the rank of major-generd. 
His efibits in this capacity were continu- 
ed with remaricable dili^nce; until he 
had placed the troops in a rituation to 
withstand the enemy. In the estimates 
of the war office, 5000 extra muskets 
were peneraUy allowed for waste and de- 
stnicuon in the army ; but such was the 
exact order under the superintendence of 
Steuben, that in his inspection return, but 
three muskets were deficient, and those 
aceounted for. A complete scheme of 
exercise and discipline, which he com- 
posed, was adopted in the anny by the 
direction of congress. He possessed the 
ri|^t of command in the line, and at one 
poriod was at the head of a separate de- 
tachment in Vii^ginia. At the battle of 
Monmouth, he was engaged as a volun- 
tew. When reviewing the troops, it was 
his constant custom to reward the disci- 
plined soldier with praise, and to pass se- 



vere censure upon the negligent Nu- 
merous anecdotes are rdated illustrative 
of the generosity, puriw and kindness of 
his diiqpositi<Hi. After the treacherous de- 
fection of Arnold, the baron held his name 
in the utmoetabhorrence. One day, he was 
inspecting a regiment of light horse, when 
that name struck his ear. The man was 
ordered to the fix>nt, and presented an ex- 
cellent appearance. Steuben told him 
that he was too respectable to bear the 
name of a traitor ; and at his request the 
soldier adopted that of the baron, whose 
bountv he afterwards experienced, and 
brou^t up a son by the same name. At 
the siefle of Yorittown, baron Steuboi 
was in me trenches at the head of a di- 
vision, where he received the first offer 
of lord Comwallis to cqntulate. The 
marquis de la Fayette appeared to relieve 
him in the morning ; but, adhering to the 
European etiquette, the boron would not 
quit his post until the surrender was com- 
pleted or hostilities recommenced. The 
matter being referred to general Wash- 
ington, the baron was suiiered to remain 
in the trenches .till the enemy's fiag was 
struck. After tlie capture of ComwalliB, 
when the superior American officers were 
paying everv attention to their captives, 
SteuTOU sold his favorite horse in order to 
raise money to give an entertainment to 
the British officers, as the other major- 
ffenerals had previously done. His watch 
he had previousl v disposed of to relieve the 
wants of ai sick friena. On another occa- 
sion, when he desired to reciprocate the in- 
vitations of the French officers, he ordered 
his people to sell his silver spoons and forks, 
saving it was anti-republican to make use 
of^ch things, and adding, that the centle- 
nlen should nave one good dinner ifhe ate 



STEUBEN--STEWAIID. 



his meals with a wooden spoon for ever 
after. Steuben continued in the army till 
the dose of the war, perfecting its disci- 
pline. The silence toad dexterity of his 
movementB surprised the French allies. 
He possessed the particular esteem of gen- 
eral Washington, who took eveiy proper 
opportunity to recommend him to con- 
gress ; from which body he received several 
sums of money, that were chiefly expend- 
ed in acts of charity, or in rewarding the 
good conduct of the soldiers. 

Upon the disbandment of the conti- 
nental army at Newburgh, many affec- 
tionate bonds, fonned amidst the danger 
and hardships of a long and arduous ser- 
vice, were to be broken asunder for ever. 
At tins season of distress, the benevolent 
Steuben exerted himself to alleviate the 
forlorn condition of many. He gave his 
last dollar to a wounded black, to procure 
him a passage home. Peace being estab- 
lished, the iMuron retired to a fiurm in the 
vicinirjr of New York, where, in the socie- 
ty of his friends, and the amusements of 
.books foul chess, he passed his time as 
comfortably as his exhausted purse would 
allow. The state of New Jersev had 
given him a small farm, and that or New 
York 16^000 acres of land in the county 
of Oneida. The exertions of colonel 
Hamilton and general Washington sub- 
sequently procuied him an annuity of 
$2500, mm the general govemmenL He 
built a log house, and cleared 60 acres of 
his tract of land, a portion of which be 
partitioned out, on easy terms, to twenty 
or thirty tenants, and distributed neariy 
a tenth amon^ his aid-de-camps and ser- 
vants. In this situation he lived content- 
edly, until the year 1795, when an apo- 
plectic attack put an end to his life, in nis 
sixty-iiflh year. An abstract of bis sys- 
tem of military manoeuvres was published 
in 1779. The year preceding nis death, 
he published a letter on the established 
^militia and military arrangements. (For 
further information conceminjp; baron 
Steuben, see Johnson^ IM of Oreenty 
Thatcher's Jounudj Garden^ JmeedoUs,) 

STExmcNviLLE, a flourishing post-town 
of Ohio, on Ohio river, is the seat of jus- 
tice for Jefforson county. It was laid out 
in 1796, with streets croeHUi|B^ each other 
at right angles. In 1810, it contained 
800 uihabitunts; in 1817, 2032; and in 
1890, 2937. It is 147 miles east by north 
from Columbus, and thirty-eight west of 
Pittsburg; lat 40^25' N. ; Ion. 80« 35^ 
W. It contains three churches, a maricet- 
house, a woollen foctory,— 4he machine^ 
of which is moved by steam,— « steam 



paper-mifl, and a flour and cotton fiic- 
toiy, also moved by steam. There bt^ 
two printing-oflSces, an academy, two 
banks, the county buildings, and many 
shops for mechanics and traders. IYm 
countiy around it, on the Virginia as w^ 
as the Ohio side of the river, is rich and 
populous* 

Stbveii 8, George Alexander, a whim- 
sical and eccentric character, was bom in 
London, and brought up to a mechanical 
business, which he quitted to become a 
strolling player. In 1751, he published 
a poem entitled Religion, or the Libertine 
Repentant, which was succeeded, in 1754, 
by the Birthday of Follv. These were 
followed by a novel called Tom Fool, 
and the Dramatic Historv of Master Ed- 
'ward and Miss Ann. He subsequently 
invented his entertainment, called a Lec- 
ture on Heads, Which possessed no small 
portion of drollery, and became veiy pop- 
ular. Several of his songs have also been 
much admired. 

Stevens, EMwaid, an oflicer in the 
American revolutioo, was a native of Vir- 
ginia. At the battie of the great bridge, 
near Norfolk, he commanded a battalion 
of riflemen. Soon afterwards, he was 
made a colonel. At the battie of Brandy- 
wine, he was greatly instrumental in sav- 
Sing the American forces, and received the 
folic thanks of die commander-in-chie^ 
e was honored in the same way for his 
behavior at the battie of Gerraantown. 
He was soon afterwards intrusted with 
the command of a brigade, and despatch- 
ed to the southern army. He evinced his 
wonted gallantiT in the battie of Camden. 
In that of Gutm>rd court-house, he re- 
ceived a severe wound in his thigh ; but, 
before quitting the field, he brought off his 
troops in gooa order. He closed his mil- 
itary career at the siege of Yorktown. 
From the foundation of^the state consti- 
tution until the year 1790, he was a prom- 
inent member of the senate of Virginia. 
He died in Auffust, 1820. 

STEWAkn. The lord high steward of 
England was formerly an officer who 
had the supervision and regulation, next 
under the kuig, of all aflSurs of the realm, 
both civil and military. The oflice was 
hereditary, belonging tc the earls of Lei- 
cester until forfeited to Henry III. (See 
Mim^ort) The p-jwer of this officer was 
so great, that the office has for a long time 
only been granted for some particular act, 
as the triiS of a peer on indictment for 
a capitd ofience, the solemnization of a 
coronation, &c. The lord high steward 
is the first of the nine great officers 



STEWARDS-STEWART. 



oT the crown.— The lord steuntrd of the 
bouarfioid is the chief officer of the king's 
houaebold : his authoring extends over all 
officers and servants or the royal bouse- 
hold except those of the chamber, chapel 
and stable. Under the lord steward, in 
the countinff-house, are the treasurer of 
the househ^d, cofierer, controller, clerks 
of the green cloth, &c. It is called the 
amnting'hauge because the household ac- 
counts are kept in it. (See Courts.) 

Steward, m naval affairs, is an officer 
in a ship of war, appointed by the purser 
to distribute the dinerent species ka pro- 
TisioDS to the officers and crew. 

Stewart, sir James Denham, an emi- 
nent political writer, was bom at Edin- 
burgh, Oct. 10, 17ia His &ther was so- 
ficitor-fferieral of Scotland. After having 
been admitted to the bar, he travelled on 
the continent ^ve years, and formed an 
intimacy with the Pretender, whom he 
aided in his attempt in 1745. On the 
&ilure of that attempt, Stowart retired to 
France, and, in 1755, to Flanders. Here 
be piuUisbed a Vindication of Newton's 
Chronology, a Treatise on Gennan Coins, 
and a Dusertadon on the Doctrine and 
Principles of Money. He returned to 
Scotland in 1763, where he was allowed 
to remain unmolested, and concluded his 
Inqubry into the Principles of Political 
Economy— a work of much research and 
actttenesB, though the style and method 
are imperfect He obtained a full pardon 
in 1771, and afterwards published various 
works of a philosophical and politico-eco- 
nomical character. His complete works 
were published in 1805 (in 6 vols., 8vo.). 
He died in 178a 

Stewart, Dugald, was bom in 1753^ 
and was the son of doctor Matthew Stew- 
art, professor of mathemadcs in the uni- 
Tcraty of Edinburgh. He was educated 
at the hi|[fa school, and admitted, at the 
age of thuteen, as a student in the college, 
imder the tuition of doctor Blair and doc- 
tor Ferguson. . Such was the progress he 
made, that, at the age of eigbteen, he was 

Xinted to read lectures for his fathen 
h he continued to do till the death or 
the latter. In 1780, he received a nvaa- 
her of pufuls into his house, and, in 1783, 
vsrited the continent in company with the 
marquis of Lothian. When doctor Fergu- 
son was sent to North America on a mis- 
sion, Mr. Stewart tau^t his class in mor- 
al philosophy during his absdnce ; and, in 
1785, when the professor resigned, Mr. 
Stewartwaschosentofill his chair,in which 
be continued many yeans with xreat rep- 
utation. HiaEleiiientsof thePmloeophy 
1* 



of the Human Mind (1792) was sacceej- 
ed by OuUinesof Moral Philosophy, for the 
Use of Sudents (1798); Doctor Adam 
Smith's Essays oa Philosophical SuMecti^ 
with an Account of the IMd and Wntingi 
of the Autbor (1801); An Account of 
the Life and Writings of Doctor Robert^ 
son (1803) ; An Account of the Life and 
Writings ofDoctor Thcnnas Reid. The me 
moirs m Smith, Reid and Robertson were 
afterwards collected into one volume, with 
additional notes. In the election of a 
mathemadcal professor of the univenity 
of Edinburgb, Mr. Stewart was reflected 
on for his conduct to the succesetifVd can- 
didate, and he therefore thought woperto 
publish a statement of fiicts relative to 
that election (1805). In 1796, he again 
took a numb^ of pupils under bis care ; 
and, besides adding a course of lectures 
on political economy to the usual courses 
of his chair, he repeatedly supplied the 
place of his colleagues in case of illness 
or absence. In 1806, he accompanied 
his firiend, the earl of Lauderdale, on his 
mission to Paris, and, in 1810, relinquish- 
ed his professorsbip, and retired to Kin- 
neU house, about twenty miles finom Ed- 
inburgh, where he continued to reside till 
his death, June 11, 1828. Hispublica- 
dons subeequendy to his removal were 
Philosophical Efisavs (1810); Dissertation 
on the Progress of Metaphyseal and Eth- 
ical Philosophy, prefixed to the Supple- 
ment to tbe EnofdoDiBdia BrUannica (un- 
fortunately rendered imperfect by the au- 
thor's ignorance of German philoscmhy, 
and left incomplete in regara to ethical 
philosophy — a deficiency partly supplied 
bv Mackintosh's Essay on the A-opess of 
Ethical Philosophy) ; a second volume of 
the Philosophy of the Human Mind (1813), 
with a cottUnuation (1827) ; and the Phi- 
losophy of the Active and Moral Powers 
(1828). Stewart was a man of extensive 
and various acquisition, but not of a pro- 
found or original mind. As a writer, he is 
too often heavy and prolix, though bis style 
IB clear, pure and elaborate. In philoso- 
phy, he was a disciple of Reid, whose 
method and principles be followed with 
litUe deviation. (See Pkiloiophy,) 

Stewart, John ; commonly called 
ffaUdng SUwart, from his pedestrian 
feats ; an eccentric individual, who wan- 
dered, on foot, over a great part of the 
habitable globe. He was bom in Lon- 
don, and, having received the rudiments 
of education at the Charter-house, was 
sent out, in 1763, as a writer to Madras. 
Before be had been in that situation quite 
two years, he wrote a letter to the directors, 



6 



gTEWART— STIGMA. 



tQDiii|[ them that he *^ was boni for tiobler 
piUBUits than to be a copier of inyoices 
and bills of lading to a company of gro- 
cen, haberdaaherB, and cheeae-niongers ;" 
and a few weeks after, he took hia leave 
of the presidency. Prosecuting hif> route 
over Hindooatan, be walked to Delhi, to 
Perseimlis, and other parts of Persia,* 
traversing the greater pert of the Indian 
peninsula, and visiting Abyssinia andNu- 
Dia. Entering the Camatic, he obtain- 
ed the &vor of the nabob, who made him 
his private secretary ; and to this circum- 
stance he, in his latter days, owed his sup- 
port, the Britiah house of commons voting 
nim £15,000 in liquidation of his de- 
mands upon the nabob. Quitting the ser- 
vice of ttiis prince, he set out to walk to 
Seringapatam, where Tippoo Saib compel- 
led him to enter his army, with aconunis- 
aion as captain of sepoys. After serving 
some time in this capacity, sir James SilH 
bald, the commissioner for settling the 
terms of peace between the presidency 
and the sultan, procured his liberation. 
Stewart then started to walk to Europe, 
crosmng the desert of Arabia, and arriv- 
ing at length safely at Marseilles. Thence 
he proceeded, in the same manner, 
through France and Spain, to his native 
country; and, having walked through 
England, Scotland and Ireland, he cross- 
ed uie Atlantic, and perambulated the U. 
States of America. The last ten years 
of his life were passed in London, where 
he died in 1822. 

Stewart, Robert, marquis of Lon- 
donderry. (See Londonderry,) 

Stewabt, Gilbert, an eminent portrait 
painter, was bom at Newport, Rhode Island, 
m 1757, gave early manifestations of 
bis fondness for the pencil, and was sent 
to London, where he was placed under 
the care of Benjamui West. In the execu- 
tion of portraits, the pupil soon surpassed 
the master. In 1784, he was established as 
one of the first portrait painters of London, 
and had, in the exhibition of that year, sev- 
eral fiill lengths of distinguished individ- 
uals. He lived elegantly and gayly ; but 
it is believed that, notwithstanding his 
great success, he was obliged, by pecuniary 
distresses, to remove to Dublin. In 1790, 
he returned to his native country, from 
which he never again departed. He re- 
sided successively in New York, Phila- 
delphia and its neighborhood, Washing- 
ton, and last in Boston, continuing to 
paint with unabated power, althoujrii for 
years racked by the ffout. Soon after his 
return to America, he painted the beet 
portrait of Waahington. The head he 



carefully finished, but never compleled tbe 
remainder. He made several copies, all 
varying firom the orinnaL His death oc- 
curred at Boston, in Julv, 1628 ; and aucfa 
of his works as could be collected ipvere 
exhibited for the benefit of hia fiunilj. 
Mr. Stewart was gifted with uncominao 
colloquial powers, and his genius for por- 
trait painting was of the highest order. 
STHSNrc Diseases. (See Brown^Johtu) 
Sthemo ; one of the Gorgons. (q» v.) 
Stiohomaitct (from Tixos, a line, verse, 
and lutvrda, prophecy) ; a kind of divina- 
tion, in use even amoi^ the Romaoua. 
Verses fix>mthe Sibylline »>ok8 (q. v.) were 
written on small slips of paper, which 
were shaken in a vessel, and one of them 
was drawn out, in order to discover some 
intimation of future events. Something 
aimi W has often been practised by Chris- 
tians, putting a pin at hazard between the 
leaves of a closed Bible. The verao 
which was pointed out served as an ora- 
cle. Even at tlie present time, this is not 
unfiiequently done by the superstitioas ; and 
some sects even resort to it for ^dance 
on important occasions. (SeeBtblumumof,) 
Stick, Gold; an officer of supenor 
rank in the English life-guards, so called, 
who is ui immediate attendance upon the 
king's person. When his majesty ffives 
either of his regiments of life-guards to 
an ofiScer, he presents him wim a gold 
stick. The colonels of the two regimeuiB 
wait alternately month and month. The 
one on duty is then called gold Mick in 
toaiUng ; and all orders relating to the life- 
|i;uards are transmitted through hun. Dur- 
mg that month he commands the brigade, 
receives all reports,and communicates them 
to the king.--;SQtier stick : the field ofilcer 
of the life-guards when on duty is so called. 
Stioma (Greek); with the Greeks and 
Romans, a mark impressed with a hot iron 
on the foreheads of slaves who had run 
away or committed theft. The Greeks 
used a ^, signifying ^rvicTO( (Jkmendus) 
or ^cvrriiroc (runaway), and tlie Romans 
an F, signifying/ur or fugitivus, A black 
coloring substance was put in the wound. 
Such slaves were called sHgmaticij isucnp- 
fi, literaHy vrtyfuiTuUf oT<ya»vc(. The Sami- 
ans, who freed many slaves, and admitted 
them to office, were called, in derision, 
w^Xvypofifiaroi, lUerotL This name, how- 
ever, may have had another origin, as 
many believe. Prisoners of war were 
also branded, as the slave-traden now 
brand the negroes with the marics of their' 
several ownere. (See SiaveryA Recruta 
also were burned in the hand, cenerally 
with the name of the general. This was 



SncaiA— STILUNGFLEET. 



Bot conndef ed a disgnce. In some eoun- 
tiiei» cnminalB sentenced to the fsUeys 
ate bnoided in a eimflar way to ths day. 
Smxa, £zn, a prcBideot of Yale col- 
lege, was the son of the reverend Isaac 
Stdea, of North Haven, ConnecticuL He 
imdQsied in that institution in 1746^ with 
3ie reputation of being one of tlie jpreatest 
scfaoiarB it had ever produced. He then 
studied law, but subsequently devoted 
hinaBelf to theology, and settled at New- 
port, se pastor of the Second church, 
wfam he ccmtinued fix>m 1755 to 1776. 
During this and several succeeding years, 
the enemy were in possession of New- 
port, and the inhabitants of the town 
scattered. Doctor Sdles was solicited to 
pnch in several places : he accepted the 
invitation from the church at Ponsmoudi, 
where he was looked up to with great ad- 
miration. In 1788, he waa chosen presi- 
dent of Yale college, and continued to 
adorn that station, by his great learning, 
abifitiea and piety, until his death, Maj 
12, 1795, in the sixty-eigfath year of his 
age. In peraon doctor Stiles was small, 
but well proportioned. His countenance 
was expressive of benignity and mildness, 
and his manners were amiable and kind. 
He hsMi a thorough knowledge of the 
Heiirew, Greek and Latin, and French 
lan^^tMges; in the Samaritan, Chaldee, 
Synac and Arabic he had made consid- 
erable progress, and had bestowed some 
atlendon on the Persian and Coptic. He 
was well versed in most branches of 
nmchematical knowled^. He had a thor- 
ou^ acquaintance with the rabbinical 
writings, and with those of the fiithers of 
the Christian church. Sailed literature 
was his ftvorite study ; and next to it he 
most delighted in astronomy. As a 
preacher, he was impressive and eloauent 
in a high degree : the intrinsic excellence 
of his sermons was enhanced by the en- 
en^ of his delivery. He published vari^ 
0118 discourses, among which was an 
election sermon, entitled The United 
States elevated to Gloir and Honor, 
nreached May 8, 1783. He also wrote a 
oistory of the three judges of Charles I 
( Whalley, Goffe and Dixwell), and left an 
unfinished ecclesiastical history of New 
England, and more than finty volumes of 
manuscripts. • 

SnucHO ; a Vandalic general, in the 
service of the emperor Theodosius the 
Great, whose niece Serena he married. 
Theodosius having bequeathed the em- 
pire of the East to his son Arcadius, and 
that of the West to his second son, Hono- 
rio^ the former was left under the care 



of Rufinus, and the latter under the guar- 
dumship of Stilieho. (See Waiem Em- 
pire,) No sooner was Tlieodoflius no 
more, than Ruftnus stirred up an invairion 
of the Goths in order to procure the sole 
dominion, which Stilieho put down, and 
effected the destruction of his rival. After 
suppressmg a revolt in Africa, he marched 
against Aluic, whom he signally defeated 
at PoUentia. After this, in 406, he repel- 
led an invasicm of barbarians, who pene- 
trated into Italy under Rhadagasius, a 
Hun or Vandal leader, who formerly ac- 
companied Alaric, and produced the en- 
tire destrucdon both of* the force and its 
leader. Either from motives of policy or 
state necessity, he then entered into a 
treaty with Alaric, whose pretensions 
upon the Roman treasiny for a subsidy 
he warmly supported. Tiiis conduct ex- 
cited suspicion of his treachery on the 
part of Honoriu^ who massacred all his 
friends during his absence. He received 
intelligence of this fiict at the camp of 
Bologna, whence he was obliged to flee 
to Ravenna. He took shelter in a church, 
from which he was inveigled by a solemn 
oath, that no harm was intended him, and 
conveyed to immediate execution, which 
he endured in a manner worthy his great 
military character. Stilieho was charf;ed 
with the design of dethroning Hononus, 
in order to advance his son Eucherius in 
his place ; and the memory of this distin- 
guished captain has been treated by the 
ecclesiastical historians with great severi- 
ty. Zosimus, however, although other- 
wise unfavorable to him, acquits him of 
the treason which was laid to his cbar^^ ; 
and he will live in the poetry of Ckiudian 
as the most distinffiiished commander of 
his age. (See Gimx>n's Decline and Fait, 
ch. S» and 30.) 

STIX.L. (&ee DisHOatum,) 

Stilling. (See JuTig.) 

Stillingfleet, Edward, bishop of 
Worcester, was born in 1635, and receiv- 
ed his education at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, where he was elected, in 1653, 
to the first fellowship that became vacant 
after he had taken his bachelor's degree. 
His chief work, Origines Sacret, or a 
Rational Account of Natural and Revv- 
ed Religion, is esteemed for the erudition 
which it displays. It was followed (1664) 
by a treatise On the Origin and Nature 
of Protcsumtism. Having distinguished 
himself by the prominent part which he 
took previous to the revolution, against 
the e^ablishment of the Romish church 
in England, he was elevated to the see 
of Worcester by William III. Besides 



8 



8T1LUNGFLEET— STIRIA. 



the writings enumerated, he was the au- 
thor of an appendix to Tillotson's Rule 
of Faith (1676) ; the Unreasonableness of 
Separation (1683) ; and Origines BritaiiP- 
mea^ or Antiquities of the Churches in ^ 
Britain Tiblio, 1685). A short time before 
his death, bishop Stillingfleet engaged in 
a controversy with Locke, respecting 
some part of that philosopher's writings, 
which he conceived had a leaning to- . 
wards materialism. His death took place 
in 1699. His works have been collected 
and published entire, in six folio volumes 
(1710). 

Still Life, in painting ; the represen- 
tation of inanimate objects, such as dead 
animals (game, fishes, &c.), furniture, 
sometimes with fruits and flowera in ad- 
dition. The interest of such representa- 
tions can consist only in the form, group- 
inff and light ; hence the pictures of still 
li^ belong to the lowest species ofpainting. 
But some scenes of still life are ofa higher, 
order than others. The object of the 
lowest kind is merely to produce a close 
imitation of nature. A higher kind com- 
bines objects so as to form an interesting 
whole ; and the highest employs the olv 
jects only to express a poetical idea, as 
in representing the room of a painter, a 
table with Christmas presents, the game 
ofa hunter returned from his day's sport. 
All these may be so represented as to 
have a poetical character, by remind- 
ing us or the individuals with whom 
they are associated. The Dutch painters 
Van iElst, John Fyt, Francis Sneyders, 
David Koning, John Weeninx, Melchior 
Hondekoeter, William Kalf, and Van 
Streeck, are distinguished for the repre- 
sentation of still life. 

Stimulants are all those medicinal 
substances, which, apphed either exter- 
nally or internally, have the property of 
accelerating the pulse and quickening the 
vital actions. They are amon^ the most 
valuable and important of medicines, and 
perhaps are more often the direct means 
of saving lifo than any others. But as 
they are powerful, their injurious effects, 
when misapplied, have been even more 
prejudicial to mankind than their best 
use has been beneficial. In fact, it may 
be said, that the abuse of this one class of 
medicines, under the names of cardiacs, 
cordials, alexipharmics, &c., viras the 
cause of more numerous deaths during 
the dark ages of medicine, than the sword 
and the p^tilence united. The dreadful 
mortality of the small-pox and of fevers 
during the middle ases, and even during 
the earlier parts of tne last centiury, were 



mainly owinj^ to the administimtioii, bj- 
nurses and physicians, of strong cordiafas, 
and heatinff stimulants of all sortSy the 
tendency of all of which was to increaae 
the violence of the disease, although tfaey 
were intended merely to expel the nox- 
ious and poisonous humors tromthe sys- 
tem. But, happily for mankind, a more 
cautious use of these articles has been 
introduced, and they are now the constant 
means of preserving, when properly ap- 
plied, the life which they were formerl y 
so quick to destroy. Stimulants are either 
simple and direct in their operatbn, as 
the external application of heat in all 
forms, dry and moist, by friction, &c^ 
the application to the stomach of hoc 
liquors, spices, camphor, hartshorn, wanu 
and aromatic gums and oils, as mint, car- 
damom, cajeput, ginger, assafcetida, red 
pepper, spirits of turpentine, &.c. ; or they 
act first as stimulants, but produce after- 
wards effects of a di^erent character, as 
is the case with all which are termed 
diffunbU stimulants, as wine, Inandy, and 
spirits of all sorts, opium, &C., all of 
which are highly sdmulant at first, and in 
small <]uantity, but afterwards, and when 
taken in larger doses, produce exhaustion, 
debility, sleep and death. The first cbas 
are, upon the whole, the most safe, and 
should be always used, in preference to 
the last, when they can be had, in all cases 
of suspended animation, fiom cold, drown-* 
ing, sufibcation, &c. ; while the others 
are more valuable for their secondary and 
remote elects, by means of which they 
ease pain, relieve spasm, &c. ; and for 
these purposes they should be used freely, 
as they can do no hurt, while the violence 
of the disease subsisls. But they should 
never be resorted to, unless pain is urgent, 
or debihw become so great as to en- 
danger life. 

Stink-Pot; an earthen jar, charged 
with powder, grenades, and odier mate- 
rials of an offennve and suffocating smell. 
It is sometimes used by privateers, to an- 
noy an enemy whom they design to 
board. 
Stippliwo. (See Engraving.) 
Stiria (in German, Steiermark) ; a prov 
ince of the Austrian empire, which takes 
its name (see Mcarhts) from the counr^of 
Steier, in the Land above the Ens. The 
eastern part was anciendy a portitm of 
Pannonia, the westemofNoricum, which 
were conquered by die Romans at the 
close of the last century before the Chris- 
tiar era. The Avars afterwards occupi- 
ed U per Stiria, and the Veneti Lower 
Stiria , whence the latter was called 



finiBIA— STOCK EXCHANGE. 



the fFmduk manic Charlemai^ set 
mttkgnves w/tr it ; and, as the counts of 
Sieier were among the numher, it hence 
received the nanie of SUiermaHL . It is 
boimded north by the archduchy of Aua- 
tna, east bv Huncary, south by Carniola . 
and Carinthia, and west 1^ Carinthia and 
SabbuiT. Population, 896,128 ; square 
mtJefly 0180. Upper Stiria lies to the 
novtb, and is mountainous, consisting, in a 
great measure, of a continuation of a 
fafSDcb of the AlpsL Lower Stiria com- 
prieea the southern part. A number of 
bteral branches of the Alpe extend into 
Lower Stiria, but become gradually lower 
as they remove from the main chain, till 
they present nothing but small elevatioiis. 
Theie are, however, but few extensive 
plains. The rivers are the Drave, Save, 
Huhr and Ens. The climate in the ele- 
vated parts is cold, but the air is pure and 
ebslic; the soil, except on the high 
mountains, very fertile, producing wheat, 
oats^ rye, potatoes, and in warmer situa- 
tions, wfacatt. Great attention is paid to 
raising cattle, and poultry is abundant 
Agricuhure is in a backward state. Stiria 
ainunds in mineral productions. The 
iron mines are the most important, and 
yield annually from 16,000 to 20,000 tons. 
Salt and coal are abundant Gold, silver 
and copper hardly defray the expense of 
workii^ : lead is more common. Cobalt, 
araenic and molybdena are found. The 
manufectures are chiefly derived from the 
mines. The exports consist of metals, 
com, flax, wine, clover-seed and cattle. 
The Stirians have the hospitality, frank- 
ness and simple habits of an agricultural 
people ; but they are imperfectly educated, 
though parish schools have been establish- 
ed in tl»e principal villages. The major- 
ity are Cfliholics, though the Protestants 
enjoy a full, and the Jews a limited, tole- 
ration. The chief town is Gr&tz. (q. v.) 

Sn&LiNo, Loan. (See MaumdoTy ffU- 
liam.) 

Stith, William, president of William 
and Maiy college, Virginia, was bom in 
that province. He embraced the eccle- 
siastical profeanon, and, in 1740, withdrew 
from the laborious office which he had 
sustained in the colle^. He published a 
history of the first discovery and settle- 
ment of Virginia (Williamsburg, 8vo., 
1747). It brings down the history only 
to 1^4. An appendix contains a collec- 
tion of charters relating to the period 
comprised in the volmne. Besides the 
copious materials of Smith, the author de- 
rived assHtanee firom the manuscripts of 
his unctey sir John Randolph, and from 



the records of the London compani^ put 
into his hands by colonel WilUam Byrd, 
president of the council, and fiiom the 
valuable library of this gentleman. Mr. 
Stith was a man of classical learning, and 
a feithflil historian ; but he was destitute 
of taste in style, and his details are ex- 
ceedingly minute. 

Stoa. (See SioicM,) 

Stoat. (See Ermmt.) 

.Stobaus, John, the name of a Greec 
writer, who, about the middle of the fifth 
centurv, was the author of a varienr' of 
miscellaneous woriis, most of which have 
perished ; but his collection of excerpts 
from those of various philosophers and ^ 
poets, has come down to posterity, and ' 
IS important, from the fragments of lost 
authors which it contains. It consists 
of four books, of which the third and 
fourth form a separatd work ; and its ex- 
tracts are important contributions to the 
history of philosophy. The best edidon 
is that of Heeren (G6ttingen, 179S^1801, 
4 vols.). 

Stock Exchange ; originally the build- 
ing, in London, where the stock brokers 
assemble to transact their business. It 
was erected in 1804, in conseouence of 
the inconvenience to which tney were 
subjected, and the general interruption of 
public business, occasioned by the stock- 
jobbers, who intermingled with them 
when they transacted business in the bank 
rotunda. TIo person is allowed to act here 
but regular stock brokers, who ere balloted 
for annually. The name is also applied in 
general to the place where the same busi- 
ness is transacted in other cities. The great 
stock exchanffes of Europe are those of 
Amsterdam, London, Pans, and Frank- 
fort on the Maine, which decide the price 
of stocks in all the rest of the world. 
Those of Petersburg, Berlin and Vienna 
are of much less importance. We have 
given an account of the stocks of differ- 
ent countries m the article PuUic Stocks : 
we shall here give a view of the manner 
of creating, purchasing, and transferring 
stock, as practised in London. New 
loans are paid at stated periods, by instal- 
ments of 10 or 15 per cent, and the terms 
on which they are made generally occa- 
sion an increase on difiercnt kinds of 
stock, to the amount of three %ter cent, 
and upwards (according to the emergency 
and state of the money market) more 
than the sum borrowed. Thus, for every 
hundred pounds capital, new stock is cre- 
ated to tne amount of one hundred and 
three pounds. The difference is called 
the hamUf and the aggregate of the ad- 



10 



STOCK EXCHANGE-fiTOCK-JOBBINO. 



ditioiial alock of different kinde 10 termed 
omntiim. If these be disposed of sepa- 
rately, before all the Lostalmeiits are paid, 
the different articles are called scrip, 
which is an abbreviation of subscriptum. 
The value of the stocks is perpetually 
fluctuating, the variations being occasion- 
ed by unfounded as well as real causes. 
Any occurrence by which the security 
of the state is either hazarded or strength- 
ened, though one may be as imagi- 
nary as the oiher, has an immediate 
effect upon the price, which will ad- 
vance or fall as the news may be con- 
sidered good or otherwise. The gaining 
of a victory, the signing of an armistice, 
and the conclusion of a peace, have each 
a direct influence on the rise of the 
stocks; whilst, on the other hand, the 
loss of a battle, the death of a sovereign, 
the commencement and protraction of 
war, are equally certain to lower ^iie 
funds; even the mere report of a mo- 
mentous event will firequently lead to a 
considerable alteration of price. The 
quantity of stock in the market will also 
either depreciate or raise the value, as 
purchasers may be more or less nu- 
merous. The manner of buying stock 
is, to give a speciflc number of pounds 
for a nominal hundred pounds. Thus, if 
the purchase be made in the three per 
cents., and the current price be eiffhty 
pounds, that sum is paid for one hundreSl 
pounds stock, which yields a dividend of 
three pounds per annum. Persons con- 
versant in these things will sometimes ob- 
tain a considerable advantage by trans- 
ferring stock from one branch of the 
funds to another, the variations in the 
value of the different stocks not beinf 
always adjusted to their proper leveL 
Every possible degree of facility, consist- 
ent with prudence, is given to the pur- 
chase and sale of stocks ; yet the inter- 
vention of a stock broker is generally 
thought requisite, as the identity of the 
persons makine the transfer must be 
vouched for, before the witnessing clerk 
vrill allow his signature to be made in the 
bank books. All transfers of stock are 
made on the appomted transfer days ; and 
no stock can be transferred twice on the 
same day. The space between the shutting 
and oneniDf the books of any stock is usu- 
ally about SIX weeks. (See SU^ck-Johbing,) 
Stock-Fish. (See Co<i, vol, iii., p. sSs.) 
Stock- Jobbing. Thepractice to which 
the term stockjobbing is more particularly 
applicable, is that which is carried on 
amongst persons who possess but little 
or no property in any of the flmds, yet 



who contract for the sale or transfer o£' 
stock at some future period, the laiser 
part of the day, or the next seUUng dta^^ 
at a price agreed on at the fime. Siaoix 
bargains are called fxiM bcBTgaxns, and mre 
contrary to law ; and this practice is g-.£B3sa> 
Utn^, in every sense of the wonL X*iio 
busmess of jobbing is carried on to sazi. 
amazing extent, and is of this charact^ir : 
—A. agrees to sell B. £10,000 of buxJc: 
stock, to be transferred in twenty dp-jra, 
for £12,000. A., in fact, does not poeeeas 
any such property; yet if the price of 
bank stock on the day appointed for tlio 
transfer should be only £118 per ceox^ 
he may then purchase as much as will 
enable him to fulfil his bannun for £11,800 ; 
and thus he would gain £^00 by the trans- 
action. Should the price of bank stock 
advance to 125 per cent, he will thexa 
lose £500 by completing his agreement. 
As neither A. nor%., however, may hare 
the means to purchase stock to the extent 
agreed on, the business is commonly ar- 
ranged by the payment of the diflerence — 
the pront or the loss — between the cur- 
rent price of the stock on the day appoint- 
ed and the price bargained for. In the 
language of the alley, as it is called in 
London (all dealings m the stocks having 
been formerly transacted in 'Chancre af 
ley), the buyer in these contracts is de- 
nominated a &u/^, and the seller a&eor. As 
neither party can be compelled to com- 
plete these bargains (they being illegal), 
their oym sense of *^ honor," the disgrace, 
and the loss of future credit, that attend 
a breach of contract, are the sole princi- 
ples on which this singular, business is 
regulated. When a person refuses, or 
has not the ability to pay his loss, he is 
termed a lame duck ; but this opprobrious 
epithet is not bestowed on those whose 
failure is owing to insufficient meanti, 
provided they make the same surrender of 
their property voluntarily, as the law 
would have compelled had the transac- 
tion fallen within its cognizance. This 
illegal practice is nothing more than a 
wager as to wliat will be the price of 
stocks at a fixed period ; but the fiicility 
which it afibrds to extravagant and un- 
principled speculation, and the mischief 
and ruin which have frequently followed 
it, determined the legislature to lay a pen- 
alty of £500 on every person making 
such time bargains ; and uie like sum on 
all brokers, agents and scriveners em- 
ployed in transacting or writing the said 
contracts. By the same statute also (7 
Geo. II, ch. 8), a similar penalty is im- 
posed upon all persons contracting for the 



STOCK-JOBBING— STOCKINGa 



11 



«ieof stock, of wbicfa they are not poaaess- 
ed at the time of 8uch bargain ; and £100 on 




county, MasBachusetts, on both 
sides of the Houaatonic The river runs 
nearly irest through this town, and then 
tuTDS to the south. The intervals are 
v»y rich, and well cultivated. There 
are some fiustories on the river. It is a 
verr pleasant town, about 130 miles west 
of Boston, on the mail route from Spring- 
field to Albany. Population in 1^, 
1580. Here was the residence of the 
Scoekbridge tribe of Indians, till they re- 
moved to New Stoekbridge, near the 
Oneidas, in New York, in 1775. This 
town saf^red severely from the attacks 
of the Indians in 1754— -5. 

Stockholm; the capital of Sweden, 
sad the handsomest city in the nordi of 
Eorope, situated at the junction of the 
lake M&lar vrith an inlet of the Baltic ; 
km. 18* 4' E. ; lat 59* 21' N. ; popu- 
fanoB in I82dy 70,326. Stockholm is 
fleDerally described as standing on seven 
elands, but is chiefly built on three, of 
which the small one in the centre consti- 
toled the original city, and is still the most 
bn^ part of the town, and tl.r residence 
of the princijMd merchants. The- Norr- 
mslm and Sodermalm, the two principal 
sobiirfos, occupy several islands, llie 
form of the city is an oblong, and its 
ritaation is extremely picturesoue, as well 
from the mixture of land and water as 
from the unevennesi of the ground on 
which it is built The view from the 
higher grounds embraces edifices of all 
aoftsy and vessels at anchor, or sailing 
across the channels, and is terminated by 
mountains, with a variety of romantic 
seenery. Constantinople is perhaps the 
only city of Europe which surpasses it 
in situation. There are thirteen stone 
faridses, and several of wood. The houses 
in 3ie central part are of stone or 
hnek^ covered vrith plaster, of four or ^ve 
stories, with their n>undations on piles, 
hot in the suburbs of only one or two 
stories, and partly of wood. Among the 
public buildings are the royal palace, the 
palace or house for the nobility of the 
diet, sTKnal, bank, royal stables, ware- 
house for iron, hospitals, and twenty-four 
cburehes, eighteen of which are Luther- 
an. The ro]^ palace is a large ouad- 
rmguiar edifice, the lower part of the 
walls of pofiriied granite, the upper part 
of brick, covered with stucco, and is ac- 
coonied seoond to no palace in Europe, 



except that at Versailles. The Uterary 
associations are numerous and respecta- 
ble; the principal are the academy of 
sciences, rounded in 1799, having a mu- 
seum, library, an observatory, and 160 
members ; the Swedish academy, foimded 
in 1786, for improving the Swedish lan- 
guRffe, having eighteen members; the 
academy of fine arts, history and antiqui- 
ties ; the military academy, academy for 
painting and sculpture, and for music, 
and the medical college. The royal li- 
brary contains about 50^000 volumes, and 
there are several important private collec- 
tions. Stockholm is the mercantile em- 
porium of the eastern part of Sweden. 
The harbor is of great aepth, and so ca- 
pacious that 1000 vessels may lie here in 
safety ; and the largest come close up to 
the quays. The number of vessels that 
enter annually is, on an avera^ about 
1000. The chief exports are utm and 
steel, also copper, pitch, tar, and timber ; 
imports, colonial produce, wine, fruit, salt, 
and British manufiicti!lres. The manu- 
fiictures are various, but not on a large 
scale. (See Sweden,) 

Stockinos are made of only one thread, 
entwined so as to form a species of tissue, 
extremely elastic, and reaaily adapting it- 
self to the part it is employed to cover. 
The tissue cannot be called cloth, for it 
has neither warp nor woof^ but approach- 
es it closely, and for the purposes to which 
it is applied, is much supenor. It is well 
known that the ancient Romans had 
no particular covering for the legs (see 
Breeches); but during the middle ajpes, 
hose, or leggins, made of cloth, came mto 
use ; and, at a later period, the art of knit- 
ting stockings was invented. Very dif- 
ferent accounts are given of the time and 
country of this important invention, some 
attributing it to the Scots, and others deriv- 
ing it from Spain. Woven stockings 
are manufactured by the machine callM 
stocking framej which is exceedingly in- 
genious, out too complex to be described 
vrithout plates. It was invented by 
William Lee, of Nottinghamshire (Eng- 
land), in 1589. He met vrith litde en* 
couraffement in his attempts to set up an 
establishment in England, but was in- 
vited into France by Heiury IV, and re- 
ceived vrith great favor. Henry's assassi- 
nation soon after hiterrupted his pros- 
pects, and he died in Paris m great pov- 
erty. A knowledge of his machine was 
. carried back to England by some of his 
woricmen, who established themselves in 
Nottinghamshire, which has smce con- 
tinued to be the principal seat of the 



13 



STOCKINOS-STOIGHIOMETRY. 



manufkcture. For near 900 yean, few 
impnyvementB were made on Lee's inven- 
tion, and two men were usually employed 
on one frame ; but it has recently been 
much improved, and adapted also to the 
manu&cture of ribbed stockings. (See 
Beckmann's IKtUny qf InvenHonsy iv, arti- 
cle KnUHng Netis and SlodcmgM,) 

Stocks; a wooden machine used to 
put the legs of offenders in, for the re- 
straining of disorderly persons, or as a 
punishment for certain onences. 

Stocks, Pubuc. (See PvbUc SttKk$,) 
Stockton, Richard, a signer of the 
Declaraticm of Independence, was bom 
near Princeton, Oat 1, 1730, of an ancient 
and respectable family. Afier graduating 
at the college of New Jersey, in 1748, he 
conunenced the study of the law, and, be- 
ing admitted to the bar in due time, soon 
attained great eminence as an advocate. 
In 1766, he crossed the Atlantic, and spent 
two Tears in making the tour of England, 
Scotland and Ireland. When in London, 
he was consulted on American af&irs by 
various distinffuished persons^ including 
the marquis of Rockinj^ham and the ean 
of Chatham, and at EUbnbur^h was com- 
l^imented with a public dmner, by the 
authorifles, and the fireedom of the city. 
On his return to New Jersey, in 1768, he 
was appointed one of the royal judges of 
the province, and a member of the execu- 
tive counciL At the time when the rev- 
olutionary struggle commenced, his pros- 
pects from the roval favor were very 
Driffht ; but he sided zealously with those 
of nis countiymen who were determined 
<»i independence, and, June 21, 1776, was 
chosen, by the provincial congress of the 
colony, a delegate to the general congress 
then sitting at Philadelphia, where he 
dischaiged numerous, and often arduous, 
duties with unwearied energy and fideli- 
ty. At first, he is understood to have 
entertained some doubts as to the expedi- 
ency of the declaration of independence at 
the time when it was made ; but they were 
soon dissipated, and he spoke in its be- 
half Nov. 30 of the same year, he was 
taken prisoner by a party of refugee roy- 
alists, who drajKged him firom his bed at 
mf^if and carrrad him to New York. In 
the way thi^er he was treated with great 
indignity, and in the city he was thrown 
into the common prison, where he was 
d«mrived of even tne necessaries of life. 
"Wiien intelligence of his capture and sni^ 
ftrings reached con^re^ that body passed 
a remution, directmg general Washiii^^ 
ion to nrake immediate inquiry into the 
truth of the report, and, if he found reason 



to believe it, to send a flag to _ 
Howe, remoDstratinffv against this de- 
parture fix>m the numane prooediuv 
which had marked the conduct of tho 
states to prisoners who had fiiUen into 
their hands, and to know of him whecber 
he chose that this should be the fUture 
rule for treating prisoners. Mr. Stockton 
was at length released; but the riiock 
given to his constitution by the hardahipe 
of his confinement was mortaL Hjs 
health gradually declined, and, after Ian> 
guishing for several years, he died et 
Princeton, Feb. 38, 1781, m the fifty-first 
year of his age. 

Stoddard, Solomon, pastor of tbe 
church of Northampton, was bom at 
Boston, in 1643^ and graduated at Harvard 
college in 1662, of which he was subse- 
quendy made a fellow. Intense applica- 
tion having impaired his health, he went 
to Barbadoes as chaplain to governor 
Serle, and oreached to the dissenten in 
that island for neariy two years. On his 
return, he was invited to take chaige of 
the church of Northampton, and was or- 
dained SepL 11, 1672. In this place he 
continued until his death, Feb. 11, 1739, 
in the ciffhty-sixth year of his age. Mr. 
Stoddard is considered one of the g i ^e at ee t 
divines of New England. His sermoiis 
were plam, but powerfiiUy searehiiuf and 
argumentative. He was a man of Mam- 
ing, and particulari^ able in ecmtroveny. 
He waged a polemical contest with doc- 
tor Increase Mather respecting the Lord's 
supper, maintaining that the sacrament 
was a converting ordinance, and that all 
baptized penons, not scandalous in life, 
may lawfullv approach the table, though 
they know themselves to be uneonvertnl, 
or destitute of true religkm ; and most of 
the churches of Connecticut wera induced 
by his arctiments to coincide in his senti- 
ments. His diligence was so unremit- 
ting that he left a considerable number (^ 
sermons which he had never preached ; 
and so fine was his hand-writing, that one 
hundred and fifty of his discourses are 
contained in a small duodecimo manu- 
script volume, which may easily be carried 
in the pocket. He pubhshed various ser- 
mons and treatises. 

SToicBioMETar (fiom ^nvj^awy element, 
original matter). The article 4tfMy, 
ChendcaL, treats of the general principles 
of chemical combinations and solutions. 
Neutrality is that state of solution of two 
substances in which each seems to have 
lost its peculiar characteristics. That 
branch of chemical science which treats 
of the proportions which the substances 



8TOICHIOMETRY--«TOICa 



MBom, bcvei wben they enter the state of 
neutrality, has been called by modem 
dieiuiatt atetdtfomcfry. 

Stoics ; an ancient philoeophical sect, 
Ibonded by Zeno, which received its name 
froin the «rr<w {pordi or portico), called 
PmeSU (q. v.), in Athens, where Zeno 
taught his doctrines (about B. C. 300). 
Zero (q. v.), a contemporary of Epicurusi 
after having studied the svstems of the 
Socratic, Cynic and Academic schools, 
opposed to scepticism views resting on . 
rigorous moral principles. Philosophy is, 
according to him, the way to wisdom; 
wisdom iiself is the knowledge of human 
and divine things ; and virtue is the appli- 
catioii of wisdom to life. The chief heads 
«f his doctrine—logic, physics and mor- 
als — ^were connected mto a systematic 
whole. In logic, which he defined the sci- 
ence of distinguiahiDg truth and falsehood, 
he made experience the basis of all knowl- 
edge; ideas, or conceptions, which, in all 
lespeets, resemble their objects, he called 
inie, and the povrer of judging according 
to principles, the mark of a sound reason. 
In his nnjrsics, he refers to nature itself 
6r the nigfaest standard of human duties, 
and derives the moral precepts from the 
laws of the universe. He assumes two un- 
cnaiad and eternal, but material princi- 
plee of ail things— 4be passive matter, and 
the active intelligence, or God, which re- 
aides in matter, and animates it The Deity 
is die original intelligence, and of an ethe- 
leal, fiery nature : he made the world, as 
an organic whole, out of matter and form, 
bw the separation of the elements ; and he 
abo rules the world, but is limited in his 
operations by unchangeable fate or the 
necessary laws of nature. The universe, 
aeeording to Zeno, is penetrated by the 
^vine intelligence as by a soul, and is 
therefore living and rational, but destined 
10 he destroyed by fire. He considers the 
heavenly bodies, and the powers of nature, 
of a divine character, and dierefore admits 
the worship of several j^ods, and teaches 
diat thdr coimexion with men may be 
beneficial to the latter. The human soul 
he considerB as produced bv ifae union of 
the creat ive fire with air, and endowed with • 
eupfat fiiculties — the five senses, the powers 
o^eneraticHi, ^wech, and reason : the lat- 
ter, as the active principle, governs the 
whole souL The ethics of the Stoics treats 
die wfll of God (which also animates the 
soul of man), or nature, as the source of the 
moral law, which binds man to aim at 
divme perfection, since this only can lead 
to a Firtuous life, harmonizing with God 
nd nature, whidi is the only troe happi- 

▼OL. XII. 3 



nesB. Thevpractical maxim ii^ Follow na- 
ture, live according to nature, or, which 
amounts to the same thing, Live in ac- 
cordance with the laws of consistent rea- 
soiL They considered virtue (he highest 
good, and vice the only evil ; every ming 
else is indifierent, or only relatively agree- 
able or disagreeable. They call human 
actions nonest, when they have a rea- 
sonable foundation in the nature of tlie 
agent ; perfectly proper, and therefore ob- 
ligatory, when good in themselves ; inter- 
mediate or lawful, in so far as, indifferent in 
themselves, they are expedient or allowa- 
ble only in certain relations, but criminal, 
when they are inconsistent with the rea- 
son of the agent Virtue they according- 
ly explain as the true harmony of man 
with himself, independent of reward or 
punishment, to be attained by correct 
moral judgment, and the mastery over the 
passions and aflections : this virtue pre- 
supposes the highest inward tranquillity, 
and elevation (apathy) above the pleasures 
and pains of sense ; it makes the wise 
man not destimte of feeling, but invulner- 
able, and gives him a dominion over his 
body which permits even suicide. Vir- 
tue, therefore, is represented chiefiy under 
the character of self-denial. Zeno, and 
his celebrated disciple and successor, 
Cleanthus, both put themselves to death 
at an advanced age, the latter by starvar- 
tion. Cleanthus, originally a pugilist, 
ipive to the Stoic philosophy its distribu- 
tion into dialectics, rhetoric, ethics, poli- 
tics, physics and theolosy. He enlarged 
theology by his proof of the existence of 
God, and expressed his reverence of one 
God in his admirable Hymn, yet extant, 
Ckanihi Ifynnus (ed.Sturz, 1785). Chry- 
sippus of Soli (died 208 or 912 B. C), the 
successor of Cleanthus, carried logic and 
dialectics to greater perfection, and, m 
physics, proved that the mfluence of fate, 
or the necessary relation of things, neither 
destroyed the operation of divine provi- 
dence nor the free agency of man. In 
morals, he distinguished, fike his prede- 
cessors, a natural and a positive law, and 
derived the latter from the mutual rela- 
tions of men, as fellow-creetures of the 
same nature. His successors were Zeuo^ 
Antipater (both of Tarsus), Pan»tius of 
Rhodes, the pupil of Antipater, and Posi- 
donius of Apamea, in Syria, the disciple 
of Pansetins. Chrysippus, through his 
writings, also exerted a most important 
influence upon the Roman philosophers, 
among whom Seneca, Epictetus, and 
Marcus Aurelius fsce Aniomnw), were 
Stoics. They employed themselves prin- 



14 



STOICS— STOMACH 



cipallv on practical questions ; and their 
moral doctrines have so many points or 
resemblance to those of Christianity, as to 
have given rise to the opinion, that they 
were borrowed from the latter. — See 
Tiedemann's System der stotschen PhUo- 
mtpkU (Leipsic^ 1776). 

Stola ; a garment worn by the Roman 
women in later times, they having origi- 
nally worn the toga only, like the men. 
The stda was a long tunic with sleeves, 
reaching to the feet, worn both by the 
rich and. the poor, with this difference 
only, that the stola of the latter had but a 
single gold stripe, whilst that of the 
former had stripes of gold and purple, 
and at the bottom a broad border or 
fringe, called instita. Public women, and 
those who had been found guilty of adul- 
tery, were forbidden to wear the stola ; 
hence they were called togai<t. By stola^ 
therefore, a chaste woman, as well as a 
woman of condition, was designated, hr 
stUa was used in the same way. — The 
stola^ which forms a part of the sacerdotal 
dress of Catholic priests, is a long, broad, 
white band, of silk or silver stuf!^ lined with 
stiff linen, worn by the deacons over the 
left shoulder, and reaching to the right 
hip, like the riband of an order ; but the 
priests wear it over both shoulders, and 
hanffine down across the breast It is 
markea with three crosses, and not unfre- 
quently has little bells at the end. Prel- 
ates wear it ornamented with pearls and 
embroidery. The stola is necessary for 
reading the mass ; hence jura stoliy or 
the dues which are paid for baptisms, 
marriages, interments, confirmation, con- 
fession, and similar religious services per- 
formed by the priest. This name has 
been retained by the Grerman Protestants, 
although they no longer use the stola. 
The teachers of the ancient church were 
supported by the voluntary gifts of the 
faithful (oblations); and it was long left 
optional with laymen whether they would 
give any thing to the priest on such occa- 
sions, or not. What was given, was paid 
over, as late as the sixth century, to the 
bishop, who allowed a part to the paro- 
chial clergy. After that time, every pastor 
acquired the right to retain what he re- 
ceived in this way from his parishioners ; 
but the councils, down to tne tenth cen- 
tury, insisted that the priests should not 
ask any thing for the above services, 
but merely receive what was voluntarily 
given. In the sixteenth century, this per- 
mission became a right (jus)^ confirmed 
by tl.e ecclesiastical authorities; hence 
jurastoUB* 



Stolbsko ; an ancient German house, 
which was formerly divided into the two 
lines of the Hartz and the Rhine. Tiie 
latter becoming extinct, its poasessioiis 
fell to the former, which, subsequently to 
1638, was divided into the elder line, in 
the two branches of Ilsenburff (extinct m 
1710) and Gedem, and the younger 
line, m the two branches of Stolberg-Stul- 
berg and Stolberg-Rossla. To the Uedem 
branch belonged the Stolbere-Wemigc^ 
rode family, that of Slolberg-Gedem (see 
JUhany\ now extinct, and thatof Stolberg- 
Schwarza, also extinct. In the time o€ 
the empire, the counts of Stolbei^ belong- 
ed to the Wetteravian college. Ttieir pos- 
sessions have been mediatized, and are 
now under Prussian or Hanoverian sof- 
ereignty. 

Stole, Groom of the ; the eldest gen- 
tleman of his majesty's bed-chamber, 
whose office it is to present and put on 
his majesty's shirt, every morning, and to 
put the room in order. (See Stoku) 

Stomach (stomachus; ventrieulvs ; gas^ 
ier^ ; a membraqeous bag, situated in tho 
epigastric region, which receives the food 
firom the oesophagus. Its figure is some- 
what oblong and round. It is largest on 
the left side, and gradually duninishes to* 
wards its lower orifice, where it is the 
least. Its superior orifice, where the 
CBSOphagus terminates, is calleMd the cardia f 
the inferior orifice, where the intestine 
begins, the pylorus. The anterior surface 
is turned towards the abdominal muscles, 
and the posterior opposite the lumbar ver- 
tebne. It has two curvatures : the first is 
called the great curvature of the stomach, 
and extends downwards from one orifice 
to the other, having the omentum adher- 
ing to it ; the second is the small curva- 
ture, which is also between both orifices, 
but superiorly and posteriorlv. The 
stomach, like the intestinal canal, is com- 
posed of three coats, or membranes: — 1. 
The oulermostj which is very firm, and 
forms the peritonieum ; 2. the musadar, 
which is very thick^ and composed of va- 
rious muscular fibrej ; and, 3. the inner- 
most, or viUous coat, which is covered 
with exhaling and inhaling vessels, and 
mucus. These coats are connected to- 
gether by cellular membrane. The glands 
of the stomach which separate the mucus 
are situated between the nllous and mus- 
cular coat, in the cellular structure. The 
nerves of the stomach are very numerous, 
and come from the eighth pair and inter- 
costal nerves. The lymphatic vessels are 
distributed throughout the whole sub- 
stance, and proceed imm nliately to the 



STOMACH— STONE. 



15 



liioiBdC duct. The use of the stomach is 
A excite huDser, and partly thirst, to re- 
ceive the food fh>m the cBsophagus, and 
to retain it, till, by the motion of the 
stomach, the admixture of various fluids, 
and many other chances, it is rendered fit 
to pass the right orifice of the stomach, 
and afibrd chyle to the intestines. (See 
Gastric Juices Digestion, Dysvepsia.) 

Stomach- Pump. A small pump — ^in 
this application called the ttomaehrpump — 
has lately been introduced into practice, 
ibr removing poisons from the stomach in 
cases where the action of vomiting cannot 
be excited. It has already sav^ many 
Bvee. It resembles the common small 
syringe, except that there are two aper- 
tures near- the end, instead of one, which, 
owing to valves in them, opening different 
ways, become what are called a sucking 
and ^forcing passage. When the object 
JB to extract from the stomach, the pump 
jswoiked while its sucking orifice is in 
connexion with an elastic tube passed 
into the stomach,* and the discbareed 
matter escapes by the forcing orifice. 
When it is desired, on the contrair, to 
throw cleansing water or other liquid into 
the stomach, the connexion of the aper- 
tures and the tubes is reversed. As a 
pump may not be always procuFable 
when the occasion for it arises, theprofes- 
aion should be aware, that a simple tube 
will, in many cases, answer the purpose 
as well, if not better. If the tube be in- 
troduced, and the body of the patient be 
so placed that the tube forms a aownward 
channel from the stomach, all fluid matter 
will escape from the stomach by it, as 
water escapes from a funnel by its pipe ; 
and if the outer end of the tube be kept 
immersed in liquid, there will be, during 
the discharge, a dphon action of consid- 
erable force. On changing the posture of 
the body, water may be poured m through 
the same tube to wash the stomacn. 
Such a tube, made long enough, might, 
if deared, be rendered a complete Mnt 
siphon, the necessary preliminair suction 
bemg made by a syringe, or by the mouth 
through an intervening vessel. 

STOMACH-STAeGEKs ; a dangerous dis- 
ease with horses, which is even yet but 
little understood. In the stable, the horse 
dozes, and rests his head in the manger ; 
he then wakes up, and falls to eating, 
which he continues to do until the dis- 
tention of the stomach becomes enor- 
mous; for the peculiarity of the com- 
plaiDt consists in the total stoppage of di- 
gestion, and the uneasy feeling of disten- 
ticn, consequent to such indigestion, ap- 



pears to deceive the horse, whose morbid 
excitement induces him to continue eat- 
ing. This he does until the distention 
prevents the return of the blood from the 
nead ; and the animal dies from apoplexy, 
or his stomach bursts. When recovery 
has taken place, it has been only in very 
mild cases. {8^ houdon^B EncydopoBdia 
of ^ffigrimUurt,) 

Stone, or Calculus ; every hard con- 
cretion, not bony, formed in the body of 
animals. The article CaUtdus treats of 
the variety and chemical composition of 
these concretions. We shall add here a 
few words respecting their probable ori- 

¥'n, and the cure of this disease in man. 
hese concretions originate immediately 
in a disturbance of the secretions; but 
this disturbance may, perhaps, in most 
cases, be caused by a disordered condi- 
tion of the juices, particularly of the blood, 
and a want of due assimilation. This 
ma^ be supposed, because, in the com- 
plaints of the gravel and the ffout, which 
frequently interchange, the digestion al- 
most always suffers, and acid is found in the 
prims viiB ; also because cattie often have 
Diliary calculi in the spring, which disap- 
pear after they have fed for a time on 
peen fodder. Calculi form themselves 
m those secreted fluids which contain 
many ingredients, and which have an in- 
clination to assume a solid form, especially 
in such as are collected in particular re- 
ceptacles (the gall bladder and urinary 
bladder) ; and they have even been found 
in the salivary ducts. They consist of a 
nucleus and several surrounding coats, 
similar or various in their nature. Theu- 
component parts vary according to the fluid 
in which they have been formed. They ob- 
struct the passages, and prevent tjie dis- 
charffe of the secreted fluid; they irritate the 
vessels in which they are contained, and 
thereby cause convulsions, pains, inflam- 
mations and suppurations ; they also affect, 
indirectiy, other organs, e. g. the stomach, 
producing sickness and vomiting; the 
stones in the bladder occasion itching in 
the glands of the genitals, pains in the 
loins, testicles, &c. The most common 
calculi are, Jl, biliary calculi, oflcn found 
in great numbers in the bile, sometimes in 
the liver, firom the nze of a pea to that of 
a hazel-nut. They are dark, brown, black, 
and usually polished on several parts of 
the surface, and generally occasion dis- 
ease only when they move, and are very 
jagged. But in such cases violent pains 
exist, which extend from the right side to 
the centre of ti^e body. They also some- 
times cause periodical and ofcietinate jaun- 



16 



8TaNE-STONIN6TON. 



dic« The coDTubaons and pains which 
they oocaflion frequently require the ap- 
plication of particular medicines to reUeye 
the immediate aufferiog, besides those di- 
rected against the disease itself: the patient 
is often relieved from them by vomiting 
or by stooL B. Uriuaiy calculi are some- 
times a kind of coarse sand, called gmse^ 
which sinks immediately to the bottom of 
the vessel in which me urine is left 
Sometimes they are real stones, of the size 
of a pea, of a wahiut, or even of the fist 
They are found either about the kidtieys, 
and then cause pains, iiiflammations, and 
suppuration, or in the pelvis of the kid- 
neys. In this case, from time to time,sin- 
& stones pass into the bladder, with vio- 
pains extending from the region of ' 
the kidneys down^rard or backward, and 
are carried off with the urine ; or they 
originate in the bladder itself where they 
often acquire a very considerable size. They 
cause pains in the region of the bladder 
and in the perinssum, and great sufferinff 
during the discharges of the urine. It 
often happens that £is can be discharged 
only in certain positions, and drop bv 
drop, with great pain; is slimy, smells of- 
fensively, and is mixed with blood and 
gravel The examination by the catheter 
affords the most certain information re- 
specting the existence of calculi, i^ as 
sometimes happens, the stone does not 
lie enclosed (encysted) in a certain part of 
the bladder. To destroy urinaiy stones, 
intenial means have been recommended ; 
but they are little to be depended on. If 
the stone in the bladder increases so 
much that it prevents entirely the dis- 
charge of the urine, it is necessary to 
remove it by the knife (lithotomy), or by 
breaking it to pieces in the bladder (li- 
thotrity ). The operation of lithotomy may 
be performed in four different ways : 1. 
By the imparatus minor, an operation de- 
scribed bj^ Celsus, and very simple, re- 
quiring few instruments; whence the 
name. The operator introduces his mid- 
dle finger and fore finger up the anus, and 
endeavors to bring the stone towards the 
neck of the bladder. He then cuts on 
the left side of the perineum, directly on 
the stone. 2. In the high operation, the 
bladder is opened on the opposite side, 
over the pubea. 3. When tne apparatus 
major is applied, the urethra is widened 
so much, that a forceps can be introduced, 
and the stone extracted. The name of 
apparatus major is used on account of the 
number of instruments required. 4. The 
lateral operation is generally considered 
as the safest and moat effectual, and is 



the most common. Its object m to &- 
vide that part of the urethra which Buffop- 
ed extremely in the application of the ap- 
paratus major, from the means used ts^ 
distend it ; and as the lower side of th» 
urethra cannot be divided fiu* enousli^ 
without the rectum being wounded, ttio 
cut is directed sideways. This is tb» 
reason of the name. Lately, the opera- 
tion of cutting the bladder tiirough the 
rectum has been introduced. 

Stone, Thomas, a ngner of the Docl»- 
ration of Independence, was a descendaat 
of William Stone, governor of Maryland 
during the protectorate of Cromwell. He 
received a classical education. Havinar 
subsequently studied law, he commencea 
its practice in Fredericktown, Md. In 
May, 177.% he took his seat in the general 
congress, and was for several years re- 
elected to the same station. Soon after 
the declaration of independence, to which 
he bad subscribed his name, he was one 
of the committee appointed by congress 
to prepare articles of confederation. Af- 
ter the plan reported was agreed to, Mr. 
Stone declined a reelection, but became a 
member of the Maryland legislature, in 
which he greatly contributed to procure 
fiivor for the system adopted. In 1783^ 
he was again sent to con^ss. He then 
finally retired, and engG^^ed acti\'ely ia 
the duties of his profeesion ; but, in 1787» 
the death of his wife engendered a deep 
and abidinc melancholy. His health de- 
clined ; and, on the fifth of October of the 
same year, he suddenly expired, in tlie 
forty-fifth year of his age, when on the 
point of embarking for England. 

Stozte Wars. Under tne denomina- 
tion sUme ware are cx)mprBhended all 
the different artificial combinations of 
earthy bodies which are applied to useful 
purposes. (See Pottery,] 
Stones, Precious. (See Gema.) 
Stones, Showers of. (See Meteone 
Stones,) 
Stonehenoe. (See Salisbwrv Plam.) 
Stoninoton ; a seaport, and incorpo- 
rated borough, in New London county, 
Connecticut. It is situated in the town- 
ship of Stonington, on a point of land, 
half a mile long, at the eastern extremiQr 
of Long Island sound. It is a commer- 
cial town, and has several vessels employ- 
ed in the fisheries, and others in the West 
India and coasting trade. Population in 
1830, 3401 . August 8, 1814, while a Brit- 
ish fleet was lying off this hariwr, a brir 
of eighteen guns was ordered to bombard 
the town. The village was wholly un- 
prepared for this attack, and was, for a 



STONINGTON— STORTHING. 



17 



coonderable time, in much coiifusioii. 
At leiigth, two eighteen pounders were 
ibund; and with these so active and well 
directed a fire was kept up on the brig, 
that she was gready damaged, and com- 
pelled to cut her cables and retire, with 
many killed and wounded. 

Sxooi. or Repentance. (See Cutty 
SiooL) 

Stop; a word applied by violin and 
violoncello performers to that pressure of 
the stringa by which they are brought in- 
to contact with the finger-board, and by 
which the pitch of the note is determined. 
Hence a string, when so pressed, is said to 
he stopped. — Stop of an organ; a collection 
of pipes similar m tone and quality, which 
run through the whole, or a great part, of the 
compassofthe instrument In a greatorgan, 
the stops arc numerous and multifarious. 
Stop-Laws. (See Execution.) 
Sto&ax ; a ffum-resin, obtained by in- 
riaons in the ixranches of a ^mall tree 
isiyrax qffidnaluV which grows wild in the 
countries about the Mediterranean. The 
leaves are alternate, oval, petiolate, green 
above, whitish and downy beneath, re- 
sembling those of the quince. The flow- 
ers are disposed in racemes, white, and 
very much resemble those of the orange. 
The firuit is whitish and downy, juiceless, 
and contains one or two angular nuts. 
The storax of commerce is chiefly ob- 
tained fiom Asiatic Turkey. It has a fra- 
grant odor, and an agreeable, slightly 
nungent, and aromatic taste; is stimu- 
lant, and in some degree expectorant 
Formerly it was much emploved in med- 
icine, but now is littie used, except in 
perflimes. Benzoin is a gum-resin, ob- 
tained, in a similar manner, fiiom a species 
of ghfrax^ growing wild in the East In- 
dies. We have three species of s^ax 
m the southern jMirts of the U. States. 

Stork {ciconia). These tall and state- 
ly birds are easily distinguished finm the 
henms by the small moutii, the angle not 
reaching beyond the eyes, as with the 
last ; the beak is also destitute of the na- 
sal furrow, but is similar in other respects, 
is straight, lon^, pointed, and compressed. 
Most of them innabit the eastern conti- 
nent, especially between the tropics. 
Soutii America is not altogether destitute 
of them ; but we have none in the U. 
States. They walk slowly, with measur- 
ed steps ; but their flight is powerful and 
long continued. They have no voice, but 
produce a clattering vrith their bills, by 
striking the mandibles together. Their 
food consists of fish, reptiles, small quad- 
rupeds, worms, end insects. The com- 
2* 



mon stork of Europe (C. alba) is about 
four feet in length, from the tip of the 
beak to the extremity of the nails. The 
prevailing color of the plumage is white, 
with some black about the wmgs. It is 
found throughout the ^eater part of Eu- 
rope, but passes the wmter in Africa. It 
takes up its residence and breeds in the 
midst of cities, and is every where pro- 
tected, as it renders important services in 
destroying noxious animals. Among the 
ancients, to kill them was considered a 
crime, which, in some places, was pun- 
ished even with death ; and, like the 
ibis, this burd became an object of wor- 
ship. The stork is remarkable for its 
great affection towards its young, but es- 
pecially for its attention to its parents in 
old age. The gigantic stork, or adjutant- 
of Bengal (C argala)^ is a celebrated bird, 
very common about tiie mouths of the 
Ganges, and even in the streets of Cal- 
cutta, where it is protected by law, as 
also in other parts of the East In- 
dies. It is stoutly framed, and the ex- 
treme length is nearly seven feet. . The 
head and neck are destitute of feathers, 
and covered with a reddish and callous 
ddn ; and from the middle of the latter 
hangs a fleshy appendage. The bill is 
enormously large. It hves on reptiles, 
fish, &c., and even on quadrupeds, whose 
bones it breaks previously to swallowing. 
In captivity its gluttony is extreme. 

Storr, Gottiob Christian, doctor of the- 
ology, consistorial counsellor and first 
minister to the court at Stuttgart, was 
born, in 1746, at Stutt^rt, where he died 
in 1805. Storr was distinguished for his 

Sious life, and faithful fiilfilment of his 
uties as professor of theology and preach- 
er at Tiibmgen, as well as for his great 
learning, exhibited in various works, 
among which are his Observations on the 
Syriac Translations of the New Testa- 
ment, in 1772, and on the Arabian Gos- 
pels, in 1775, both in German ; Ohaerva- 
tiones ad Analogiam et Syntaxin Hebrakam 
pertinentes (1779); his Commentary on 
the Epistle to the Hebrews ; liis learned 
treatise On the true Object of Christ's 
Death (2d ed. Tiibingen, 1809); On the 
Object of the Evangelical History, and the 
Epistles of John (1786) ; New Defence of 
the Revelation of John (1783), the Dis- 
seriaiiones in Apocabfpsis quadam Loca 
belonging to it, and his Dodrina Christi- 
an(B Pars iheoret, t »acr. Lit. repetita (1793). 
Storthing;- the Norwegifgi diet (from 
mngy assembly, and «for, great, elevated). 
The citizens qualified to vote choose 
electors, who from anriong themselves or 



1« 



STORTHING-«TOVES. 



their conatitueiitB, select the 
thres, whose number b not to Be under 
seventy-five, nor above one hundred. A 
member of the iioHhing must be thirty 
years old ; must have resided ten years in 
the realm ; must hold no office, civil or 
military ; must not be attached to the court, 
nor receive a pension. Gtoerally the 
sioriMng is held every third year, at the 
beginning of February, in the capital, 
Christiania. After the storthing is open- 
ed by the king or his deputy, it chooses 
one fourth part of its members to form the 
iogtkinf: the other three fourths form the 
oSdtfhxng, Each thing holds its sessions 
separately, and with open doora, and the 
debates are published, unless a resolution 
to the contrary be passed. The storthing 
is authorized to moke and abolish laws; 
to impose taxes ; open loans ; see that the 
finances are properlv administered ; grant 
the civil list, &c. The government pro- 
tocols, and all public papers, including 
treaties with foreign powers, must be laid 
before them, the secret articles only ex- 
cepted, and these must not be contrary to 
the public ones ; it may summon any body 
before it, except the kinj; and viceroy; 
and it confers naturalization. Laws are 
proposed fai the odeMdiuTjhy its mem- 
ners, or by a counsellor of state : if they 

K there, tliey go to the logthing. The 
is to sign the bills, or to decline so 
doing. If a hill, twice rejected by the 
king, is adopted without alteration by a 
MnL regular itorthmg^ it becomes a law, 
even without the kin^s sanction. In this 
manner nobility was iSwlished in Norway. 
Stosch, Philip, baron von, a distin- 
guished numismatist, bom 1091, at CiJuB- 
trin, in Germany, studied at Frankfort on 
the Oder, and was designed for the ec- 
clesiastical profession; but his taste led 
him to devote his time to numismatics. In 
1706, he visited Jena, Dresden, Leipsic, 
and other places in Germany, for the pur- 
pose of examining cabinets of medals and 
antiquities. In 1710, the Dutch states- 
man Fagel employed him on a mission 
to Enghmd, where he became acquainted 
with sb* Hans Sloaue, lords Pembroke, 
Winchelsea, Carteret, and other virtuosL 
In 1714, he went to Rome ; and, returning 
to Germany, he engaged in collecting oth- 
er antiques, particululy engraved gems. 
At Augsburg he discovered the celebrat- 
ed « Peuiinger TaJUe^ (q. v.) He was af- 
terwards English resident at Kome, for the 
purpose of deserving the conduct of the 
Pretender and his adherents. This post 
becoming hazardous after the accession 
of pope ClemeDt XII, who fevored the 



clu 



Stuarts, baron Stosch withdrew to Flor- 
ence, where he died in 1757. His collec- 
tions, and especially those of cameos and 
engraved gems, were peculiarly valuable. 
A catalogue of the latter was drawn up 
by Windtelmamu The baron himaelF 
published two volumes of plates, repre^ 
senting his gems, engraved by Picart and 
Schweikart 
Stovxs. Stoves differ fifom fire-plaoea 
,. V.) by enck)sing the fire so as to ex- 
J'ude it nrom sight, the beat hemf given 
out through the material of which the 
stove is composed. The common Hol- 
land stove, or which we have an almost 
infinite variety of modifications, is an iron 
box, of an oblong square form, intended 
to stand in the middle of a room. The 
air is admitted to the fire through a small 
opening in the door, and the smoke passes 
oflT through a narrow fimnel. The ad- 
vantages of this stove are, 1. that, be- 
ing insulated, and detached fit>m the walls 
of the room, a greater part of the heat 
uroduced bv the combustion is saved. 
The radiated heat being thrown into the 
walls of the stove, thev beccMne hot, and, 
in their turn, radiate heat on all odes to 
the room. The conducted heat is also re- 
ceiif%d by successive portions of the air of 
the room, which pass in contact with the 
stove. 2. The air being made, as in fiir- 
naces, to pass through the fuel, a very- 
small supply is sufilcient to keep up the 
combustion, so that little need be taken 
out of the room. 3. The smoke, bein^ 
confined by the cavity of the stove, cannot 
easily escape into the room, and may be 
made* to pass oflTby asmall funnel, which, 
if siifficientiy thin and cbrcuitous, may 
cause the smoke to part with a great por- 
tion of its heat, before it leaves the apart- 
ment These circumstances render the 
Holland stove one of the most powerfiil 
means we can employ for keepmg up a 
regular and efiectual heat, with a sauXH 
expense of fiieL The disadvantages of 
these stoves are, that houses containing 
them are never well ventilated, but that 
the same air remains stagnant in a room 
for a great length of time. A dryness of 
the air is also produced, which is oppres- 
sive to most persons, so that it often be- 
comes necessary to place an open vessel 
of water on the stove, the evaporation of 
which may supply moisture to the atmos- 
phere. Stoves are very usefiil in lam 
rooms, which are firequented oocafflonamr, 
but not inhabited constantiy; as hads^ 
churches, &c In cold countries, where 
it is desirable to obtain a comfortable 
warmth, even at the sacrifice of other 



8TOVE&— STOW. 



I uKxlificatiODBofthe 
fwmmnfi alovcB have been introduced, to 
Roder them more powerful, and their 
heat more effectual. The Swedish and 
RuBflian stoves are small furnaces^ with a 
Teiy circuitous smoke flue. In principle, 
they resemble a common stove, with a 
fiinnel bent round and round, until it has 
performed a great number of turns or rev- 
olutions, befi>re it enters the chimney. It 
differs, however, in being wholly enclosed 
in a large box of stone or brick work, 
whirh is interBected with air pipes. In 
operation, it communicates beat more 
Nowly, being longer in becoming hot, and 
also slower in becoming coki, than the 
common stove. Russian stoves are usu- 
ally provided with a damper, or valve, at 
top^ which is used to close the funnel or 
passa g e, when the smoke has ceased to 
ascend. Its operation, however, is biffhly 
pernicious, since burning coals, ^en 
tbey have ceased to smoke, always give 
out carbonic acid in large quantities^ 
which, if it does not escape up chimney, 
must deteriorate the air of the apartment, 
and render it unsafe. 

Cdlar iStooM and Mr Flue$* Such is 
the tendency of heated or rarefied air to 
ascend, that buildings may be effectu^Iv 
warmed by air flues communicating with 
stoves in the cellar, or any part of the 
boikiing below that to be warmed. A 
large suite of apartments may be suffi- 
ciently heated in this way by a single 
stove. Tbe stove, for this purpose, should 
be of a kind best adapted to communicate 
beat It should be entirely enclosed in a 
detached brick chamber, the wall of which 
should be douUe, that it may be a better 
noo-conductor of heat. The space be* 
tween the brick chamber and stove should 
not exceed an inch. In the apparatus of 
the Derfoyshune and Wakefield infinna- 
ries, which has been imitated in this 
coontiy, the whole of the air is repeated- 
ly conducted, bjr numerous pipes, within 
half an inch of the stove and its cockle. 
For the suf^ly^ of fuel, the same door 
winch opens mto the chamber, should 
open also into the stove, that there may 
never be any communication with the aw 
of the oeUar. A cuirent of external air 
should be brought down by a separate 
passage, .and dcuvered under the 8u>ve. 
A part of this lur is adinitted to supply 
the oombu8tk>n ; the rest passes upward 
in the cavity between the hot stove and 
the wan of the brick chamber, and, after 
beecoiing thorou||hly heated, is conducted 
through passages m which its levity causes 
it to ascend, and be delivered into any 



iqMfftinent of tbe house. Difovntfamidi 
es being established firom tho main pM 
and commanded by valves or shuttera, ue 
hot air can be distributed at pleaoura to 
any one or more rooms at a time. This 
plan is very usefiil in laqgpe buildingB,8Ucli 
as manufactories, hoopitals, &c., on ac- 
count of the ftcility with which the same 
stove may be made to warm the whole, 
or any part of them. The advantage of a 
long vertical drausht enables us to estab- 
lish a more forcible current of worm air. 
The rooms, while they are heated, are a^ 
so ventilated, for the air which is contun- 
ually brought in by the warm pipes, dis- 
places that which was previously in the 
room, and the air blows out at the crev- 
ices and key-holes, instead cf blowing in, 
as it does m rooms with common fire- 
places. (See Bigefow's Tuknologu^ dd 
ed.1839.) 

Stow, John ; an English historiaa and 
antiquary, bom about 1525, in LondoiL 
His father, a taiW, brought him up to his 
own business; but his mind early took 
a bent towards antiquarian researches. 
About the year 1560, be formed the de- 
sign of composing the annals of English 
history, for tbe completion of which he 
quitted his trade. For the purpose of ex- 
amining records, charters, and other doc- ' 
uments, he travelled on foot to several 
public establishments, and purchased old 
nooks, manuscripts, and parchments, until 
he had made a valuable collection. Being 
thought to be favorable to the an<»ent re- 
li^on, an information was laid against 
him, in 1568, as a suspicious person, who 
possessed many dangerous books. The 
bishop of London accordingly ordered an 
investigation of his study, in which, of 
course, were found many popish books 
among the rest ; but the resiut has not 
been recorded. Two years afterwards, 
an unnatural brother, having defrauded 
him of his goods, sought to tuce away his 
lifo by preforring one hundred and forty 
articles against lutn, before the ecclesias- 
tical commission ; but he was acquitted. 
He had previously printed his first work, 
entitled a Summarie of the Englyshe 
Chronicles, compiled at the instance of 
Dudley, afterwards earl of Leicester, 
which was published in 1565, and after- 
wards continued by Esmond Howes, who 
printed several editions. He contributed 
to the improvement of the second edition 
of Holinshed, in 1587, and gave correc- 
tions and notes to two editions of Chau- 
cer. At length, in 1596^ appeared his 
Survey of London, tbe work on which 
he had been so longemptoyed, and which 



uo 



STOW— STRADA. 



camo to a second edition during his life- 
time. He was very anxious to publish his 
large chronicle, or history of England, but 
livMl only to print an abstract of it, entitled 
Flores lEstoriantmj or Annals of Eng- 
land. From his papers, Howes publish- 
ed a foUo volume, entitled Stow's Chron- 
icle, i/iiiich does not, however, contain the 
whole of the larger woik, which he had 
left, transcribed fi>r the press, and which is 
said to have fidlen into the possession of 
sir Sjrmonds Dewes. A license was grant- 
ed hun by James I, ^ to repair to church- 
es or other places, to receive the charita- 
ble benevolence of well-disposed people," 
in the sevent}- -eighth year of his age. He 
died, afflicted by poverty and di»sase, in 
1605, at the age of eighty. Stow's Sur- 
vey has run through six editions, the last 
in 1754, with considerable additions, and 
a continuation of the useful lists. 

Stowe ; a parish in Buckinghamshire, 
England, two miles north-west of Buck- 
ingham, containmg the celebrated seat, 
gitfden and pleasure-grounds of the duke 
of Buckingham. The house, situated on 
an eminence rising from a lake,* measures 
916 feet from east to west ; the saloon, 60 
feet k>ng, 43 feet broad, and 56^ feet higb, 
cost nearly 60,000 dollars ; the state draw- 
ing-room, 50 feet by 32, and 22 feet higb, 
contains a collection of fine pictures, most- 
ly by the old masters. The Ubrary con- 
sists of 10,000 printed volumes, with many 
valuable manuscripts. The house is ap- 
proached through a Corinthian arch, 60 
feet high by 60 wide. The gardens com- 
prise four hundred acres of highly deco- 
rated grounds. Temples, obelisks, statues, 
grottoes, &C., scattered around in great 
profusion, seem to realize the descriptions 
of enchanted gardens. The Elysian fields, 
watered by a small rivulet, issuing from a 
grotto, and emptying into a lake, contain 
the figures of neroes, poets and philoso- 
phers. In the temple of Ancient Virtue, a 
circular building of the Ionic order, 
stand the statues of Homer, Lycurgus, 
Socrates, and Epaminondas. The tem- 
ple of British worthies contains busts of 
Shakspeare, Milton, Pope, Newton, Ba- 
con, Locke, &c. The temple of Concord 
and Virtue is a handsome building, of an 
oblong shape, surrounded with 28 fluted 
Ionic columns. Lord Cobham's pillar is 
a colunm 115 feet high, surmounted by a 
statue. The Gothic temple, a triangular 
building, with a tower at each end, is 
richly adorned with old painted glass. 

Stowell, lord. Sir William Scott, 
who was created baron Stowell in 1821, is 
the elder brother of lord Eldon (q. v.). 



and was bom at Newcastle, in 1745. Hb* 
father, a respectable proprietor of coal 
mines there, determined to train him to 
his own business. But the talents and 
eager inclination for study, manifested by 
the youn^ man, finally induced his fitther 
to send him to Oxford, where, after tak> 
ing his degree of doctor of civil law, he 
was appointed Camden professor of his 
tory. His lectures there sained him rep* 
utation ; and, in 1779, he left the univer- 
sity, and entered upon the study of eccle- 
siastical law. * His practice in the spiritu- 
al courts soon became extensive, and rais- 
ed him, in 1788, to the post of king's ad- 
vocate-general : he was at the same time 
knighted. In 1799, he was appointed 
judge of the high court of admiralty, 
which post he resigned a few yeare ago. 
(See Commercial Law.]' Sir William 
Scott entered pariiament m 1792, and con- 
tinued to represent the univerei^r of Ox- 
ford, in that body, fix>m 1802 till he was 
summoned to the house of peers, in 1821. 

Strabo, a distinguished Greek geog- 
rapher, was born at Amasia, ui Cappa- 
docia, about 19 A. D., studied rhetoric and 
the Aristotelian philosophy, and after- 
wards embraced the Stoic doctrines. He 
travelled through Greece, Italy, Eg}'pt, 
and Asia, endeavoring to obtain the most 
accurate information in re^rd to the 
geography, statistics and political condi- 
tions of the countries which he visited. 
The time of his death is unknown. His 
great geographical work, in seventeen 
books, contains a full account of the man- 
ners and governments of diflerent people : 
his materials were derived fi'om his own 
observations and inquiries, or from the 
geographical works of Hecatieus, Artemi- 
dorus, Eudoxius, and Eratosthenes, now 
lost, and the writings of historians and 
poets.' His work is invaluable to us. The 
last editions are those of Siebenkees (con- 
tinued by Tzschucke, but not completed, 
Leipsic, 1796— 1811, 7 vols.) and of Coray 
(4 vols., Paris, 1819.) Those of Casau- 
bon (1620, fol.) and Almeloveen (^Amster- 
dam, 1707, 2 vols., fol.) are also highly es- 
teemed. 

Strada, Famianus; an Italian histo- 
rian, and elegant writer of modem Latin 
poetry, bom at Rome, in 1572. He enter- 
ed into the society of the Jesuits in 1592, 
and became professor of rhetoric at the 
Roman college, where he resided till his 
death, in 1649. . His most femoiis works 
are a History of the Wars in the Neth- 
erlands, in Latin, and Prciusiones Jlcade- 
micitj which have been repeatedly pub- 
lished. In one of these prolusions, he has 



8TRADA-STRAFFORD. 



iBliodiieed iagoiioufl inatttioDs of the 
itf le of the moBt celebrated Roman poetii 
of w^hich there are many traDslatiofiB, in* 
eluding those publiahea by Addjaoo, in 
the Guardian. 

Stbafford, air Thomas Weotworth, 
ear) of^ au eminent minister and statesman, 
was the eldest aon of sir William Went- 
worth, of an ancient family in Yorkshire. 
He was bom in London, in 1593, and enter- 
ed of St. John's college, Cambridge. After 
feaving the university, be travelled, and, on 
hja return, received the honor of knight- 
hood. The death of his &ther, in 1614, 
gave him possession of a large fortune; 
and be was soon after af^inted ctutof 
rmhUorum of the west riding of Yorkshire, 
in lieu of mr John Savile. In 1621| he 
vras chosen member of parliament for 
the county of York ; and when Charles I 
asserted that the commons enjoyed no 
nrfats but by royal permission, sir Thomas 
Weotworth, already distinguished for abil- 
ity, strenuously called upon the house to 
maintain that their privOeffes were riffhts 
by inhmtance. In 1622, he lost his first 
infe, of the noble fiunily of Clifford, and 
in 1625, married Arabella, second daugh- 
ter of Holies, earl of Clare. On the con- 
vening of the new parliament, in the 
same year, he was one of the mx popular 
members who were prevented serving 
their countnr in that assembly, by being 
appointed uierifli for their respectite 
eoontiea. He submitted to this arbitrary 
act in silence ; and, soon after, the duke 
of Buckingham, alarmed at the messures 
taken against him in parliament, made him 
overtinnes, which proved ineftectual, and 
the fiivorite revenged himself by obliging 
him to restore his office of ctuios roS(2(H 
non to sir John Savile. When Charles, 
among other expedients for raising money, 
had recourse to a forced general loan, 
Wentworth refused to pay nis contribu- 
tion, and was first imprisoned in the Mar- 
ababea, and then confined to a range of 
two miles round the town of Dartford. 
This restraint was, however, removed 
when it became necessaiy to sunmion a 
new parliament, in 1628 ; and he again took 
hai seat for Yorkshire, and became one of 
the most conspicuous advocates of the 
petition of right As he had now proved 
the strength of his abilities, high terms 
were ofiered him by the court, which he 
finallv accepted ; and, in 16S8, he was cre- 
ated baron Wentworth, and some months 
afterwards a viscount and privy-counsel- 
kir, and on the resignation of lord Scrope, 
nominated president of the north. The 
i of Buckingham, soon after, 



fireed him from a powwihl eneniy at 
court, and he beoame so influential in the 
king's coimcil^that his powers in the four 
Qoithem counties, over which he presid- 
ed, became enormous ; and his commis- 
sion contained fifty-eight instructions, of 
of which scarcely one did not exceed or 
violate the common law. In the exercise 
of this authority, he displaved equal 
haughtiness, impetuosity, and ability, and, 
by his strictness in levying exactions, in- 
creased the revenue in his district to ftNir 
or five times the previous amount Hav- 
ing assiduously cultivated the friendship 
of archbishop Laud, he was selected w 
that prelate toproceed to Ireland, as lord- 
deputy, in 16a2. He greatly improved 
the state of the counory, noth as regarded 
law, revenue, and trade (the mannfoe- 
ture of linen being of his own creation) j 
but, at the same time, nothing could be 
more arbitrary than his system of govern- 
ment, it being his boast that he twd ren- 
dered the king as absolute in Ireland ^ as 
any prince in the whole worid could be.** 
On the first symptoms of resistance to 
the royal authority, he counselled the 
strongest measures ; and after the failure 
of the king's first expedition against Scot- 
land, he was sent for from Ireland, and 
created earl of Strafibrd, and knight of 
the garter. He returned with the fuH title 
of lord lieutenant, with a view to gain 
subsidies and troops, in which he Hilly 
succeeded ; and, agam repairing to Eng- 
land, took the command in the north, but 
found himself obliged to retire before 
the Scottish army, and retreat to York. 
Charies was now by his necessities oblig- 
ed to call the long parliament ; on which 
Strafilbrd, awarejof the enmity which he 
had inspired among the popular leaders, 
vrished to return to his government ; but 
the king, hoping that his great talents 
would TO serviceable, encouraged him by 
a solemn promise that *'not a hair of 
his head should be touched by pariia- 
ment" Straftbrd's apprehensions were 
well founded. The very first movement 
of the j>arty opoosed to arbitraiy power, 
was to impeach nim of high treason, with 
which charge Pym app^ired at the bar 
of the house of lords, November 18, 1640. 
The articles of impeachment, at first nine 
in number, were afterwards increased to 
tvrenty-etght, the object of which was 
to convict him of an attempt to subvert 
the ftmdamental laws of the countiy. As 
in the case of Laud, it was easy to prove 
that he acted as a friend and promoter of 
arbitrary measures, but not to substan- 
tiate any particular fact to justify a capital 



» 



STRAFFORD— STRAPPADO. 



charge. Although treated with the ex- 
treme of legal rigor, and debarred the' as- 
sistauce of counsei, his own great abilities 
and force of mind supplied everv defi- 
ciency ; "And never man," says White- 
lock, the chairman of the impeaching 
committee, ^ acted such a part, on such a 
theatre, with more wisdom, consistency 
and eloquence, or with greater reason, 
judgment and temper." His defence, in- 
deed, was so strong, that the original im- 
peachment was deserted, for the unjusti- 
fiable proceeding of a bill of attainder. 
The bill passed by a great majority ; and 
8o great was the animosity borne towards 
him, that the house of lords yraa intimi- 
dated into compliance. The king, who 
had imprudently endeavored to stop the 
bill by his personal interference, had not 
sufficient firmness to redeem the pledge 
of safety which he had previously given, 
but yielded to tlie advice of his counsel- 
lors, backed by a letter from Strafford 
himself, who urged him, for his own safe- 
ty, to ratify the bill. This act has the sem- 
blance of being truly heroical ; yet it is 
probable that be did not think that the 
king would have been swayed by it, since, 
being assured of the fatal truth, he lifted 
bis eyes to heaven, and, with his hand on 
his heart, exclaimed, " Put not your trust 
in princes, nor in the sons of men ; for in 
them there is no salvation." His cond uct, 
from this time to bis execution, was in 
the highest degree composed and noble. 
At the scaffold, he addressed the people, 
expressing entire resiniation to his fate, 
and asserting the good intention of his ac- 
tions, however misrepresented. He fell 
hi the forty-ninth year of his age, lament- 
ed by some, admired by more, and leaving 
behind a memorable but certainly not an 
unspotted name. The parliament, not 
long afler his death, mitigated his sen- 
tence as regarded his children ; and in the 
succeeding reign, his attainder was re- 
versed. He married three times, and, by 
his second wife, lefl an onlv8on,and sev- 
eral daughters. (See Maccbarmid's Ldvts 
of British StatMmen,) 

Stralsuivd ; a town of Prussian Pom- 
erania, capital of a government of the 
same name, formerly capital of Swedish 
Pomerania, on a strait which separates the 
island of Rugen fi*om the main land ; 120 
miles east of Hamburg; Ion. 13° 32' 
E.;lat.54°19'N. population, 15,800. It 
has a safe and capacious harbor, admit- 
ting ships of fifleen feet draught. It was 
formerly one of the principal Hanse 
towns. (See Hansa,] It has considera- 
ble txadc. Ck>m is the principal article of 



export, of which there are sometimes 
shipped from 30 to 40,000 quarters. It 
contains a government house, town liouse^ 
public library, &c. The aspect is gloomy, 
the streets narrow, the houses low, buUt 
of brick, and remarkable for being point- 
ed at the ^op. (See Pomeroma.) 

Stramonium (sometimes called James- 
town-weed), a species of datura^ is no^w 
common in waste places throughout the U. 
States, as well as in Europe. It belongs 
to the 8olane<t, the same natural famiTy 
with the tobacco and nightshade, and am- 
ply sustains the poisonous character of the 
tribe. The stem is herbaceous, fleshy, tivo 
or three feet high, and branching, furnished 
with large angular and dentate leaves. The 
flowers are large, and the corolla funnel- 
shaped. All parts of the plant exhale a 
strong and nauseous odor. It is one of 
the most dangerous of narcotic poisons ; 
and when taken internally, produces ver- 
tigo, torpor, and death. Goats, however, 
eat it with impunity. In small doses, it 
has been employed with advantage in 
convulsive and epileptic affections; and 
smoking the dried leaves has proved ben- 
eflcial in asthmatic complaints. 

Strand ; a street in London, running 
from Wf»tminster to London proper. It 
was formerly the road which connected 
the two towns, when they were entirely 
distinct from each other, and received its 
name from its position along the Thames, 

Stransles ; a disorder which attacks 
most horses, and generally between the 
ages of three and five years. When 
strangles occurs in the stables, and now 
and then also in the fleld, it proves a se- 
vere disease, and shows itself imder the 
appearance' of a cold, with cough, sore 
throat, swelling of the glands under the 
jaws, or behind and under the ears. 
Sometimes there is not much external 
swelling, and the tumors break inwardly, 
and nature effects a cure. At others, they 
break outwardly, and sometimes disperse. 
When the swelling lingers, poultices are 
preferable to fomentations, real recom- 
mends blistering the part, to promote sup- 
puration. The horse should be kept very 
cool, and bran mashes, with warm water, 
should be his principal support, unless 
the complaint last long, and produce 
much weakness, when malt mashes should 
be substituted. Bleeding is only advisa- 
ble when the early symptoms are violent 

Strappado ; a barbarous military pun- 
ishment, now abandoned. It consisted in 
having the hands of the offender tied be- 
hind his back, by which he was drawn 
to a certain elevation, by a rope, and then 



STRAPPADO-STRATFORD, 



kfl to nin Buddeuly towards the ground, 
wbeD, being stopped -with a sudden jerk, 
has afaouldera were dislocated. This was 
ako one of the punishments of the inqui- 
ation, and'of many criminals in Italy. 

Strasburg (ancieutiy Argentoratum) ; 
a city of France, capital of Lower Rhine, 
formerly capital of Alsace, situated at the 
conflux of the Brusche and Ille, half a 
mile west of the Rhine ; Ion. 7^ 45^ 
E. ; lat. 4^ 35^ N. ; population, 50,000, 
uf which one third are Protestants. 
It is an ancient, strong, and commercial 
city, of semicircular form, built on a 
plain, and divided into several parts, by 
canals, over which are several bridges. 
The houses are chiefly of a red stone, lofty, 
but often heavy and inelegant, built after 
the German manner; the language and 
cQstoms of a majority of the iuhfdiitants 
being still Grerman. A few streets are 
wide and straight, but most of them are 
narrow. The fortifications are extensive, 
divided into the old and new. The cita- 
dd is a regular pentagon, lyin? to the east, 
and with its out-worSs extending almost 
to the Rhine. Strasburg is a bishop's see, 
sod contains a .cathedral, six Catholic 
churches, seven Lutheran, and one Re- 
tormed, two hospitals, two theatres, two 
public hbraries, ft botanic garden, a medi- 
cal school, a high school, a royal and a 
Lutheisan academy, or university. The 
cathedral, or minster, founded \n 1015, 
and not completely finished till 1365, is 
one of the most distingi/isbed specimens 
of Gothic architecture existing. Its tow- 
er, 474 feet high, is ascended by. a stair- 
way of 725 steps, and is a masterpiece of 
arcMtecture, being built of hewn stone, 
cut with such nicety as to give it at a 
distance some resemblance to lace. The 
tower was planned and begun by Erwin 
of Steinbach, after whose death, in 1318, 
it was continued by his brother John. 
The clock is also a masterpiece of mech- 
anism, for, besides the hour of the day, 
it dcscnbes the motions of the planets. 
Th0 Protestant church of St. Thomas 
contains a splendid monument, erected 
by Louis XV, to marshal Saxe. This city 
is famous in the history of the reforma- 
tion; and the two principal Protestant 
seminaries in France are at Strasburg and 
Montauban. It is favorably situated for 
trade, in a fertile and well-cultivated coun- 
try, the Rhine connecting it with Swit- 
zeiiaod on the one side, and with Nether- 
lands on the other. The exports are corn, 
flax, hemp, wine, and spirituous liquors ; 
al«> linen, sail-cloth, blankets, carpets, 
hardware, leather, cott6n, lace, tobacco, 



and snuff. Guttenbeig (q. v.) is said to 
have invented the art of printing at Stras- 
burg, in 1436. The ancient bishopric of 
Strasburg, in Alsace, lying on both sidei 
the Rhine, has been secularized, and \a 
now incorporated with France and Ba- 
den. (Sec^oce.) It contained 500 square 
miles, with a population of 30,000 souls. 

Strat^ot (from the Greek vrpmnryim, 
military command, military skill) ; the 
art and science of leading armies, the art 
of conducting military operations; a branch 
of military science, which has only of late 
been treated se|)arately, and in a certain 
sende contradistinguishcMl to tactics, which 
treats of the mode of disposing troops for 
battle, of directing them diuring its con 
tinuance, and of all the exercises, anna, 
&c., necessary to fit them for action. 
Some writers on strategy have run into 
extremes, as is usual in treating of subjects 
whose limits have not been settled. B{i- 
low (q. v.), for instance, has attempted to 
reduce this branch of the military art to 
the geometrical calculation of angles, 
lines, &c., in his Theory of Modem War- 
fere — a work which was opposed by Hen- 
ry de Jomini (q. v.) and otner French wri- 
ters. The latter, in his JVaiU des grandu 
OpiraJtions Militaires, avoids B&Iow'b 
fauh of theorizing, and founds his views 
more on the results of actual ex|ierience, 
especially on the campaigns of Fntderic 
the Great and Napoleon, but falls, in his 
turn, into partial views, by insisting 
constantly on the principle of keeping 
forces concentrated, and leading them by 
the shortest possible way to meet the 
enemy. He has forgotten that all armies 
arc not so trained for battle as the troops 
of those two great generals, and that tne 
forte of all generals does not lie in the 
conduct of an engagement. His theory 
of internal lines of operations, therefore, 
though correct in certain cases, cannot 
hold good so universally as he repre- 
sents. Though the principles of Bfilow 
will never be adopted in their whole ex- 
tent, yet he did considerable service to 
military science, bv directing attention to 
what is now called strategy, as a particu- 
lar branch. To the wores mentioned in 
the articles BiUow and Jomini, we may 
add the archduke Charles's (q. v.) Prin- 
ciples of Strateg}', illustrated by the De- 
scription of the Campaign of 1796, in 
Germany. 

STRATFoan UPON Avon ; a town in 
Warwickshire, England, upon the Ayon, 
ninety-four miles north-west of London, 
celebrated as the birth-place and burial- 
place of Shakspeare. The house in 



M 



STRATFORD— fiTRAWBERRT. 



wbkh he is nid to have been born, is still 
shown ; tbst in wliich he resided aAer his 
letum to Stratford, and died, was pulled 
down, in 1759, by a cleuyman who 
bought the place a few years oeibre. The 
same person cut down the famous mul- 
berry tree, planted by Shakspeare. The 
church contains the monument and bust 
of Shakspeare. The latter was oriflnnally 
cokuped to resemble life, and, in 1793, was 
painted white, by order of Malone. These 
coats of paint have much disfigured the 
characteristic markings of the bust. This 
monument was erected within seven years 
after his death, and contains the Latin dis- 
tich cited in the article Shakspeare, On 
the grave-stone beneath are the following 
fines, attributed to himself: 

Good friendy for Jemu* eake. forbear 
To di£g the dust eocloased here ; 
Blest be ibe man (bat spares these stones, 
And eortt be he that moves my bones. 

Strath, in Scotland, is generally un- 
derstood to mean a valley broader than a 
dale or ^en, which receives its peculiar 
appellation from a river passing through 
it, as SbraMfigiej Strathspey^ &c^ or some 
particular characteristic, as Strathmore^ 
the Great Valley, &c., which traverses 
Scotland on the south side of the Gram- 
pian mountains. 

Stratus. (See Chuda.) 

Straw. In the manufactiuv of straw 
hats, the culms of several kinds of grasses 
are used. The Leghorn straw is the 
culm of a sort of wheat sown on poor 
soils, and cut green. Rye straw is much 
used in this manufacture. The straw is 
cut at the joints ; and the outer covering 
being removed, it is sorted of equal sizes, 
and made up into bundles of eight or ten 
inches in length, and a foot in circum- 
ference^ They are then to be dipped in 
water, and shaken a little, so as not to re- 
tain too much moismre : the bundles are 
afterwards to be placed on their edges, 
for the purpose of bleaching, in a box 
which is sufficiently close to prevent the 
evaporation of smoke. In the middle of 
die box is an earthen dish, containing 
brimstone, broken in small pieces : this is 
set on fire, and the box covered over and 
kept in the open air several hours. It is 
the business of one person to split and 
select the straws for fifty others, who are 
Inaiders. The splitting is done by a 
small machine, made principally of wood. 
The straws, when split, are termed splints^ 
of which each worker has a certain 
quantity : on one end is wrapped a luien 
doth, and they are held under the arm, 



and drawn out as wanted, 
should be taught to use their 
fingen and thumbs, instead of the lore- 
fin^rs, which are often reqiured to 
assist in turning the splints, and thus 
much fiieilitate the platting ; and they 
should be cautioned against wetting the 
splints too much.' The finest bats are 
made in the neighborhood of Leghorn, 
whence they are exported in great num- 
bers. The Dimstable manufactures in Bed- 
fordshire, England, are of a fine quaiitjr. 
The pifiitin^ of straw has also been re- 
cently earned on very extensively in 
Norfolk coimty, Massachusetts, and the 
plait is of excellent quality. In the 
English plait, the straws are flattened in 
a hand mill, previous to working ; but in 
the Leghorn, the pressure is spplied after 
the plaiting is made. 

Strawberry {Jragwriay This is one 
of the most wholesome and most deliciouB 
of our finite. The pulp is light, meltings 
and, notwithstanding, l>ut little watery, 
and does not undergo the acetous fer- 
mentation in the stomach. It exhales a 
most delightful perfume, and the flavor is 
exquisite, especially immediately after 
being pluckeo ftt>m the stem. The plant 
belong to tbe natural fiunily rofdcee, to- 
gether with the rose and'raspbeny. The 
root gives out several long, slender, 
creeping shoots, which take root at inter- 
vals, and form so many new stocks ; the 
leaves are composed of three leaflets, sup- 
poned on a long foot-stslk, which is pro- 
vided with stipules at the bsse. From 
the midst of the leaves arise two or three - 
simple, slender, silky stenis, fipom four to 
six mches high, and terminated by a few 
white flowers, disposed in a sort of cor- 
ymb. After flowerinff, the receptacle 
mcreases, acquires a pulpy and succulent 
consistence, and finally a red color, when 
the strawberries have attained maturity. 
The strawberry is easily cultivated, and 
numerous variedes have been produced ; 
some of great excellence have been ob- 
tained recently. It forces well, and, with 
a little trouble in choosing i succession 
of sorts, may be had almost every month 
in the year. An open situation, and rich, 
loamy soil, rather strong, is required fer 
most varieties ; and from their large mass 
of foliage and flovrers, they must, till the 
fiuit is set, have copious supplies of 
water. The row culture is most con- 
venient, and frequent renewal ensures 
vigorous plants and large fruit A pal- 
atable jam, wine and vinegar are pre- 
pared from strawberries; wd they are 
sometimes preserved entire, in simp or in 



8TIUWBE]UlY---STR0Nd 



vine. BeridoB the cultivated strawbeny, 
we iMnre a wM spedea, common in meet 
parta of tlie U. Stales. 

SraxAJCs; the uniform ranges of phnks 
on the bottom or ndes of a ship, or the 
cominuationfl of planks joined by the ends 
ID each other, and reaching finran the 
stem, which Hmits the yeesei forward, to 
the stem-nost and fashion-pieces, which 
terminate her length abaft 

SraKSTS, PAvaiuEirT of. (See Pave- 

Strkutz (RussiBn, «frte£a, or Hrekij 
guards) ; the life-guards of the Russian 
czara, until the reign of Peter the Great. 
They were instituted in the latter half of 
the sixteenth century, by Ivan Wasilie- 
witBch, and formed, also, the standing 
in&ntiy of the empire, amounting, some- 
times^ to 40/)00 men. Their numerous 
pririleges and their frequent insurrec- 
Dons rendered them as formidable as the 
Roman pretorians (q. vX or the Turk- 
ish janizifeiesL (q. v.) reter the Great 
diasolFed the coipe in 1697, in coose- 
<iu«ice of an insurrection, put several 
moosands to death, and banished the rest 
10 Astrachan. Having been guilty of 
aome disturbances here, the^ were entire- 
ly dispersed and destroyed m 1705. 

SraETTO {EUdian) signifies, in music, 
^t the movement to which it is prefixed, 
is to be performed in a quick, concise 



Strike ; a measure of capacity, con- 
tuning four pecks. 

Strike, among seamen, is a word vari- 
ooaly used. W^n a ship, in a fight, or 
on meetine with a ship ot war, lets dovm 
or lowers ner top-sails at least half-mast 
bigfa, she is said to. strikej meaning that 
ahe yields, or submits, or pays respect to 
the diip of war. Also, when a ship 
touches ground in shoal water, she Hrikes, 
And when a top-mast is to be taken down, 
the word of command is, Strik€ the top- 

STROOAifOFF ; a distinguished Rusnan 
fiumly, descended from a merchant, 
Anika Stroganofi^ who, in the sixteenth 
ceDtmy, resided at Solwytschevodzka, 
and gave rise to the discovery of Siberia. 
The czar Ivan granted to Jacob and Greg- 
ory Stroganoff the desert country along 
ifae Kama, from Perm to the Seiilwa river, 
■nd on the banks of the Tschussowa. 
They were originally fur-traders, but, to 
defend tfaemsenres agamst the Siberian 
and Nogaian robbers, were allowed to 
boild forts and, collect troops. They also 
administered justice^ suppressed insur- 
feetkioB, and, in fact, nrotected the north- 

voL. zn. o 



east of Russia. They had extended the 
Moscovite territory to the chain of the 
Ural ; and when the Mongolian conqueror 
of Siberia, KutschjiAn, intended to destroy 
the settlements of the Stroganofb, on the 
Kama, they received. May 90, 1574, a 
grant of the enemv's country, which al- 
lowed them to settle on the banks of the 
Tobol, to wage vrar with Kutschjum, and 
to work mines. They offbtsd five bands of 
robbers, commanded by revolted Cossack 
hetxnanns, employment in their service, 
exhorting them to give up their dishonest 
mode of life. Thus the Coasack Jermack 
and his companions were induced to 
leave the Wolara, and, being joined by 
many additiontd forces collected by the 
Stroganofis, entered Siberia. The coun- 
try was conquered after three battles, and 
the taking of Kutschjum's camp by 
storm. The capital, Sibir, was captured, 
October 26, 1581. (See the ChwikU tf 
the ^trogtmoffs, Muller's History of Sibe- 
ria (in Germanj, and Karamsin's Higtcry 
of IZiima.) — K descendant of Anika, 
baron Gregory Stroganofij since 1827 a 
member of the council of the Russian 
empire, is^ proprietor of the important salt 
ana iron works in Perm, established by 
his ancestors. From 1805 to 1808, he 
was Russian ambassador at Madrid ; 
aflerwards at Stockholm, and in the 
memorable period of 1821, at Constanti- 
nople, where he distinguished himself by 
talent, firmness and humanity, in the most 
critical conjunctures, and labored strenu- 
ously to protect the Greeks and the 
Greek church. 

STaOKE OF THE SuiT (cottjf d/t mMS\, 
When the direct rays of tne sun, during 
the hot season of the year, are allowed to 
strike for f^>me time upon the skin, an 
inflammation is product, accompanied 
with blisters and sharp pains. Afler a 
fow days, the inflammation ceases, and 
the epidermis peels off. If the head is 
en)osed to the sun, the brain is sometimes 
afiected in a similar manner. The blood 
collects in great quantities, the vessels 
become swollen, the face and eyes appear 
red, and violent pains in the head follow. 
A feverish heat pervades the whole body ; 
lethargy, or suflering which prevents 
sleep, apoplexy, with or without extrava- 
sation of blood, or an inflammation of the 
blood ensues, and often terminates fiitally. 
Exposure by sleeping in the sun is par- 
ticulariy dangerous. 
Stromboli. (See l^mi Idandt,) 
STRone, Caleb, LL. D., a governor of 
Massachusetts, was bom in 1744, at 
Northampton, in that suite. He gradu- 



96 



STRONG— STRONTITES. 



•ted at Harvard utiiTeraity, in 1764, and, 
after studying law, commenced its prac- 
tice in his native place. In the begging 
of the revolution, he took an active part 
in the cause of liberty. In 1775, he was 
a member of the committee of safety, and, 
the following year, of the state legislature. 
Of the conventicm which form^ a con- 
stitution for the state in 1779^ he was also 
a member, and, on the organization of the 
government, was elected a senator. Two 
years afterwards, he was oiiered a seat on 
the t»ench of the supreme court, but 
declined it. In 1787, he was chosen a 
member of the convention which framed 
the constitution of the U. States, and 
Mkewise of the state convention by which 
it was adopted. When the general gov- 
ernment went into operation, he was 
chosen ^ senator in congress. In 1800, 
he was chosen governor of Massachusetts, 
and continued in that station for seven 
consecutive years. In 1812, he was 
reelected to it, and retained it until 1816. 
He then retired fix>m public life, and died 
in November, 1820. In the discharge of 
all the various functions with which he was 
Intrusted, governor Strong was distin- 
guished for wisdom, uprightness, and 
patriotism, whilst he possessed, in an 
eoually eminent degree, the virmes adapt- 
'ed especially to private life. He was an ac- 
complished scholar, jurist and statesman. 
Stkono Beer. (See Brevnng,) 
Strontites ; a peculiar earth, dis- 
covered in 1793, and thus named by 
doctor Hope, of Edinburgh, in allusion 
to its having been first noticed in a mine- 
ral brought from Strontian, in Argyleshire. 
Klaproth examined the mineral the same 
year, without a knowledge of the experi- 
ments of doctor Hope, and called the 
earth stiimtian. Pure strontites. is of a 
grayish-white color, possesses a pungent, 
acrid taste, and, when powdered m a 
mortar, the dust that rises irritates the 
lungs and nostrils. It is an unusually 
heavy earth, approaching barytes in Spe- 
cific gravity. It requires rather more 
than 160 parts of water at 60® to dissolve 
it ; but of^ boiling water much less. On 
cooling, it crystallizes in thin, transparent, 
quadrangular plates, seldom exceeding a 
quarter of an inch in length, and fre- 
quently adhering together. These crys- 
tals contain about 68 parts in 100 of water ; 
are soluble in little more than twice their 
weight of boiling water. The solution 
of strontites has the property of converting 
vegetable blues to green. It tinges the 
flame of a candle of^ beautiful red color. 
The experiment may be made by puttmg 



a little of the sah composed of nitric aeid 
and strontites into the vrick of a lighted 
candle, or by setting fire to alcohol hold 
ing muriate of strontites in solution.* Sir 
H. Davy decomposed this eardi by means 
of the same processes as he employed in 
the decomposition of the other earths. 
To the metallic base of it he ^ve the 
name ofttrontiumy which is a white, solid 
metal, much heavier than water, and 
bears a close resemblance to barium in its 
properties. When exposed to the air, or 
when thrown into water, it rapidly ab- 
sorbs oxygen, and is converted into 
strontian. The salts of strontites are in 
general more soluble than the salts of 
barytes, but less so than the salts of 
lime. The ndphaU of strontites is of 
a pure white color, and is not sensibly 
soluble in water. Mhydnnu tdtraU of 
strontites may be prepared by dlssolvinff 
carbonate of strontites in nitric acid, 
evaporating the solution to dryness, re- 
dissolving and evaporating slowly, till the 
sah crystallizes, it crystallizes in regular 
octahedrons, which are perfectly trans- 
parent It is soluble in Utde more than 
Its own weight of water, at the tempera- 
ture of 60^ ; but is insoluble in alcohoL 
The hydrous nUrate of strontites is formed 
occasionally, when a solution of nitrate 
of strontites, sufficiently concentrated, is 
set aside for crystallization. Its crystals 
are oblique, rhombic prisms. About one 
quarter of its weight is water. The car- 
bonate of strontites is slightly soluble in 
water impregnated vrith ciidi)onic acid. 
It is easily formed by pouring an alkaline 
carbonate into a solution of nitrate of 
strontites. Muriate of strontites is formed 
by dissolving carbonate of strondtes in 
muriatic acio, and concentrating the solu- 
tion till it crystallizes. The crystals are 
very long ne^les, consisting, most com- 
monly, of six-sided prisms, w ater, at the 
temoerature of 60^, dissolves one and a 
haa times its weight of this salt Boiling 
water dissolves any quantity whatever, 
The crystals slowly deliquesce in a moist 
atmosphere. When heated, they under- 
go the watery fusion, and then are reduced 
to a white powder. In a strong red heat, 
it melts into a liquid. 

MUive salts of strontites. — 1. CelesHne 
is found in right rhombic prisms of 104^ — 
the primitive form of the species — ^which 

* The beantiful red fire, which is now so fre- 
ouentl^ used at the theatres, is composed of the 
R>llowing ingredients)—^ parts dry nitrate of 
strontites, IS parts of finely powdered solpbnr, 5 
parts of chlorate of potash, and 4 parts of sulpfaift- 
ret of antimony. No other kind of nixluia thaa 
robbing together on a paper is required. 



8TONTrr£S--STROPII£. 



terminated by dibedral 
eitinmilis and also have their acute lateral 
edges truncated^ beaidea presenting vari- 
ouB other partial mcMlifications. Cleavage 
takes place readily, parallel with all the 
laces of the primaiy figure ; lustre vitre- 
iMM, inclining to rennous, sometimes, also, 
a little to pearly, upon the lateral faces of 
me prism ; color white, passing to sky 
and smalt-blue ; also leddirii- white ; trans- 
parent or trsnslucent; brittle; hardness 
between calcareous spar and fluor ; spe- 
cific gravity 3w8. Besides occurring in 
perfect ciyms, celestine is found in broad, 
foliated, in ciriumnar and fibrous masses, 
as well BS compact ; the latter, however, 
appears to be a mixture of celestine and 
common limestone. It is composed of 
Btrontites 56, and sulphuric acid 42. Be- 
fore the blow-pipe, it decrepitates snd 
melts, without perceptibly coloring the 
flame, into a white, finable enamel. Re- 
duced to powder, it phosphoresces upon 
led-hot iron. Celestine is most commonly 
found in kidney-shaped masses, dissemi- 
nated through the more recent limestones, 
suidstcnies and amygdaloidal rocks. It 
also occurs in gypsum rocks, along with 
mari. Beautifijl crystals, of a prismatic 
form and massive columnsr varieties, oc- 
cur in the sulphur mines of Sicily ; also, 
under the same circumstances, at Bex, in 
Svntzeriand, and near Cadiz, in Spun. 
Tabaiar cirstals and lamellar masses are 
found at Monte Viale, and in the Bristol 
channel, in England. But the most 
magnificent crystals come firom Strontian 
island, in lake Erie. Handsome blue 
foliatcMl specimens are also found at 
Lockport, in New York. It is also found 
in seyeral other countries.-~2. StronttanUe 
is found reffularly crystallized in the form 
of six-sided prisms, modified on the edges, 
and terminated in a pyramid. It affords, 
on cleavage, a right rhombic prism for its 
primary mrm, wlMwe an^es are 117^ 32^ 
and 62° 2&, But regular crystals are 
very uncommcm. Lustre vitreous, slight- 
ly inclining to resinous ; color asparagus 
or apple-green, pale yellowish-brown, 
yellow and gray ; white ; streak white ; 
transparent or translucent ; hardness in- 
termediate between calc-spar and fluor ; 
specific gravity 3.6. Strontianite is found, 
for the most part, in fibrous masses, the 
fibres slightly diyeiging. It is composed 
of 

Strondtes, 69.50 

Csrbonic acid, 30.00 

Water. .50 



100.00 



It is soluble with eflfervescence in the 
muriatic and nitric acids ; wad paper 
dipped into this solution, and afterwards 
dried, will bum with a red flame. It 
mehs before the blow-pipe, and intu- 
mesces, at the same time phospho- 
rescing with a red light. It is dissolved 
by borax, with a violent eflervescenee, 
into a clear globule. Strontianite occurs 
in metallic veins, traversing primitive and 
transition mountains. It is found at 
Strontian, in Scotland ; at Br&unsdorf^ in 
Saxony ; at Leogang, in Salzburg ; and 
also in Peru. 

ST&oPHAnES ; four small, rockv iriands 
in the Mediterranean, west of the Pelo- 
ponnesus ; according to the ancient poeti^ 
the residence of the Harpies. The largest 
abounds in olives snd other fitiils, and 
produces a little com, hardly sufiScient 
n>r its few inhabitants ; 26 miles south of 
Zante ; Ion. 21<> 12^ E. ; lat 37° 29^ N. 

Strophe (from the Greek #rp9^if, fix>m 
erptifnaf I tum) ; a systematic union of 
several verses. According to the pre- 
vailing metre in the verses, strophes are 
called akaie, Asckpiadaany &c. The 
dithyrambus with toe Greeks was con- 
fined to no precise rhythm, and roUed 
along without any division into strophes 
But the hymns and choruses, with which 
the tragedies were interspersed, consisted 
mosUy of long strophes and antistrophes, 
of uniform measure, with which, also, 
sometimes alternated pro-odes, mesodes, 
or epodes, of various measure. The 
single verses of such poems, considered 
as mere members of strophes, were 
called coUu As the length of the verses 
is determined by the number of feet, so 
the length of strophes is determined by 
the number of cola. Monocola are Ivric 
poems, in which vers^ of a uniform char- 
acter is used, without division into 
strophes. Dicola are poems in which 
the strophes contain verses of but two 
different kinds. Sometimes these verses 
interchange in equal number : sometimes 
two or three verses of the same kind are 
followed by one of a shorter measure. 
So there are tricoltij tetraada^ &c. The 
system of strophes, antistrophes, &C., 
appears to be most developed in the 
dramatic choruses of the Greeks. The 
singing of the strophes on the stage, was 
accompanied with a motion or tum from 
right to left, towards the images of the 
gods placed on the sides of the orchestra 
(in the ancient sense of this word) ; but 
the singing of the antistrophe, vrith a con- 
trary motion, fix)m the left to the right ; 
hence Uie appellations of ahvphe and 



STROPHE-^TRUENSEE. 



anMrophej which seem to have been 
given to these perfbnnances of the dra- 
matic chonis alone, as ode and antode 
were applied to the song, unaccompanied 
with mimic representations. The chorus, 
originally consistin|r of fifty persons,, but, 
by degrees, reduced to fifteen, was some- 
times divided, for the purpose of singing 
the strophe and antistrophe, into two 
semi-choruses. In the epode, these were 
affain united. The motions were those 
of a rhythmic dance, and therefore ac- 
companied by flutes, by which the move- 
ment of the verse and that of the dancers 
were made to harmonize, as ap|)ears fivm 
the circumstance that the leader of the 
chorus beat, or indicated time, with shoes, 
the soles of which were covered with 
iron. 

STaozzi, Philip, a celebrated Floren- 
tine patriot, one of the richest citizens of 
Florence in the early part of the sixteenth 
ceutui^, was allied by marriage with the 
Medici, but was too much attached to the 
ancient republican constitution to acqui- 
esce in the domination of that house. 
When the sovereignty was assumed by 
Alessandro de* Medici, he joined the party 
which aimed at restoring a free govern- 
ment. Their application for support, to 
the emperor Charles V, beinir unattended 
to, Strozzi induced Lorenzo ae' Medici to 
assassinate the duke. The only result 
of this action was the immediate succes- 
sion of Cosmo, whom he opposed at the 
head of a bodv of troops; but, being 
defeated at the battle of Marona, he was 
made prisoner. Apprehending that he 
should be put to the torture, to force a 
disclosure of his accomplices, he antici- 
pated the trial by a voluntary death, with 
a poniard. Having first traced, with the 
point of it, the line from Virgil— JSroriore 
aliquis nostrii ex ossQnu vUor I he pierced 
his breast, and immediately expired 
(1538). 

STauEifSEE and Brandt. John Fred- 
eric, count of Struensee, bom at Halle, in 
1737, after having completed his medical 
studies, entered upon the practice of phys- 
ic at Altona, where he formed an ac- 
rlntance with the count of Rantzau- 
hberff and Brandt In 1768, he re- 
ceived the appointment of physician to 
Christian Vll, king of Denmark, whom 
he accompanied on his travels through 
Germany, England and France. After 
Christian's marriage with Caroline Matil- 
da (q. v.), a coolness arose between the 
royiil pair, of which the queen-dowager 
tools advantage to promote the interests 
of her son, Christian's half brother. The 



birth of a crowiiprinoe, the ] _ 

of Dennuuk (wf»FMmc VI ), widened tfasR 
breach between CaroUne and the queen— 
dowa^, without reconciling Christiaafeo 
his wife. The nation was divided infeo 
two great parties— chat of the king, at tbo 
head of which was Ibe young counc 
Hoik, the royal favorite, and that of the 
queen-dowager, at Friedensburg. Caro* 
line Matilda aimed at effecting the remov- 
al of Hoik, with the hope of regaining 
the king's fiivor, while Hoik endeavored to 
increase the distance between her and the 
king. Thinldng Souensee to be as warm- 
ly opposed to the queen as he was him- 
self he advised Christian to employ 4um 
in his messages to the queen. But this 
proved the ruin of Hoik : the king became 
more and more attached to Struensee, 
and the queen, who observed the change, 
and contrasted the respectful deportment 
of Struensee with the arrogance of the 
favorite, soon admitted him to her confi- 
dence; and he effected a recouciliatioH 
between her and the king. Struensee 
now pursued his ambitious plans with 
redoubled zeaL Bemstorf (a. v.) was re- 
moved ; Brandt succeeded Hoik as director 
of the theatre and maUrt de$ jUamn, and 
the firiends of the queen were brought 
into office. To secure his influence, 
Struensee endeavored to occupy the king 
with amusements, and paiticularly to |»e- 
vent him from communicaung directly 
with his ministers. In 1770, at the insti- 

Sition of Struensee, the king abolished 
e council of state, establishing^ in place 
of it, a committee of conference, conaiBt- 
ing of t£e heads of the different depart- 
ments of the administration, who were 
only occasi<mally assembled, and had 
neither rank nor influence. This meas- 
ure threw all authority into the hands 
of the queen and the fiivorite, and 
roused the indignation of the Danish 
nobility, which had enjoyed a seat and 
vote in the council. Struensee next pro- 
cured the removal of the old ministers ; 
and all aflkirs were now administered in 
the name of the kins, by his personal 
attendants. But the nivorite had neither 
prudence nor firmness to support him 
m this situation. He became overbearing 
and impatient of contradiction, and his 
attempts to introduce refonnati<ms in the 
finances, the army, law, &c., raised him 
up many enemies. He now caused him- 
self to oe created count, and, not satisfied 
vrith this, procured the dignity of cab- 
inet-minister, with such powers as no 
Danish minister had ever before possessed. 
When his enemies attempted to expose 



STRUENSEE-STKYCHNIA. 



ak wurpatiosa, the freedom of the pran, 
which be bad hhnseif introduced, was 
nlnected to reetrictioiia But the firieuda 
of SmieiMee were abeady becoming in- 
dispofled towards him, and the people be- 
an to show symptoms of dissatisfaction* 
scruensee was conscious of his dan^r, 
and took some precautious to defend him- 
sel£ But on the night of Jan. 16, 1772, 
the queen, the &vorite, Brandt, and their 
other partkans, were seized. The officer 
who ccMnmanded the guard (an old enemy 
of Struensee) had led his <^cerB into the 
palace, declaring that the king had com- 
manded him to arrest the oiieen. Count 
Raatzau-Aschberg then pe Atrated to the 
chamber of the king, waked him, and 
fold bim that his life was in danger, and 
thai he mtist sign an order which the 
count presented to him. The feeble king 
obeyed, and the queen was conducted to 
Krnienburg. An extraordinary commi»- 
aion was instituted for the trial of Stru- 
ensee, consisting in part of his personal 
enemies. The proceedings were pushed 
with severity ; and, on the 25th ot April, 
he was condemned to lose his right hand 
and his bead, his body to be quaitered and 
opoeed upon the wheel, and his head 
and band to be stuck upon a stake. 
When informed that the king had con- 
ibmed the semence, he receiv^ the news 
with composure, and was executed on the 
28th of April, 1772.>-See Host's Cwni 
Sbuauee and his Mtnutry (in Danish, 
1624, and more complete in German, 
18Q6), and Mimoires de FaikefukiM (Par- 

Strutt, Joseph, an English antiquary, 
bora, in 1749, at Springneld, in Essex, 
was articled to an engniTer, and obtained 
the gold and silver medab of the royal 
academy. He published, in 1773, his work 
entlded the Regal and Ecclesiastical An- 
tiquities of En^and (4to.), containing rep- 
resentations of the English monarchs 
fiom Edward the ConKesor to Henry 
VIII. This was followed by Horda ./fn- 
gd Cymuatf or a complete view of the 
manners, customs, arms, habits, &c., of 
the English fiom the arrival of the Sax- 
ons to the times of Henry VIII, >&c. 
(1774, 1775 and 1776, 3 vols., with 157 
piatesJL In 1777 and 1778, be published a 
Chronicle of England, which he meant 
to extend to six volumes, but dropped the 
dengn for vrant of encouragement. His 
Biographica] Dictionarv of Engravers ap- 
peared in 1785 and 1786, in two volumes, 
and bis Complete View of the Dresses 
and Habits of Uie People of England, 
^ in 1796 and 1799 (4to.). Inl801,he 
8» 



publiriied his last and fiivorite work, enti« 
tied the Sports and Pastimes of the Peo« 
pie of England (with forty plates, new 
octavo edition, with 140 platea, 1827). He 
died in London, in October, ]8€2, aged 
fifly-three. His modest character scarce- 
ly met, during his life-tipe, with the en- 
couragement It deserved. He left some 
manuscripts, from which have since been 
published his Queen Hoo Hall, a m- 
maiice, and Ancient Times, a drama (4 
vols., 12mo.); also the Test of Guilt, or 
Traits of Ancient Superstition, a dramatic 
tale. 

STRTcnniA ; a vegetable alkali, foimd 
in the fiiiit of two species o€ the wbychr 
no#. It is obtained by the following pro- 
cess : The bean is raqped down as small 
as possible, and exposed to the action of 
nitric ether in a Papin's di^^ester. What 
remains after the digestion is treated with 
alcohol, and the alcohol is evaporated ta 
dryness, and the residue dissolved in wa- 
ter. To the aqueous solution potash is 
added, which throws down the strychnia 
in the form of a white crystalline precip- 
itate. This alkali has also been extracted 
from the upas poison. The properties of 
strychnia, m a state of perfect purity, are 
as follows : It has a crystalline structure 
(often presenting four-sided prisms, ter- 
minated by four-sided pyramids), is of 
a white color, has an intolerably bitter 
taste, and leaves a metallic impression in 
the mouth ; it is destitute of odor, and is 
not altered by exposure to the air; it is 
neither fusible nor volatile, except at tem- 
peratures at which it undergoes decompo- 
sition. It is very little soluble in cold wa- 
ter, 100,000 parts of tliat liquid ditaolving 
only fifteen parts of the alkali ; but it dis- 
solves in 25C0 times its weight of boiling 
water. When it is introduced into the 
stomach, it acts with prodigious energy. 
A locked jaw is induced in a very short 
time, and the animal is speedily destroy- 
ed. Half a grain of strychnia blown into 
the throat of a rabbit, proved fiital in five 
minutes, and brought on locked jaw in 
two minutes. A great variety of raJfis of 
this alkali may be obtained bv treating It 
with the different acids, and by double - 
decomposition. — Sulphate of strychnia 
crystallizes in cubes, and is soluble in less 
than ten times its weight of cold water. 
It consists of sulphuric acid 90.5 aixl 
strychnia 9.5. Muriate of strychnia ciys- 
tallizes in very small needles, and is mora 
soluble in water than the sulphate. Ni- 
trate of strychnia acts with more violence 
upon animals than the pure alkalL So- 
lutions of the sahs of strychnia, wbea 



ao 



8TRYCHNIA.-STUART. 



ezpoMd ta a heat of 2152P, become vol- 
atile. 

Btrtpe, John, a yoluminous contribu- 
tor to English eccleriastical bistoiy and bi- 
ography, was born in 1643; and educated at 
8l Paul's school, whence, in 1661, he was 
removed to Jesys coilece, and afterwards 
to Catharine hall, Canibridge. He grad- 
uated M. A. in 1666, and, taking otders, 
was nominated to the perpetual curacy of 
Thevdon Boys, in Essex. His works are, 
Ecclesiastical Monuments (in 3 vols., folio) ; 
Annals of the Reformation (4 vols., folio, 
1709 — 1731); an augmented edition of 
Stow's Survey of Ix>ndon (in 2 vols., 
Iblio, 1720) ; and Lives of Cranmer, Par- 
ker, GrindaJ, Whitgift, sir John Cheke, 
nr Thomas Smith, and bishop Ayhner. 
He was for many years rector of Hack- 
ney, in which be spent the latter part of 
his life, which was prolonged to the age 
of ninety-four. 

Stuart. The Stuart or Stewart fami- 
ly was descended from the great Anglo- 
Norman family of Fitz Alan, in England. 
The dignity of seneschal or stewiud of 
the king^s household having become he- 
reditary in a branch of this family, settled 
in Scotland, the title was converted into a 
surname. Walter, the sixth hifffa steward, 
married Marjory, daughter of Robert (see 
Bnuie, Robert) ; and, on the extinction of 
the male line of Bruce, Robert Stewart, 
their only son,ascended the Scottish throne 
(1371) under the title of Robert II. His 
grandson, James I (q. v.), was murdered 
m his bed, in 1437. His successors were 
James II, killed in a war with England 
(1460); James III, who fell in battle 
against his rebellious subjects (1488); 
James IV, who perished fiffhting against 
the English (1513) ; James V (q. v.^ died 
of chagrin on account of the rebellion 
of his subjects. His last words were, on 
hearing of the birth of his daughter Mary, 
** God's will be done. It came with a lass ; 
it will go with a lass," — alluding to the 
crown, which had come into his nunily by 
marriage. That daughter (see Meary Stu- 
art) perished on the scaffold, and her son 
James VI (I of England) united the 
crowns of England and Scotland (16031 
James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, 
Mary and Anne (see the articles) wore 
the double crown of the two kingdoms 
until 1714, 343 years from the period 
when the &mily ascended the Scottish 
throne, and 111 from the time of its ac- 
cesnon to that of England. James II 
was deposed in 1688, and his son James 
Edward (see Stuart^ James Edward)^ who 
i^led himself James III, died in exiloi 



after inefiectual attempts to regain Ch^ 
throne of his ancestors. Jaows IIFs 80ii» 
Charies Edward (see Edwafd. Okorlea), 
died childless, in 1788. His only brother, 
Henry, cardinal of York, died in 1807, 
and with him the house of Stuart became 
extinct. 
Stoart, John ; eari of Bute. (See BtUe.) 
Stuart, Arabella. (See JhabtUa SHu^ 
art) 

Stuart, James Edward Frands; the 
eldest son of James II, by his second wiie, 
Maiy of Modena, bom in London, June 
10, 1688. He was but five months old 
when his father was dethroned ; and his 
mother, with^ier mfimt, fled to Fnmce, 
where Louis XIV aflbrded an asylum to 
the exiled fiunily at St. Geimains. (Soe 
James //.) An attempt was made at the 
peace of Ryswick, in 1687, to ensure the 
restoration of this young prince to the 
throne of his ancestors, which was defeat- 
ed only by the opposition of his father — as 
William III had agreed to procure the 
recognition of the prince of Wales, as he 
was styled, as his successor ; but James 
II rejected the proposal, observing that 
he could support with resignation the 
usui^tion of his son-in-law, but he 
coula not suffer his eon to become a par- 
ty to iL On the death of the ex-king, in 
1701, Louis XIV recognised his scm ss 
king of England, by the tide of James III, 
and a proclamation, in the name of the 
latter, was addressed to the English na- 
tion; but no effective measures were 
adopted in his &vor. The death of Will- 
iam III (q. V.) rrvived tiie hopes of his 
party ; but nothing bevond unavailing ne- 
{i;otiation took place till 1708, when a mar- 
itime expedition against Scotland was 
fitted out, in which the prince embarked, 
under the command of the chevalier For- 
bin. This armament, however, being at- 
tacked by an English fleet of superior 
force, returned to France without landing 
the invading forces; and the young ad- 
venturer (who assumed the name of the 
chevalier de St. Giorge) joined the French 
army in Flanders, and distinguished him- 
self by his ^Tilor at the battie of Malpla- 
quet In tbe latter part of the reign of 
Anne, repeated intrigues were set on foot 
to secure the restoration of her brother, 
or his succession to the crown after her 
death ; but they proved entirelv abortive, 
and, on the treaty of Utrecht tucing place, 
in 1713, he was obliged to submit to a 
temporary retirement from France ; and 
'when be returned to Paris, he resided 
there incognito. Had not the decease of 
queen Amie been qwedily folk>wed 1^ 



STUART. 



that of LottiB XIV, in 1715, the inTMion 
of Scotland bv the Pretender, aa he was 
eelled, might have led to a very diffiwent 
resuh fironi that which actaally took place. 
(See Jhau.) The regent duke of Orleans 
wiahed to maintain peace with Geof^ I, 
and the British ambasMulor at Paris was 
informed of the projectt of the chendier 
de St. Geof^ bv the abb^ Strickland, one 
of hta agents, who betrayed his confidence. 
The earl of Mar, in Scotland, raised the 
standard of revolt against the house of 
Hanover, proclaiming the heir of the Stu- 
arts king, under the title of James ill ; 
and the latter, embarking at Dunkirk, 
made a descent on the Sottish coasts; 
but he soon perceived that success was 
hopeless, and was obliged to return to 
France. Even that kingdom no longer 
yielded him an asylum, and he was 
forced to remove, first to Avignon, and 
dien to Rome. In consequence of the 
disputes which occurred between the 
doke of Orleans and cardinal Alberoni, 
the prince was, a few years after, invited 
to Spain, where he was well rsceived by 
Philip V ; but the vkrit had no important 
influence on his afbirs, and Rome again 
became his retreat, as it was his fiitiue res- 
idence. In 1790, he married the princess 
Mary Caaimira Sobieska, grand-daugh- 
ter of the fiimous John Sobieaki, king of 
Poland. This union was not attended 
with domestic happiness, and a separation 
between the husband and wife was with 
difficult prevented by the interference 
of cardinal Alberoni, then a resident at 
Rome. He took no active part in the ex- 
pedition against Scotland, under his son, 
m 1745 ; and the ktter part of his life 
was deciicated to exercises of )>iety. He 
died Jan. 2, 1766. 

SnrAKT, Charles Edward. (See Ed- 
wardj Charles.) 

6t0art, Henry Benedict Maria Cle- 
ment, cardinal of York, younger son of 
James Edward, Und the last descendant 
of the royal line of the Stuarts, was bom 
at Rome, in 1725, and, bdng destined for 
the church, the pope bestowed on him the 
fight to hold benences without receiving 
the ecclesiastical tonsure. In 1745, when 
the last efibrt was made for the restora- 
tion of his fiunily, he assumed the com- 
. msnd of troops assembled at Dunkirk, to 
aid the operations of his brother in Great 
Britain; but the news of the battle of 
CaQoden prevented the embarkation of 
tbv armament, and prince Henry return- 
ed to Rome. The visions of re^ rolen- 
dor, in vrhich he might have indulffed, 
being thiMdiaripeliBd, betook holy osaers, 



and, in 1747, pope Benedict XIV raind 
him to the purple. He was subsequently 
made chaiioeUor of the basilica of St. Pe- 
ter, and i/ishop of FrascatL On the death 
of his brother, in 1788, he aasumed the 
barren title to which the ftmily had as* 
pired, and caused a medal to be struck, 
with the inscription, Henriau Mmu Anr 
gliit Rix, and on the obverse, OraHa Ddf 
funVoluntaUHcminilun, When the French 
conquered Italy, he was obliged to flee to 
Venice, and was indebted lor his support 
to a pension from the E^nglish court. Hia 
death took |dace in IWf. The valuable 
papers of bis grand&ther and his &ther« 
which had remained in his possession, 
were, after his decesse, sent to England. 

Stuart, doctor Gilbert, an eminent 
historical writer, bom at Eldinburgh, 
in 1742, was educated in the uni- 
versity of that city, where his &- 
ther was professor of humanity, and 
was destined for the legal profession, 
which he relinquished for that of an au- 
thor. In 1767, he published an Historical 
Dissertation concerning the Antiquity of 
the British' Constitution, the merit of 
which procured him the degree of LL. D. 
This was followed, a few years after, by 
his View of Society in Europe, in its 
Progress fiom Rudeness to Refinement 
Beinff disappointed in an attempt to ob- 
tain die professorship of public law in the 
university of Edinburgh, he removed to 
London ; and, from 176B to 1774, he was 
a contributor to the Monthly Review. He 
then returned to his native city, and es- 
tablished the Edinburgh Magazine and 
Review; but his illiberal and virulent 
criticisms ruined the credit of the work, 
which was discontinued in 1776. About 
this time,he published hisObservationscon- 
ceming tlie Public Law and Consdtutional 
History of Scotland (8vo.) ; the History of 
the Reformation in Scotland (1780, 4to.) ; 
and the History of Scotland (1782, 2 vols.). 
In the year last mentioned, he again re- 
paired to London, and engaged as a wri- 
ter ; but habits of intemperance had un- 
dermined his constitution, and he once 
more returned to his native place, where 
he died in 1786. His works display eru- 
dition, industiT and sound judgment, 
wherever the latter quality is not influ- 
enced by his jealousy and hatred of con- 
temporary writers. 

Stuart, James ; a distinguished anti- 
quary and architectural draughtsman, 
bom in London, in 1713. His faSier hav- 
ing died when he was young, he assisted 
his modier by practising fan-painting. 
Prompted by his inclinaaon, he studiM 



STDART-STURGEON, 



anatomy, geometiy, and other branches of 
science ; and, having, by his induBtry, pro- 
vided for the support of his younger 
brother and sister, set out, with a veiy 
small supply of money, for Rome. He 
supported himself during his travels by 
the exercise of his talents, and at Rome 
made acquaintance with Nicholas Revett, 
a skilful architect, with whom he went 
to Athens, in 1751. Here they remained 
till the latter part of 1753, making draw- 
ings and taking measurements of archi- 
tectural relica After visiting Salonica, 
Smyrna, and some of the .^^ean islands, 
they returned to England, m the begin- 
ning of 1755. The result of their kbors 
appeared in the work entitled the Anti- 
quities of Athens(l8t vol 1762, folio; 4th 
vol. 1816). A new and improved edition 
of this valuable work has reoendy been 
published. Stuart died in 1788. 

Stucco (Balian) in architecture; a 
composition of white marble pulverized 
and mned with plsster of lime, which, 
being sifted and wrought up with water, 
is used like common plaster. Architec- 
tural and sculptural ornaments, such as 
fruits, flowers, garlands, festoons, &C., are 
made of it In the interior of buildings, 
stucco work is generally applied to the 
ceilings of apartments, the mouldings, 
&G. On the exterior, it should be con- 
fined to those parts which are not much 
exposed to the rain. In some countries, 
a stucco of common mortar and of plas- 
ter is applied to the outside of houses, and 
is extremely durable. Vitruvius seems to 
mention stucco in the second, third and 
sixth chapters of tl^e seventh book, under 
the name of opug a26ar»unt, or opus eoro- 
fURTtttn. Immediately after the' stucco is 
mixed, it fbrmsa very soft and ductile paste, 
which, however, soon hardens, and then 
the desired form is given to it with moulds 
or with a little spatula of iron. During 
this operation, it continues to harden, and 
may even be cut; and at this period, 
those parts of the ornaments are executed 
which demand .a nice finish. In a few 
days, it acquires the consistence of dry 
clay, and ultimately becomes hard like 
stone, and takes a beautiful polish. 

Stcdding-Sails ; certain sails extend- 
ed, in moderate and steady breezes, beyond 
the skirts of the principal sails, where 
they appear as wings to the yard-arms. 
The top-mast and top-gallant studding- 
sails are those Which are set on the out- 
aide of the top-sails and top-gallant sails. 

Studies. (See Drawing^ 

Stuff, in commerce, is a general name 
for all kinds of ftbricsof gold, silver, silk« 



wool, hair, cotton, or thread, manufketor- 
ed on the loom ; of which number aro 
velvets, brocades, mohair, taflbties, cloth, 
serges, &c. The term is also used more 
particularly to denote slight woollen arti- 
cles used principally for linings and wo- 
men's appareL 

STUHLWBissEifBime ; or, in Huncarian, 
SzBKEs Fejervae ; in Sclavonic, Bibli- 
oead; a royal firee town of Hungary, 
capital of a county of the same name, 
thirty miles south-west of Buda ; Ion. 
18°^ £.; lat 47» 12" N.; population, 
12,^244. It was built in the eleventh cen- 
tury, and, during ^y^ centuries, was the 
place where the kings of Hungary were 
crowned, and on that account called ASba 
RegtdxB. It is now declined fitim its for- 
mer importance, and has a mean appear- 
ance, though it contains some good build- 
ings. It has a Catholic gymnasium and 
some manuftctures. 

Stum, in the wine trade, is a name for 
the unfermented juice of the grape, when 
it has been several times radked off and 
separated f]x>m the sediment. The cad» 
are, for this purpose, well fumigated with 
brimstone, in order to prevent fermenta- 
tion, through which the juice would be- 
come wine. 

Sturdt, Staooers, Gid, Turnsick, 
GoeoLES, Worm under the Horn, Wa- 
tery Head, and Pendro, are all popular 
names for hydatids, caused by an animal 
now known as the Utmas gtobvlua^ 
which, by some unaccountable way, finds 
entrance into the brain of the sheep^ 
and settles there, either in some of its 
ventricles, or more fi^uently in its sub- 
stance. Their size varies from that of the 
smallest speck to that of a pigeon's egg ; 
and the sheep attacked are generally under 
two years old. These animals are like- 
wise occasionally found in all the natural 
cavities of the body. Stupidity, a dispo- 
sition to sit on the rump, to turn to one 
ode, &C., are the indications of this dis- 
ease, which is not incurable, as has been 
supposed, but can be cured only by a 
manual operation — instruments are thnisi 
through the skin and skull, or a wire 
through the nostrils, and the hydatid thus 
destroyed. The latter is called bv the 
English shepherds wiring. It is always 
fatal, if not relieved by art 

Sturgeon (acipenttr). A genus of 
cartilaginous fishes, allied somewhat to 
the ahaA and ray, but differing essentially 
in structure, as well as in the habits of 
the species. The mouth is situated be- 
neath the snout, is small, retractile, and 
destitute of teeth ; there are 8ev<»«l fleshy 



8TURGEON-STURLA80N. 



as 



heaids also benettfa thesDout, and anterior 
to the mouth ; the body is manWe, elon- 
9Bted» and fumiahed with aeyeral longi- 
tm&ial lowa of bony platea implanted in 
the akin ; the gill openuua are very lazve. 
The BCurgeons inhabit 3ie ocean, Medi- 
temmean. Red, Black, and Caapian aeaa, 
and the Canadian lakea, keeping in inac- 
eeaaifale deptha during the winter aeaaon, 
and in the spring ascending tbe lanrer 
rivers. The common atuigeon of £u- 
rope (wi. sturio) is Ibund in most of the 
large riveiB of that continent, and some- 
times is excessively maitiplied in the 
more northern countries. Its flesh is 
delicate and well flavored, somewhat re- 
sembling veaL and has been esteemed in 
all ages ; but modem nations do not con- 
sider it BO great a luxury aa the ancients^ 
especiallT the Romans. Its fiahery is an 
otgecc of importance, and caviar is aome- 
timea made of the eggs of the female.^ — 
Tbe isinclasB sturgeon, or beluga of the 
Rossiana (.^ huso), is the largest species. 
It ia not so extensively difliised as the 
former, and ia chiefly found in the Black 
and Caspian seaa, ascending the tributary 
streams in immense multitudes. It fre- 
quently attaina the length of twen^ or 
twoity-five feet; and individuals nave 
been taken weighing nearly three thou- 
sand poimds. It enters the rivers in the 
middle of winter, while they are still cov- 
ered with ice, is very voracious, and pur- 
sues all the smaller flahea, but feeds like- 
wise on vegetables. The fishery of this 
species ia vastly important in the aouth of 
RuasiB ; and upwarda of a hundred thou- 
•and are taken yearly. The caviar of 
commerce is chiefly made from its egga, 
which exist in such abundance as to con- 
etiiute nearly one third of the total w^dit. 
This is a very common aliment in Tur- 
key, Ruasia, Glermany, Italy, and espe- 
cisJly in Greece, and mrma an important 
anide of commerce, very profitable to 
Russia. The flesh is white, fat, resem- 
bting veal, very wholesome, nutritious, 
ad agreeably tasted. The isinglass of 
commerce is prepared from the air hladder. 
Tbe &t is also agreeable to the taste, and 
may be used as a substitute for butter or 
oil A kind of leather is made from tlie 
flkin, and that of the voun|^ onea, cleaned 
and dried, is used for wmdow-glass in 
some parts of Russia and Tartaiy. There 
are a few other qiecies of stuigeon in the 
riven of Europe. We have aeveral atur- 
geona in the U. States, but their useful 
properties appear to be not yet fully ap- 
preciated : ic IS probable that, at some fu- 
ture day, they may become important, 



though not to the same extent as the Eo- 
ropeauw — ^The common round-noaed ator* 
aeon of the Delaware and Hudaon is the 
Eirgest, attaining the length of ten feel 
During the hot seaaon, it ia fond of leap- 
ing out of the water, forming a fiuniliar 
and intereating spectacle. It ia verj 
troublesome to the shad fishermen, some- 
times breaking their nets when enek)sed. 
It is sometimes brought to the Philadel- 

Ehia market ; but the majority that are Ca- 
en in the Delaware are left to roC along 
the shores. The short-nosed sturgeon 
{A. bremrastntm of Lesueur) is a email 
species, remarkable for the shormess of 
tne head in proportion to its breadth. It 
grows to the length of about three feet, 
and inhalnts the Delaware, but ia rather 
rare. When taken, it ia brought to the 
Philadelphia market, and commands a 
higher price than the large <Mie ; but it is 
eaten by the common people only. — ^The 
sharp-noaed sturgeon {A, oxjfrhynehus) of 
Mitchell, distinguished by its long and 
somewhat acute snout, grows to the length 
of four feet and upmrds. The skin is 
rough. It is found in the Delaware, but 
not so abundantly as in the Hudson. 
Probably this is the species which inhab- 
its the Merrimack and the rivers of Maine. 
A. rubieundus (I>es.) inhabits lakea Erie, 
Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. It grows 
to the lenffth of four feet or more. The 
color is red, inclining to yellowish on tbe 
back, and to olivaceoua on the aidea. The 
Indians use it for food, and take h by 
means of a harpoon or dart, havma a long 
line attached, in order to enable mem to 
play the animal tUI exhausted. It is not 
sought aftw for the table, but, when taken 
fay ttie fishermen in their seines, is occa- 
sionally salted down, as a substitute for 
more esteemed food. Travellers assert 
diat it is good, palatable food. The same, 
or a variety, is found in the Obia A* 
mactiiostu (Les.) is a small species of a 
reddish olive color, with black spots, found 
in the Ohio. 

Stuslason, Snorro, a native of Ioe>- 
land, of an old noble fiimily, was bom in 
1179. He lived for a longtime at the 
courts of Norway and Sweden, was at 
last lofmann of Iceland, and waa mur- 
dered in 1S41, in his castle. He was a 
man of great talents, and rendered him- 
self fimnous as a poet, lawgiver, zealous 
republican, and historian. He composed 
a general history of the north, from the 
ancient songs of the scalds, and other 
historical sources, with taste, and a faitb-^ 
fill use of his aources. His histoiy is 
rich in information reapecting Sweden 



STURLASON-fiTYLE. 



and Icelmdy somewhat lev so in regaid to 
Norway, and affords some notices respect- 
ing Russia. Its title is Heinukrtngla 
(i. e. Orbit Tararum^ edr. Nbrtga Konvmr 
ga Sotgorseu HidoruB Rtgym^tjOenfria' 
naUum a Snomne Sturlomde cof»cr^«e, 
edited by John PeringskJCBld (Stockholm, 
1697). A new edition, enlarged and cor- 
rected by G. Sch6ning and S. Th. Thor- 
lacius, appeared in 3 vols., folio, at Copen- 
hagen (1777 — 82). The continuation by 
SturlaThoraldson (of Norway), and an un- 
known writer, is to be found in Christian 
Jaljobi's Mnrvegia Monarehiea d Chrii^ 
tiana (Gluckstadt, 1712, 4to.). (See our 
article Scandinaoian LUerattire.) A loiiff 
account of Snorro Sturlason is to be found 
in Wheaton's History of the Northmen, 
page 96 et seq.of the American edition. 

STUTTBaiif e, STAMMsaine, or H£8ita- 
Tioir OF Spbsch, are terms implying an in- 
terrupted articulation, accoropaniea gene- 
rally with more or less of straining and 
distortion of feature. If owing to a 
vicious conformation of the tongue, or 
other organ of speech, it is incurable; 
but when merely spasmodic, the cure is 
possible, and sometunes easy. In some 
cases, stuttering is relievable at once, by 
avoidinff carefmly the usual hurried repe- 
tition of the same syllable, or by openmg 
the mouth, and allowinff simple sound to 
pass, when any one ond position threat- 
ens to become spasmodically permanent. 
Should it arise from the attempt to speak 
being made while drawing in the breath, 
it may be avoided by filling the chest well 
before beginning to speak. A scale of 
articulate sounds, or table of articulations, 
with minute directions as to the proper 
position of the organs in producing the 
different sounds, may, likewise, in some 
instances, prove useful to the patient 

Stuttoaro, or Stuttgart ; capital of 
the kingdom of WQrtemberg, on the 
small river Nesenbach; Ion. ^ 11' E.; 
laL 48° 46^ N. ; thirty-five miles south- 
east of Carlsnihe, one hundred and 
sixteen north-west of M&nich; popula- 
tion in 1827, 22,000 ; with the militaiy 
and strangers, 31,330. It is situated in a 
valley, two miles fit>m the Neckar, and is 
divided into three parts, the town proper, 
two suburbs adiacent to each other, and a 
sepaiate suburo, called Esslingen. The 
town proper is badly built, the streets be- 
ing narrow, and the houses frequently of 
wood : the suburbs have a better appear- 
ance, particularly that of Esslingen, which 
contains the royal palace, gymnasium, 
barracks, and other public buildings. 
The palace is a noble structure, situated 



near an ezteoaivB paik, and 
good collection of paintings, statues, &c» 
The royal libranr contains 200,000 vol- 
umes, including 12,000 copies of tbeBibItt 
of different ediuons. The town has a paUia 
libraiy, an old palace, mint, town house, 
great church, and royal stables. Though 
surrounded by a mil and ditch, Stutt- 
gard is a place of' no strength. The 
manufactures are on a small scale ; the 
expenditures of the court and nobiKcjr 
forming the chief support of the inhabit- 
ants. The siUTOundjn^ country is fertile 
and deUghtfhl, consistmg of eminencee 
covered with vineyards, and valleys laid 
out in corn-fields. The Solitude, near 
Stuttgard, is a beautiful countiy residence 
of the sovereign. 

Sttb {hordSolum); a little tumor o& 
the eyelids, resembling a bariey-com. 
The stye is strictly only a little bile, which 
projects from the edge of the eyelids, 
mostly near the {[real angle of ^e eye. 
This little tumor is of a dark red color, 
much inflamed, and a great deal more 
painful than might be expected, consider- 
mg its small size. The latter circumstanee 
is partly owing to the vehemence of the 
innammatimi producing the sQ^e, and 
partly to the exquisite sensibility and ten- 
sion of the skin, which covers the edge 
of the eyelids. On this account, the 
hordeolum veiy ofien excites fever and 
restlessness in delicate, urritable constitu- 
tions: it suppurates slowly and imper- 
fectly; and, when suppurated, has no 
tendency to burst Tne stye forms an 
exception to the seneral nile, that the 
best mode in which inflammatorv swell- 
ings can end, is resolution ; fer, whenever 
it extends so deeply as to destroy any of 
the ceUular substance, the little tumor 
can never be resolved, or only imperfect- 
ly sOb This event, indeed, woula rather 
be hurtful, since there would still remain 
behind a greater or smaller portion of 
dead cellubur membrane, which, sooner 
or later, might bring on a renewal of the 
stye, in the same place as before, or cte 
become convertea into a hard, indolent 
body, deforming the edge of the evelid. 

Style, from 9TvX9t, originally the in- 
strument with which the ancients wrote 
on hard substances, came afterwards to 
signify the peculiar way of expressing a 
tlK»ugnt or idea in language or fem. 
Thought strives for manifestation. Its 
most effectual instrument is language. 
The object of language is to give an ae- 
curate picture of the thoughts of the 
speaker to the person addressed. Henoa 
it must vary with the character of the 



STYLE. 



as 



ftnemB flpoken to. It ahoiild alwrn^ 
JM wr eTer, be the natural product of a 
BHD^ OFwn mind ; and wheo thou|^ts are 
IUIy matured, they can be eaaiiy exproaa- 
ed or one who has the ricbea of a cuhi- 
vited language at hla command. A style 
of ezpieflBion which betrays the effect of 
imitation ft always diasgreeable ; and the 
more ao the more penect is the imita- 
oon. It is body without spirit, the coy- 
tfing of the pupa without the butterfly 
wiihin. The study of the style of othera 
can be of adTaniage onJ^ as it shows the 
connexion between their thoughts and 
their manner of expressioo. The first 
lequisifee of a good style is clear and in- 
depcaident thought Some have even 
eoosidered it the only thing necessary; 
but this is going too &r. There is a cer- 
tain mechanical skill required, to find the 
best expreaaion of a thought in a language 
which 18 the common means of commu- 
aieatioo among millions of people, all 
djffenng in cbvacter and circumstances ; 
lod it would be mere loss of time ibr 
every one to attempt to ac<juire this by 
hii own experience, for which he may 
Bot have a good opportunity ; but, unless 
it ii acquired, even the most highly gifted 
ioieUeeta can produce but an imperfect 
effect. This circumstance, that we speak 
and write ibr othera ; that our expression, 
as fiur as regards ourselves, is the effect 
of thousht, whilst, aa respects othera, it ia 
intended to become the cause of thought, 
—is, perhaps, the chief reason for studying 
Myle. Still, however, we must repeat, 
thai the moat important means for be- 
coming clear to otliers, is to be clear to 
oonelves. To excel in writing or apeak- 
ing, aeto excel in music, painting, architec- 
ture, mathematics, &c., original talent is 
the first thing necessary ; ^ret study is in- 
dispensable, and without it, hardly any 
p r ogr e ss could be made in the various 
nanches of human activity. The col- 
lected experience of many furnishes 
prinaples for a theoi^ of style as well as 
of every ait ; but this theory will be of 
advantage only to him who has the main 
requisites of clear and just thought. One 
of the beet general nil«B of style is to bo 
as brief as perapicuity allows; thou(^h 
thera are some exceptions, particularly m 
the case of public speaking, in which it 
is often necessary to dwell long on impor- 
tant ideas, in order to afford the hearer 
lime to comprehend them fully. In 
wriiinff, there are veiy few exceptions to 
the rote. Logical correctness of thought, 
Aoo|^ easentia] to a flood style, does not 
' to be paitieulany treated of in dia- 



cuaring the theoiy of B^le. It Alls prop- 
erly under the head of a discpiisition on 
logic Beauty of style consists in har- 
monious expression, an easy flow, and a 
happy connexion of ideas ; in the avoid- 
ance of every thing which can oficnd 
p»od taste and decorum; in the use of 
nnagery fitted to strike and gratify the 
i m a g i n ation, &c The two chief branch- 
es of style are those ofprose and poetry. 
(See these articles.) The ancient rheto- 
ricians speak of a gtnut dicendi tewue^ 
medktmj dncUtmc, or a lower, middle, and 
higher stvle. No work, however, neces- 
sarily fttllia, fiom beginning to end, under 
either of theae heiuls. Style must sink 
or rise with the thoughts and feelinss ex- 
pressed. The various relations of lifo, 
and the various modes and subjects of 
communicatioii, render the division of 
prose into various kinds of style necessa- 
ry. Thus we have the didactic style, the 
style of business, the epistolary, the his- 
torical style, and the various oratorical 
styles. Style began early to be cultivated. 
Among the Greeks, who, however, con- 
fined uiemselves almost entirely to ora- 
torical expression, Aristode, Demetrius 
Phalereus, Dionvsius of Halicamassus, 
Hermogenes, and Longinus; among the 
Romans, Cicero and Quinctilian, ara the 
principal writen on style. 

Sttjle, in the arts. Style, or mode 
of representation, in the arts, depends on 
the character of the artist, the snbjectSi 
the art itself the materials used, the ob- 
ject aimed at, &c. The style varies in 
different periods : thus we have the ante- 
Greek, or old Oriental style, in which the 
powerful and colossal prevails ; the claa* 
sical or antique st^le of the Greeks and 
Romans (see Antique), and the style of 
Christian art (the romantic or modem 
style). It is influenced by differences of 
national character. Thus we have a 
German, Italian, French, and English 
style or school. The effect of the na- 
tional character is particularly apparent in 
certain artS| e. r. painting or music The 
national style also has its periods ; at one 
time aims particularly at the sublime or 
great, at other times strives atler the beau- 
tiful, the pleasing and araceful ; as Winck- 
elmann has olraerved in respect to the 
Greek plastic art. The style varies, too, 
with the character of the individual. 
Here we must distinguish between the 
style which proceeds firom the nature of the 
sobiects to which the genius of the artist 
incunea him, and his mode of represent- 
ing those subjects. The hitter ia called 
i»ne particularly manntr. The maDDer 



STYLE— fiTYX. 



of an artist may be noble or peCQr, stronir 
or weak ; but it la alwa^a uniforni, and 
in a ceriain degree arbitraiy, while the 
style, in its proper aenae, ia not The 
8^]e of great artiais continuea in their 
achnola, and there usually degeneratea 
iiito manner. Hie word Afle ia also ap- 
plied to the different modes of representa- 
tion, occasioned by the different nature of 
the various arte : thus there ia an archi- 
tectural, a plastic, a picturesque style. 
The various branches of an art, too, have 
each iia peculiar stvle ; e. g. in poetry, 
there are the epic, lyric, dnunatic styles ; 
in music, the sacred, opera, concert styles, 
the vocal and instrumental atvlea, the 
quartette, sonata, symphony styles, &c ; 
in painting, there are the historical, land- 
aciupe, &c styles. 

Sms, Old and N£w. (See Calendar^ 
vid Epoch.) 

Styles of AacHiTECTuui. (See Ar- 
tkUechtn, vol. i, page 339.) 

Sttlitrs (from vHikf, column ; in Latin, 
mncU colvaimaresy The most singular 
saints of the Chrisuan church were ancho- 
ritea (q. v.), who, by way of penance, 
pasaed the grenter part of their Uvea on the 
top of hi/ieh columns. Simeon, a Svrian 
monk, of the. fifth centuiy, invented this 
insane method of aelf-lorture, about 423. 
He lived, for nine years, on a column, the 
top of which was only two ells in circum- 
ference, in the open air, near Antioch, 
aftervmis changed it lor a higher one, 
and at length for one forty cubits, and on- 

S' three feet in diameter at top ; when he 
ept, he leaned agninst a aort of balus- 
thide. On this pillu* he remained twenty- 
eight years, till his death, in 459 or 4m). 
The whole time which be passed on the 
top of pillars, was about tjiirty-aeven years. 
It appears, however, that he must have 
descended at times, since he cured the 
sick by his touch, and performed aundir 
other miracles ; wrote epistles, and took 
part in political quarrels. The example 
of diis strange being, who was canonized 
after his death, was imitated by many 
I persons in Syria and Palestine ; and the 
mania continued until the 12th century. 
The Dictionnaire de Thiologiej a modem 
Catholic work, chiefly in defence of the 
Roman church, has a long article Sh/UiCy 
vindicating St Simeon, as an instru- 
ment in the hands of the Creator, for the 
conversion of the heathen. " Shall we 
refuae to God,** savs the writer, ^ the lib- 
erty of attaching me grace of conversion 
to Buchmeana as he may choose ?" The 
article abo relatea the miraclea of St 



Sttmphalideb, inmytbologv; certain 
birds of prey, which derived their aanxe 
from the town or the lake of Stympfaalua^ 
in Arcadia, near which they lived; or 
from an ancient hero Stymphalua, whoaa 
daughters they were conaidered to be. 
They were hufge birda, with iron wings, 
beaka and claws, of the size of cranes, in 
form similar to the ibia, but having 
straight beaks. They could ahoot their 
feathers like arrows, and thus kill men 
and beasts. (See Argonauit.) Eurys- 
theus imposed on Hercules the task of 
driving them from the place of their 
abode, in which he succeeded. 

Sttmpbalub. (See Stymj^udides. 

Sttptic ; a remedy that nas the virtue 
of atopping blood, or of closinff the aper- 
ture of a wounded vessel. Buny waters 
and powders are of this nature; but in moat 
of them vitriol is the chief ingredient 

Sttria. (SeeSemo.) 

Sttx ; a nymph, according to Heaiod, 
the daughter of Oceanus and Thetis, ac- 
cording to others, of Erebus and Night 
By PaUas, ahe became the mother of Ze- 
loa and Cratos, Nike and Bia (Zeal, Pow- 
er, Victory and Strength) ; according to 
Pauaanias, she bore theilydra to a certain 
Piras ; and according to AooUodorus, Pros- 
erpine to Jupiter. Her cnildren, by Pal- 
las (according to Hesiod), enjoyed the 
honor of living with Jupiter, and of being 
inseparably coimected with him, because 
they and their mother aasisted him in the 
war with the Titana. In honor of Styx 
herself^ it was provided, that the gods 
should swear by her. Accordinr to anoth- 
er nassage of Hesiod, Styx lived with her 
children in the region of Tartarus, in a 
palace of rocks, separated from she dwell- 
ings of the other aeities residing there, or 
in a grotto resting on columns. From 
this rock issued a cold stream, which 
flowed far under the earth unseen. It 
was the tenth arm of Ocean. Nine of 
them flowed around the earth, and the 
sea, and then emptied into the tenth, 
which (the Styx) descended to the lower 
regions, where it formed the celebrated 
Stygian pool. By this the gods swore ; 
and if any god violated his oath, he was 
banished from Olympus, stretched out 
lifeless, and became overgrown 'with 
mould. In this state he remained a year ; 
after which, he suflered other torments 
for nine years, and, during thisperiod, was 
excludea from the society or the gods. 
Styx was originally a rivulet in Arcadia, 
springing from a high rock, near the town 
of Nonacria. Its water was considered 
poisonous to men and 



STYX— 8UBHASTATIO. 



37 



w«re corroded, and Teasels burst to pieces 
by it. . 

SuABTA, or SwABiA (hi Gevmaxi, Sckwch 
ben); one of the ten circles into which the 
German empire was divided, previous to 
iu disBolution in 1806. It lay in the south* 
western part of Crermany , comprising some 
of the roost fertile and beautiful parts of 
the country, traversed from south- west to 
north-east by the Danube. The Black 
Forest (q. v.), or Schwarzwald, intersects 
the western part of the country, and the 
Suabian Alps (see Alps, Suabian) stretch 
through the interior. The circle of Sua- 
bta, comprising 13,150 square miles, with 
2^00,000 inhabitants, was surrounded by 
France, Switzerland, the Austrian terri- 
tories, Bavaria, Franconia, and the cir- 
cles of the Rhine. The soil is fertile, the 
&ce of the country mountauious. The 
circle comprised the sovereign bishoprics 
of Augsburg and Constance, the princely 
provo^ship of Elwangen, and the prince- 
ly abbey of Kempten ; the abbeys of Sal- 
liiansweiler, Weingarten, Ochsenhausen, 
Elcfaingen, Irsee, Ursperg, Kaisersheim, 
Roffgenburg, Roth, Weisseuau, Schuss^- 
ried, Marehthal, Peterehausen, Welten- 
haosen, Zweifalten and Gengenbach, Ne- 
resbeim, Heggbach,Guttenzell, RothmCin- 
Rter, Baindt, 86flingen, Isni, Lindau and 
Bucfaau ; the duchy of Wiirtemberg ; the 
maigraviate of Baden ; the principalities 
of Hohenzollem and Lichtenstein ; the 
bndgraviatesof Klettgau, Sttihlingen and 
Baar; the Teutonic commandery of 
AJtfchhausen; the counties {grqfschafi) 
of Thengen, Heiligenberg, CEttingen, 
Friedberg-Scheer, Konigsegg, Eberstein, 
Hohenems, Bondorf, Hohengeroldseck ; 
the lands of the counts Fugger ; the coun- 
ty and lordships of Truchsess of Wald- 
burg; the lordships of Trochteliingen, 
Jnngnau, Wiesensteig, Hansen, M6skirch, 
Tetnang, with Argen, Mindelheim,Sch wa- 
beck, Gundelfingen, Justingen, Eglof, 
Tannhaosen and Burg, with Neusicking- 
en, and the thirty-one imperial free cit- 
ies of Augsburg, Ulm, Esslingen, Reut- 
lingen, N6rdlingen, Hall, Ueberlingen, 
Rotw^ Heilbronu, GemCind, Memmin- 
gen, Lmdau, Dfinkelsbtihl, Biberach, Ra- 
vensburg, Kempten, Kauf beuem, Weil, 
Wangen, Isny, Leutkirch, Wimpfen, 
Gieoffen, Ffullendorf, Buchhom, Aalen, 
Bof^gen, Buchau, Offenburg, Gengen- 
bach, ZeU on the Hammersbach. Of 
these numerous sovereignties, the posse^- 
abns of the Wiirtemberg, Baden and 
F&RBtenbeig houses were the most exten- 
sive. Wiirtemberg, Baden, the two Ho- 
heifiEoQem lines^ and Lichtenstein, are the 

VOL. XII. 4 



only ones that have not been mediatized. 
(Se^ MediatixaJAtm.) *The diets of the cir- 
cle were commonl^ held at Ulm, and in 
time of peace twice a year. Austrian 
Suabia was composed of the herediuuy 
states of the house of Hapsburg, compris- 
ing Burpaii, Nellenburg, the prefectoratc 
of^ Suabia, Hohenberg, the Brisgau, Or- 
tenau, and some towns and convents, con- 
taining in all a population of atmut 
170,000 ; but these have been renounced 
or exchanged. The kingdom of Wfirtem- 
berg and the grand duchy of Baden com- 

Crise at present the greater part of Sua- 
ia. The kingdom of Bavana includes a 
part on the east side ; and other portions 
are subject to the princes of Hohenzollem 
and Lichtenstein. f See Pfirter's History 
ofSualna, and Leicntlen's Suabia under 
ike Romans (both in German). (Sc« also 
our articles Genmmy, and Hohenstaufen,) 
Suabian Alps. (See Alps, S^tibian.) 
Suabian Poets. (See MinncMngers.) 
SuADA, or SuAOELA ; with the Creeks, 
Peilho, the goddess of perpuasion, a\ hos»e 
worship Theseus is said to have cstab 
lished at Athens, in memory of tlie union 
of the scattered population of Attica into 
one state. A statue of tiiis godclcf^s, made 
by Praxiteles, stood in Athens, in the 
temple of Aphrodite {Venusj. She was 
represented as belonging, witli the Graces, 
to the company of Venus. Some make 
Suada herself one of the Graces. 

Sua an, Jean Baptiste Anthony, a French 
miscellaneous writer, born at Beaancon, 
in 1733, was the editor of the Journal de 
Paris. During the revolution, he con- 
ducted a publication entitled JVouveUes 
PoliHqueSj which, professing to oppose 
democracy, was suppressed, and he* was 
forced to quit France. When Bonaparte 
was first consul, he returned, and became 
member of the legion of honor, and of the 
national institute, and perpetual secretary 
of the class of French literature. He then 
established a journal called the Publiciste^ 
which was soon given up for the Archives 
lAtUraires, and the Opuscvhs Pkiloso" 
pJnques, Suard was familiar with Eng- 
lish literature, and translated Robertsoirs 
Charles Y, and History of America, with 
severed other English works. Many of 
the notices ofEn^lishmen in the Biogrc^}hie 
Umverselle are from his pen. See Garat's 
Mhmres hxstoriques sur Suard (1820). 
He died at Paris in 1817. 

SuBHASTATio, iu the civil law, is the 
public sale of immovable property, to the 
nighest bidder, as auction, in that law, is 
the sale ofmobtHoj or personal property. 
The jus primi liciH in some conntriefl, sA- 



SUBHASTATIO--SUBSTANCE. 



lows the first bidder at an aucuon sale to 
take the article at the higheet price bid ; 
but he must declare his intention before 
the hammer falls. The name aubhastatio 
originated from the Roman usage of 
planting a spear (hasla) on the spot where 
a puMic sale was to take place. 

Subject, in philosophy. (See Olject) 
In ethics, svJbject often designates a free 
agent, in contradistinction to things inan- 
imate. In music, the theme of a fugue is 
called svhjtct. In politics, all the people 
who owe allegiance to a monarch, have 
been heretofore called the monarch's suh' 
jectSj even when his authority rested on a 
contract with the people, and his power 
was limited. But the French seem un- 
willing to allow this name to be applied to 
them since the revolution of 1830. The 
use of the word in this application, by the 
minister Montalivet, in tlie session of Jan- 
uary 4, 1832, caused much excitement in 
the chamber of deputies, and minis- 
ters have since avoided it. Those per- 
sons who are under the sway of a repub- 
lic, without participating in all the rights 
of those in whom the sovereignty rests, 
are also called subjecta. Thus Hamburg 
calls the inhabitants of Ritzebiittel su^ 
jects. 

Subjective, and Subjectivity. (See 
Olneci.) 

Sublimate, Corrosive. (SecAfercury, 
vol. viii, p. 421.) 

Sublimation; a process by which 
volatile substances are raised by heat, and 
again condensed in a solid form. This 
chemical process differs from evap- 
oration only in being confined to solid 
substances. It is usually performed eitlier 
for the purpose of piirifymg certain sub- 
stances, and disengaging them from ex- 
traneous matters, or else to reduce them 
into vapor, and combine them under that 
form. As all fluids are volatilized by heat, 
and consequently capable of being sepa- 
rated, in most cases, from fixed matters, 
so various solid bodies are subjected to a 
similar treatment. Fluids are said to dis- 
til, and solids to sublime, though some- 
times both are obtained in one and the 
same operation. If the subliming matter 
concretes into a solid, hard mass, it is com- 
monly caUed a sMimate ; if into a pow- 
dery form, JUncers. The principal sub- 
jects of this operation are, volatile alka- 
line salts; neutral salts, composed of vol- 
atile alkali and acids, as sal ammoniac ; 
the salt of amber, and flowers of benzoin, 
mercurial preparations, and sulphur. 
Bodies of themselves not volatile, are fire- 
quently made to sublime by the mixture 



of volatile ones; thus iron is carried over 
by sal ammoniac, in the preparation of the 
jlores mtaiiales, or farrum amnundaUaiu 
The fumes of solid bodies in close vessels 
rise but a little way, and adhere to that 
part of the vessel where they concrete. 

Sublime Porte. (See Turkey.) 

Subornation of Perjurt. (See 
Perjury.) 

Subsidies. With the Romans, the 
third line of troops (corps de reserve), 
which, in case of necessity, assisted the 
two first, was called subsidium. Hence 
subsidiary is used in the sense of avxiUa'- 
ry. The substantive subsidy is used ty 
(lenote the pecuniary assistance afforded, 
according to treaty, by one government to 
another, sometimes to secure its neutral- 
ity, but more frequently in consideration 
of its furnishing a certain number of 
troops. Stibsidies, or supplies, in Eng- 
land, also denotes the money granted by 
parliament to the government. 

Substance (substantia), in a philosoph- 
ical sense, is contradistinguished to acct- 
derU, and signifies that which exi^ inde 
pcndeiitly and unchangeably ; whilst accv- 
dent denotes the changeable phenomena 
in substance, whether these phenomena 
are necessary or casual, in which latter 
case they are called accidents, in a nar- 
rower sense. The relation of accident to 
substance is called the relation of inhe- 
rence, and corresponds to the logical re- 
lation of subject and predicate ; because 
the substance is the subject, to which are 
assigned the qualities, states and relations 
as predicates : substance itself is the es- 
sence, which is capable of these phenom- 
ena, and, in spite of these .changes, re- 
mains the same. Some schoolmen cave 
the name of substance to that in which 
exists our ideal of perfection ; others to a 
thing which exists through itself and for 
itself. Leibnitz cjills substance that which 
contains in itself the cause of its changes. 
In natural science and in common life, 
substance is used to designate material 
beings, especially simple, inorganic bodies, 
and the fundamental constituents of or- 
ganic bodies; e. g. a liquid substance. 
But every substance which falls within 
the scope of our observation, if we under- 
stand by substance that which is un- 
changeable in its phenomena, is only a 
relative one ; i. e. is such only in respect 
to some others, and is not uncondition- 
ally independent, but must be conceived 
dependent upon one original cause of 
things. In contradistinction to the re2a- 
tioe substance, therefore, we speak of ab- 
solute substance, as the one original 



SUBSTANCE-SUCKLma 



39 



> of an thiDgB ; and the relation of 
die latter to the fbmier has been variously 
coDadered. Spinoza has treated particu- 
larly of the one absolute substance, and 
given to it infinite thought and iodfinite 
eztennon as inseparable attributes. 

SuBSTAiiTiTE. (See ATottn,) 

Substitution, in the civil law, is the 
appointment of an heir to succeed in case 
of the fiiilure of one previously appoint- 
ed. If the second person is to succeed 
in Cine of the death of the first, or of his 
not accepting the inheritance, the substi- 
tution is called direct, if the first heir is 
bound to convey the inheritance to the 
nJmiitide or second heir. This is a JUtei- 
ammnstarystibsHtuiion, {See Fidei Cam" 
wissa,) The former kind comprises the 
vtdgar tubstUulion, which is merely the 
appointment of a second heir in case the 
first should not inherit, and the pupiUmy 
nAttihdionj which is the appointment of 
an heir, by a father or grandfather, in the 
name of a minor child, over whom he 
has paternal power, in case the latter 
sboold die a minor. The mother cannot 
make a pupillary substitution. The lat- 
ter ceasea, 1. by the death of the minor 
in question before the death of the testa- 
tor; 2. by his arriving at full age ; 3. by 
the paternal appointment failing to take 
efiect; 4. by the withdrawing of the minor 
from the paternal power. The quasi 
pupillary substitution {subsUtuHo exemplar 
lis) is the ap^intment of an heir by pa- 
rents for an idiot child, in case the child 
should die in a state of idiocy. If the child 
has lucid intervals, the parents are not al- 
lowed to make such substitution ; other- 
wise, even the mother may do it. 

SuBTANGBNT OF A CuRVE, in the higher 
geometry, is the line which determines 
the intersection of the tangent with the 
axis, or that determines the point where 
the tangent cuts the axis prolonged. 

SuBTENSK, in geometiy ; the same with 
the chard of an arch. 

Succession Powder. (See Poudrt 
it Succession.) 

Succinic Acid ; an acid derived firom 
the distillation of amber. By adding one 
twelfth part of sulphuric acid, diluted with 
an equal weight of water, the yield of acid is 
much increased. The acid, being dissolved 
in hot water, and filtered, is to be saturat- 
ed with potash or soda, and boiled with 
cbaieoal. The solution being filtered, 
nitrate of lead is added ; whence results 
an insoluble succinate of lead; fiom 
which, l^ digestKMi in the equivalent 
quantity of suqihuric acid, pure succinic 
acid is separated. It is in white trans- 



parent ciystab, which possess a sharp 
taste, and powerfiilly redden tincture of 
turnsole. It is soluble in both alcohol 
and water. It forms salts with the alka- 
lies and oxides. The succinates of pot- 
ash and ammonia are crystallizable and 
deliquescent That of soda does not attract 
moisture. The succinate of ammonia is 
useful in analysis to sefiante oxide of 
iron. 

SuccoRT. (See Endwt,) 

Sue BET, Louis Gabriel, duke of Albu- 
fera, marshal of France, bom at Lyons 
in 1770, entered the military service at an 
early age (1790), and passed mpidly 
through the inferior ranks. In 1796, he 
was attached .to the army of Italy, and 
attracted the notice of general Bonaparte, 
by his courage, boldness and caution. 
He then served with distinction under 
Mass^na and Joubert, and was one of the 
most active and successful of Napoleon's 

fenerals in the campaigns of 1805 and 
806. In. 1808, he received the command 
of a division in Spain, and was almost 
constantly victorious till after the battle 
of Vittoria. His brilliant services in that 
country obtained him the nuuishal's stafi^ 
and the title of duke. After the restora- 
'tion, Suchet was created peer of France. 
Having accepted, under ^f afwleon, a com- 
mand during the hundred days, he was 
deprived of his seat on the second resto- 
ration, but readmitted in 1819. He died 
in 1826. 

Sucking Fish. (See Eckenns.) 
Suckling, sir John, a wit, courtier, 
and dramatist, son of a knight of the 
same name, was bom in 1613, at Wit- 
ham, in Middlesex. He is said to have 
spoken Latin fijuently at five years old, 
and written it with ease and elegance 
at nine. After lingering some time about 
the court, he was despatched upon his 
travels, and served a campaign under 
the celebrated Gustavus Adolphus, in the 
course of which he was present at three 
batdes and several sieges. At the time 
of the Scotch war, sir John raised a troop 
of horse for the king's service, who he- 
haved so badly in the field as to disgrace 
both themselves and their commander. 
An abortive attempt to effect the escape 
of the earl of Strafford, confined in 
the Tower under articles' of impeach- 
ment from the commons, implicated sir 
John so seriously, that he thought it ad- 
visable to retire to France, where he died 
in 1641. His writings consist of letters 
written with ease and spirit ; ^ome mis- 
cellaneous poems ; Aglaiura, a play ; 
Brennoralt, a tragedy; the Sad Oiie, a 



40 



8UCKLINO--8UCRE. 



tragedy Icfl incomplete ; and the Goblim, 
a tragi-comedy. 

Sucre, Antonio Jose de, was bom in 
1793, at Cumana, in Venezuela, He was 
educated at Caracas, and entered the ar- 
my in 1811, where he served with credit 
under the orders of the celebrated Miran- 
da. Aflerwards he became fiivorably 
known for activity, intelligence and cour- 
age, under Piar, the mulatto ffeneraL 
From 1814 to 1817, Sucre served in the 
staff cf the army, and displayed the zeal 
and talent which characterized him. In 
1819, he hod attained the rank of briga- 
dier-general, and was one of the com- 
missioners appointed, after the Itattle of 
Bojaca, to negotiate a suspension of hos- 
tilities with Morillo. Subsequently to 
this, he received the command of a divis- 
ion sent from Bogota to assist the province 
of Guayac|uil. He met with a severe check 
at Huachi, but succeeded, late in the year 
1821, in concluding an armistice with 
Aymerich, the royalist general, which 
was, in its effects, equivalent to a victory. 
It enabled the Peruvian division, under 
Santa Cruz, to form a junction with the 
Colombians. Hostilities recommenced in 
February, 1822, and the united armies 
were so fortunate as to achieve the deci- 
sive victory of Pichincha, May 24, 1822, 
which was immediately followed by the 
capitulation of Quito. This brilliant suc- 
cess fixed the public attention upon Su- 
cre, and raised expectations of his future 
eminence, which the event fully justified. 
Meanwhile Bolivar had proceeded to the 
south, at the head of a large army destined 
to act against the Spanish forces in that 
quarter; and, in July, 1822, had an inter- 
view with the protector, San Martin, at 
Guayaquil. Early in 1823, Sucre was 
despatched to Lima as Colombian envoy, 
accompanied by an auxiliary Colombian 
army of 3000 men. Lima, having been 
left unprotected, at this time, by the de- 
parture of Santa Cruz to reduce the 
southern provmces, was retaken by Can- 
terac, and abandoned by the president, 
Riva-Aguero, and the Peruvian congreas, 
June 18, 1823. Hereupon Sucre was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the forc^ 
and, a few days afterwards, supreme milita- 
ry chie^with powers almost unlimited. He 
retired to Callao, wbi(ih was invested by 
the royalists, until the successes of Santa 
Cruz in the south obliged Canterac to 
evacuate Lima, July 17, 1823. Sucre 
then determined to place himself at the 
head of an expedition sent apinst Are- 
quipa, and to cooperate with Santa Cmz. 
But the total destruction of the patriot 



armr, luder the latter, in Upper Pent, 
made it necessaiv for Sucre to reemburk, 
and return to Callao. In September, gen- 
eral Bolivar noade hie public entry into 
Lima, having obtained permission from 
the Colombian government to proeecute 
the war in Peru, and was inunediately 
invested with supreme authority in mUi- 
tary and political afifairs. Of course, 
general Sucre now became only second ia 
command of the Uberatinff army, consist- 
ing of 10,000 men, assembled at Huans, 
preparatory to commencing* offensive op- 
erations. But after the battle of Jiinin^ 
gained by the patriot::), August 5, 1824, 
Bolivar quitted the army, and went to 
Lima, to attend to affairs on the coasts 
leaving tiie prosecution of tlie war witb 
Sucre. In the arduous and masterly 
movements which followed, Sucre dis- 
played the skill of a consummate general. 
The scene of operations was the niouo- 
tainous region of Peru. It was neces- 
sary that he should march and counter- 
march, for the space of two month.s, over 
this difficult ground, in the lace of a 
much superior army, commanded by the 
ablest royalist genemls in America, whose 
aim it was to cut off his resoiurces, and 
reduce him without the hazard of a bat- 
tle. But the impatience of the troops oa 
each side brought on a general eu|^*%ffe« 
mentin the field of Ayacucho, Dec. 9, iSti^ 
the most brilliiuit ever fought in South 
America. Both armies consisted of veteraD 
troops, well appointed and disciplined, 
who fought with undaunted courage. 
The battle resulted in the, capture of m& 
viceroy La Sema, and the loss of 2000 
of the royalists in killed and wounded ; 
and on the same day general Canterac, 
with the rest of tlie army, xomprising fit- 
teen general ofBcera and nearly 4000 men 
in all, surrendered themselves prisoners of 
war, by capitulation, Sucre promptly fol- 
lowed up this glorious victory, and bis 
troops entered Cuzco on the 12th of De- 
ceml)er in triumph. As Olaueta, with a 
small body of royalists in Upper Peru, re- 
fused to couipW with tlie terms of the 
capitulation of'^ Ayacucho, Sucre was 
obliged to march upon Puno, which he 
entered in February, and thence proceed- 
ed to Chuquisaca. The death of Olaue- 
ta, who was killed in April, in an ai^ 
fray with his own troops, accomplished 
the delivery of Upper Peru. Until a reg- 
ular government could be established, 
Sucre, of course, remained in the exer- 
cise of authority as supreme chief; but 
he 8innmoncd a conp'css to HSM?nible, as 
sp^'cdily as might be, at Chuqui!«c«, to 



SUCRE— SUEVL 



41 



decide whether Upper Peru ^ouM be 
annexed to Lower Peiii, or to Buenoe 
Ayrea, or form a republic by itself. The 
constituent congreas decreed, August 11, 
182S, to form a new republic, by the name 
of BoHmOj and to call the capital by the 
name of Sucre, in whom the goyemment 
was Tested for the time being, with the 
title of ** captain-general and grand-mar- 
shal of Ayacucho.** The congress, hav- 
ing solicited Botivar to prepare a funda- 
mental code for Bolivia, dissolved itself^ 
Oct. 6, 1825. The new coneress assem- 
bled to receive it. May 2S, 1836. Sucre 
then resigned the discretionaiy power, 
which he had exercised fahherto; but, 
oontrery to his expressed wish, and con- 
trary, probably, to his real desire, be was 
elecied president of Bolivia, under the 
sew constitutloiL How far apprehensions 
of the auxiliar^r Colombian army, still re- 
maining in Upper Peru, influenced this 
decision of the electors, we do not know; 
but Sucre's reluctance to at^sume the 
presidency seems to have been sincere, 
because it was constantly persisted in by 
bim, and ended in his resi^ningtbe office, 
and returning to Colombia. The influ- 
ence of the revolution at Lima, in Janua- 
ry, 1827, when the Colombian troops there 
overturned the government of Bolivar, 
and the people trampled under foot the 
Bolivian code, was of course felt in Bo- 
livia. But Sucre endeavored to guard 
against the example being followed in 
^ivia, and at the same time gave the 
sonongest aasurances to the new govern- 
ment of Peru, of his determination to 
maintain a strict neutrality. This did not 
prevent uneasiness and disturbances from 
growing up, which eventuated in a seri- 
ous insurrecdon, and an attack upon Su- 
cre, in which he was daneeroualy wound- 
ed, and lost an arm. if his resolution 
had not already been taken, these events 
would have served to hasten his de- 
parture, with that of the auxiliary Colom- 
bian army, which took place in August, 
1838, in consequence of some hostile 
movementB of the anti-Colombian party, 
aided by general Gamarra, from Peru. 
Notwitbistanding this reverse in Bolivia, 
foftane soon th^w a new field of distinc- 
tion in the way of Sucre, in the war 
which now broke out between Peru and 
Coknnbia. He was made commander of 
the Colomlnan armv of the south, and 
p(^cal chief of the southem depert- 
ments of the Colombian republic, and 
led the troone in the series of military 
opeiBtioDS wnich terminated in the battle 
orTBrquiy and the hwuiliating defeat and 



capimlation of the Peruvians under gen- 
eral La Mar, Feb. 26, 1829. Sucre be- 
came a member of the constituent con-> 
gredB of 1830, and, on his return to Quito 
fit>m that body, was aaaassinated in the 
neighborhood of Pasto, in June, IS^ 
whether by private enemies among the 
Pastusos, or by the instigation of some of 
his political rivals, is not ascertained. It 
probably was the act of some of the Pas- 
tusos, who remembered the severities 
which the Colombian armyinflicted on 
them in the campaign of 1822, under ihe 
orders of Sucre. 

SUDERMAIfNLAND. (ScC Swcdm.) 

St7EABORo, or SwEABORo; the northern 
Gibraltar ; a fortress of Russian Finland, 
on die gulf of Finland ; three miles south 
of Helsingfors ; population, exclusive of 
the garrison, 3500. The harbor is capa- 
ble of containing seventy m^n-of-war, 
easily defended by batteries that sweep 
the channel forming the only entrance 
for large ships. It is formed by several 
small islands, of which the principal, 
called Margoe, contains the arsenals, 
docks, basins, and magazines for fining 
out or repairing men-o^war. 

SuETOMus. CaiuB Suetonius Tran- 
quil lus, a Roman writer, bom of a ple- 
beian family, flourished about 100 A. D. 
Little is known of the circumstances of 
his life. He distinguished himself as an 
advocate, obtained the tribuneship through 
the influence of Pliny the younger, and 
was appointed secretary {magister episto- 
larum) to the emperor Adrian. From an 
expression of Spartian in his Life of 
Adrian, we learn that Suetonius lost this 
place, on account of his intimacy with 
the empress Sabina; but the particulars 
of the affair are unknown to us. Of the 
works of Suetonius, only the Lives of the 
Twelve Caesars, and Nonces, of celebrated 
Grammarians, Rhetoricians and Poets, are 
yet extant. The former work gives an in- 
terestiu^ account of the private life and 
personca character of the twelve first Ro- 
man em|>erors, from Julius Caesar to Doroi- 
tian, and is of great value to us from the 
light which it throws on domestic manners 
and customs. The best editions of Sueto- 
nius are those of Pitiscus (1714), Burmann 
(1736), Oudendoryi (1751), Wolf (18021 
and Baumgarten-Crusius (1816 seq.). 
There Is an English transladon by 
Thompson. 

Sueur, Lb. (See Lesueur.) 

SuEvi ; the geneml name of a number of 
united tribes, who, before the Christian era, 
Inhabited the greater part of Germany. 
The Hennunduii, Semnones, Lombardui, 



42 



SUEVI-SUFI8M. 



AnglMy Vandals, fiurgundians, Rugii and 
Herulif were the most important, at leaat 
tbo most known. In Caesar's time, they 
ailvauced to the Neckar and the Rhine. 
Tacitus 8ays that their name was derived 
fixjm the cue in which they tied their 
hair. In the great migration of the 
northern nations, the Suevi joined the 
Aiana, entered Gaiil, and, in 409, Spain. 
After the Vandals had gone to Africa, the 
Suevi spread as far as Portugal. The 
Visigoths overcame them entirely in 586, 
and their empire and name disappeared 
from Spanish history. Those of them 
who remained in Germany were the an- 
cestors of the present Suabians. 

SpEZ, a city of Egypt, on the borders 
of Arabia (Ion. 32^ 28^ E. ; lat. 29° 59' N.), 
is remarkable for its situation at the nortn 
end of the Red sea, and on the south bor- 
der of the isthmus to which it gives name. 
It was fprmerly a flourishing mait, heinff 
at once the emporium of the trade with 
India, and the rendezvous of the number- 
less pilgrims, who, from various parts of 
the Turkish empire, resoited to Mecca. 
The assemblage of these, though the sta- 
tionary population was never Irrge, pro- 
duced an immense crowd. When Nie- 
buhr was there, Suez appeared to him as 
populous as Cairo. Since that time, it has 
greatly declined, in consequence both of 
the diminution of the general trade of the 
Red sea, and of the concourse to Mecca. 
It also sustained great injury from the 
/rench. The population is now only 
about 500. Suez, though a maritime place, 
is so situated that vessels cannot approach 
nearer than two and a half miles. The 
surrounding country is a mere bed of 
rock, slighuy covered with sand. It is, 
however, the channel of much of the trade 
of Cairo to Arabia and India, and of the 
whole of that to Svria and Palestine. It 
is without walls ; has 500 stone houses, 
of which more than one half were de- 
stroyed by the French, and still continue in 
ruins. The canal which formerly con- 
nected the gulf of Suez with the Nile, is 
now choked up. 

ScPFETEs. (See Carihage^ voL ii., p. 
544.) 

Suffocation. The three ordinary 
modes of suffocation, or death by the in- 
terruption of the breath, are, hanging, 
drowning, and the respiration of fixed air, 
or carbonic acid gas. The same result 
takes place from either of these causes, 
which is described under the article 
Dnwmng^ and the same process is requir- 
ed ibr the restoratioa of animation. In 
the iDBtanoe of 8uffi>catbn by carbonic 



acid air, whether arising from mines, lime- 
kilns, or vats of fermenting liquor, the 
vital powers become more speedily ex- 
tinct. 

Suffragans. (See Bishops, vol. ii, 
p. 115.) 

SuFFRAGiute (Latin for vote; henco 
tlie English sitjfrage), with the Romans, 
signiiied particularly the vote which eve 
ry Roman citizen had a right to cive in 
the comiiia, in regard to the introatiction 
or abolition of laws, the appointment to 
offices, or any similar business. The citi- 
zens asse:nbled, on such occasions, in the 
Campus MariiuSy every one in his centu- 
ry, which proceeded in its turn to the 
oinie, the place assigned for voting. At the 
entrance there were small bridges, upon 
which certain persons (diribiiorts) gave 
them small ballots ; if a new law was to be 
introduced, two ballots, one with the lettem 
U. R. (Uti rogaSy Let it be as proposed), 
the other with the letter A. [Jiniii^, 1 
leave it as it is) ; or, if an officer was tu 
be chosen, as many ballots were given as 
there were candidates. The majority then 
decided. 

Sufisu ; the pantheistic mysticism 
of the East, which strives for the highest 
illumination of the mind, the most per- 
fect calmness of the soul, and the union 
of it with God, by an ascetic life, and the 
subjugation of the appetites. This pan- 
theism, clothed in a mystico-religious 
garb, has been professed, since the ninth 
and tenth centuries, by a sect which at 
present is gaining adherents oontinually, 
among the more cultivated Mohanune> 
dans, particularly in Persia and India, and 
about t^velve years ago, comprehended 
80,000 disciples in Persia, who had re- 
nounced Mohammedanism. One of the 
most zealous Sufis is the Arabian Azzed- 
din, bom at Jerusalem, in the twelfth cen- 
tury, whose work Binis and Flowers, a 
moral allegory, has been translated by 
Garcia de Tassy (Paris, 1821). All reli- 
gious persons w^ho live together in a mo- 
nastic way, devoted to an ascetic life, are 
called in the East iS^. Some have de- 
rived this word from the circumstance 
that they dress in wool only ; but Joseph 
von Hammer (q. v.) has disproved this 
derivation, in the Vienna Journal of Art, 
Literature, Uie Theatre, &c. (1828, No. 59), 
and maintains that the name Sqfi is relat- 
ed to the Greek co^i, wise, and m^, 
clear, on account of the mirror which 
the Sofi carried as a symbol, as well aa 
to the Arabian s<fi (pure). The Ara- 
bians had, from tlie earliest times, ao in- 
dinution to a life of religious comten^ila^ 



SUFISM-SUGAR. 



43 



uon aod monastic sotitude. Hence as 
eariy a9 under the first caliphs, religious 
frateroities were formed, which renounc- 
ed every thing earthly. As the four or- 
thodox Mohainniedan sects established 
seTeral systems of scholastic philoso- 
phy, and a number of monkish orders 
erew up, in the second century of the 
Hegira, devout persons, perplexed by 
\h\» labyrinth of discordant thec^ogicai 
opinions, found consolation in pious mys- 
tjcisin. This was the origin of the Sufis, 
whose idea of a mystical union of man 
\riih God (which, however, is not found- 
ed in the doctrines of Mohammedanism, 
but, according to Langl^a, Reiske, Ham- 
mer, and Malcolni, is of Indian, origin) 
gave rise to fanaticism, similar to that oi 
3ie Christian mystics. The Sufis teach 
their doctrine under the images^ of love, 
wine, intoxication, fire, &c.; and the songs 
of Hafiz (q. v.), one of the most distin- 
guished Sufis, which seem to be Anacre- 
ontic strains in praise of love and wine, 
should rather be con^dered as setting 
forth the mystic doctrines of his sect 
Even the dances of the Mohammedan 
monks have a mystic meaning. By the 
Devil, the Sufis generally understand the 
sensual appetite; they acknowledge no 
other devil than the darkness of the soul, 
unenlightened by truth. In the first volume 
of the Transactions of the learned society 
at Bombay f London, 1819) is an important 
treatise on tne mystic doctrine of the Sufis, 
by Graham. The doctrines of the Orien- 
tal mystics have also been illustrated by 
Silvestre de Sacy, in the Pendnameh, by 
Ermine, in several treatises in the Bombay 
Transactions, by Hammer, in his His- 
tory of Persian Belles-lettres (under the 
beads of DsdielaUddiin, Aumiy and Dacha- 
«£), and particularly by Tholuck, in his 
Snifismus Persarum, &c. (Berlin, 18^1), 
fiom Oriental manuscripts. The most im- 
portant information on this subject is con- 
tained in the Drops of the Well of Life, a 
Peinan work, translated into Turkish, and 
published, in 1820 (Hesini 1236), at Con- 
stantinople (printed at Scutari), a work of 
the greatest authoriw with the Persians 
and Turks. (See itammer's remarks in 
the Leipsic Literary Gazette of 1823, p. 
2054.) Hussein, known under the name 
of Sufi^ wrote a History of the most fii- 
mous Sheiks of the Order of the Dervises 
{XaeMendi) in the year 1503 (Hegira 
9Q9L The order of ATaeMendi oririn- 
ated, indeed, as late as the time of sultan 
Osman (1819; He^pra 709); but aU die 
Mohammedan religious orders trace their 
dootrines, and tlwir clums to mystic 



power (transmitted by the communica- 
tion of the breath and mantle), to Abube- 
kerand Ali, the disciples of the prophet 
Mohammed had said, indeed, ** There is 
no monasticism in the Islam;" but the 
spirit of monasticism, which originally had 
its seat in India and Upper Asia, soon 
penetrated into his religion, when the 
Arabians, having become acquainted witli 
Indian, Greek and Persian literature, be- 
gan to devote themselves to study and. 
contemplation. Thus originated the Mo- 
hammedan ascetics. But the pantiieistic 
doctrine of the modem Sufis, subsequent- 
ly introduced, agrees so remarkably with 
the doctrine of the Indian Vedanta, that 
the Indian origin of Sufism cannot be 
denied. 

Sugar. This important substance is a 
constituent y>art of a number of plants. 
It is afforded especially by the sugar-cane, 
the maple, and the beet. When the cane 
is ripe, it is cut down, and crushed be- 
tween i-ron cylinders, moved by the stenm- 
engine, water, or animal strength. The 
juice is received in a shallow trough, 
placed beneath the cylinders ; whence it 
18 conveyed into boilers, where it is heated 
with lime, care beine taken to remove 
the scum as it rises. After having under- 
gone considerable evaporation, h is called 
syrup, and is poured into a vessel called 
the cooler, where it is agitated with wood- 
en stirrers, which break the crust as it 
forms on the surface. It is afterwards 
poured into casks, to accelerate its cool- 
ing; and, while it is still warm, it is con- 
veyed into barrels, standing upright over 
a cistern, and pierced through their bot- 
tom with several holes, stopped with cane. 
The syrup, which is not condensed, filters 
through these canes, into the cistern be- 
neath, and leaves the sugar in tlie state 
called Muscovado, This sugar is yellow, 
and is further purified by various process- 
es, as that of boiling with bullock's blood, 
or vrith animal charcoal (bone black) ; and 
the passing of the s^^mp through a system 
of canvass filters, aided by the intermix- 
ture with it of a small quantity of pasty, 
gypsum and alumina, made by saturating 
a solution of alum with (juicklime. LoeS 
sugar is procured by puttmg the sugar, af- 
ter it has been thus purified, into unglaz- 
ed, earthen, conical-shaped vessels, having 
a hole at the apex, but placed in an in- 
verted position : the base, after the sugar 
is poured in, is covered with clay. When 
thus drained of its impurities, it is taken 
out of the mould, wrapped in paper, and 
dried or baked in an oven. It is now loaf 
sugar, and, acccnrding to the number of 



44 



SUGAR. 



proceases which it UDdenroea, is called 
single or clouble refined. Sugar candy is 
formed by dissolying loaf sugar in water^ 
over a fire, boiling it to a syrup, and then 
exposing it to crystallize in a cool place. 
This is much esteemed in the East The 
syrups which cease to afford sugar are 
sold by the name ofmolassea. The man- 
ufacture of sugar from the beet, which 
has now become so extensiye in France, 
is a more complicated process. The beet 
roots are pulled out of the ground, and 
their necks and rootlets cut off. They 
are then washed, reduced to a pulp by a 
rasping machine, and pressed to obtain 
tlieir juice, which scarcely differs from 
that of the cane, except in bein^ some- 
what less rich in sugar. The juice is 
transferred to a copper boiler, furnished 
with two stop-cocks, the one of which is 
fixed near the bottom, and the other a few 
inches higher up, beins previously mixed 
with one four hundreth part of sulphuric 
acid and a quantity of cream of lime, rather 
more than enough for the saturation of 
' the acid. Heat is now applied as briskly 
as possible to the copper. A solid, thick 
froth, of a greenish-nray color, forms, and 
deposits to a considerable amount, and 
the juice assumes a yellow hue, and be- 
comes clarified. After an hour or two, 
tlie scum is removed, and thrown on 
drainers, to save as much of the juice as 
possible. The clear juice is now run off 
successively, by the two stop-cocks, be- 
ginning with thehifi^er,and the sediment 
is add^ to the froth on the filters. The 
juice is next transferred to a boiler, built 
on a level below the first, and is there 
evaporated by a quick fire. Whenever 
its density reaches to 1.12 (24^ of T wad- 
del's hydrometer), animal charcoal is intro- 
duced in powder, and the concentration 
carried on, till its specific gravity is li24 
(48*^ of Twaddel). The fit>th is removed 
as it forms. About two parts of animal 
charcoal are usually addeol to 100 of juice. 
The syrup is now filtered through wool- 
len cloth, and allowed to cooL In the 
course of the night, a considerable quan- 
tity of sulphate of lime is deposited, which 
must be carefiilly separated, prior to boil- 
ing up the liquor for crystallization. This' 
concluding stage of the process is the same 
as that employed for the^uice of the sugar- 
cane. The refining of the raw beet su- 
gar is conducted in the same way as that 
of the cane, and the results are described 
as being equaUy productive. The extrac- 
tion of sow from the juice of the maple 
is exceedingly simple. At the com- 
mencement of^the spring, in the Northern 



States and Canada, the miffar maple I 
are tapped near the ground, by numerous 
apertures, and the sap is collected in 
wooden troughs ; two hundred pounds of 
which affi>rd, by evaporation, fifteen 
pounds of a brownish sugar, which is 
capable of being refined in 5ie same man- 
ner as the sugar from the cane and ths 
beet 

Pure sugar occurs as a white granular 
solid, but may be crystallized in four or 
six-sided prisms, terminated bytwo-aided, 
or sometimes by three-sided summits. Its 
specific gravity is 1.4'' to i.6f. The crys- 
tals are nearly anhydrous. When expos- 
ed to heat, sugar swells up, is decomposed 
with a peculiar smell, and finally burata 
into flames at a temperature somewhat 
below ignition. When dissolved in one 
third its weight of water, it forms a 
syrup, which keeps well in close ves- 
sels; but if considerably diluted with 
water, it rapidly changes, particularly 
with contact of air, becoming sour and 
mouldy. Sugar is hardly soluble in pure 
alcohol, thouffh proof spirit dissolves it 
in considerable quantity. Syrups, which 
have been rendered uncrystallizable, bit- 
ter and astringent, by combination with 
lime, barytes and strontites, resume their 
original properties, when these bases are 
separated by the equivalent quantity of 
sulphuric acid. The same holds true 
with regard to potash and soda. When 
quicklime is lefl for several months in com- 
bination with syrup, carbonate of lime ia 
deposited in very acute rhomboids, and 
the sugar is converted into a mucilaginous 
jelly, of the consistence of paste, ^veral 
other oxides, and es|X}cLally that of lead, 
have the power of combining with 
sugar. Thus, when ground litharge is 
heated with sugar and water, it is dissolv- 
ed ; but afbr a while the liquor becomes 
opaque, and lets fiilla white, insipid, light 
powder, insoluble in even a great quanti- 
ty of boiling water, and which is a com- 
pound, in its dried state, of 100 of suear> 
and 139.6 of oxide of lead. This saccha- 
rate of lead is decomposed by the fee- 
blest acids, which seize the lead. Subace^ 
tate of lead does not precipitate sugar 
from its solution ; and as this salt throws 
down almost every other vegetable and 
animal substance, it may be employed to 
separate sugar from other matters. Sugar 
has no action on salts, except at an elevat- 
ed temperature. With the aid of water, 
it then reduces muriate of gold, the ni- 
trates of mercury, and silver, the sulphata 
of copfier, and ixxluces to the lowest term 
of oxidation several oilier salts. Su|^ 



SUGAR— SUGAR-CANE. 45 

las been analyzed by several cbemista. The following m a genenl view of the 
results: 



Oxygen, 

Carbon, 
Hydrogen 


G. LiuMo and Thenud. 

50.63 

42.47 

, 6.90 


Bemliin. 

49.856 

40265 

a879 


Prout. 

58.05 

■39.99 

6.66 


Vn. 

50.33 

43.38 

6.29 



100.00 



100.00 



100.00 



100.00 



M. Braconnot has recently extended 
our views concerning the artificial produc- 
tion of sugar and gum. Sulphuric acid 
("Specific gravity 1.827) mixed with weU 
dried elm dust, became very hot, and on 
being diluted with water, and neutralized 
>nth chalk, afforded a liquor which be- 
came gummy on evaporation. Shreds 
of linen triturated in a glass mortar, with 
sulphuric acid, yield a similar gum. Ni- 
tric acid has a similar power. If the 
gummy matter from linen be boiled for 
some time with dilute sulphuric acid, we 
obtain a crystallizable sugar, and an acid, 
which M. Braconnot calls the vegeto-sul- 
phuric acid. The conversion of wood, 
also, into sugar, will no doubt appear re- 
markable ; and when persons not familiar 
with chemistry, are told that a pound- of 
rags can )ye converted into more than a 
pound of sugar, they may be disposed to 
consider the statement as a piece of pleas- 
antry, though nothing can be more true. 

SuGAR-CAifE (saccharum offLcinarum). 
The art of cultivating the sugar-cane has 
been practised m China from the highest 
annquity. It was unknown to the ancient 
Egyptians, Jews, Greeks, or Romans, and 
did not pass into Arabia till the end of the 
thirteenth century. From Arabia it was 
carried into Egypt, Nubia, and Ethiopia. 
The Moors obtained it from Eeypt, and 
the Spaniards from the Moors, in the fif- 
teenth century, the cane was introduced 
into the Canyy islands by the Spaniards, 
and into Madeira by the Portuguese, and 
thence into the West India islands and the 
Brazils. Previous to the year 1466, sugar 
was known in England chieflv as a med- 
icine; and, though cultivated in a few 
places on the >£sditerranean, it was not 
more generally used on the continent 
Now, in point of importance, it ranks next 
to wheat and rice, among all the products 
of the vegetable world, and has become 
the first article of maritime commerce. 
The At]a];itic has been the principal thea- 
tre of this trade, which, more than any 
odier circumstance, contributed to givc^ a 
new spring to commerce in Europe, and 
to engrafl the curse of slavery upon the 
new world. The sugar-cane, like the 



baml)oo and Indian com, belongs to the 
family of the grasses. It grows to the 
height of seven or eight feet, or more, 
and its broad leaves, and large, silky pani- 
cles, give it a beautifnl nepect. The stems 
are veiy smooth, shining, and filled with 
a spongy pith : the flowers are small, and 
very abundant, clothed externally with 
numerous silky hairs. The sugar-cane 
flowers only after the lapse of an entire 
year. In the West Indies, it is propagat- 
ed by cuttings from tlie root end, planted 
in hills or trenches in the spring or au- 
tumn. The cuttings root at the joints 
imder ground, and from those above, send 
up shoots, which, in eight, twelve, or four- 
teen months, are from six to ten feet long, 
and fit to cut down for the mill. A plan- 
tation lasts from six to ten years. (For the 
process of making sugar, see the preced- 
ing article.) The Juice of the sugar-cane 
is so palatahle and nutritive, that, during 
the sugar harvest, every creature which 
partakes freely of it, whether man or an- 
imal, appears to derive health and vigor 
from its use. The meagre and sickly 
negroes exhibit at this season a surprising 
alteration ; and the laboring horses, oxen, 
and mules, though constantly at- work, yet, 
as they are allowed to eat, almost witliout 
restraint, of the refuse plants and scum- 
mings from the boiling house, ijnprove in- 
finitely more than at any other period of 
the year. The sugar-cane is now cultivat- 
ed in all the warm parts of the globe. In 
the U. States it flowers, but does not ripen 
seed. Its growth is constant, but varies 
in rapidity according to the situation, the 
season, or the weather. The variety from 
Otaheite has lately elicited some attention, 
as it is said to succeed in soils too poor for 
the common variety, and to produce four 
crops, while the other yields only three : 
the crystallization is also more regular. 
Sugar is now culdvatrd to considerably 
extent in the U. States, chiefly in the 
southern p^rts of Louisiana, about the 
mouths of tlie Mississippi ; and a sufficient 
supply for home consumption might be 
obtained in that quarter. The consump- 
tion of England alone now amounts 
to upwards of 400,000,000 pounds, which 



46 



SUGARCANE— SULLA. 



cives an aw^rage of about thirty pounds 
lOT each indiTidual. In some parts of the 
interior, su^^ar is manu&cturea to consid- 
erable extent from the sap of two species 
of maple. This is superior to the common 
bruwn sugar of the West' Indies, but 
probably will eventually be superseded by 
that art]<;le, on account of its cheapness. 
{See Maple,) 

SuoarofLead. (SeeLMuL) 

SvHh, or SuHLA ; a town in the goy- 
emment of Erfurt, in the Prussian prov- 
' ince of Saxony, lying in a romantic val- 
lev on the Lauter, on the south-west side 
of the Thuringiaa forest It owes its im- 
portance to the mines which were dis- 
covered here in the fourteenth century. 
The iron works, and the manufacture of 
arms, form the chief employment of the 
inhabitants. The fire-arms made here 
are highly esteemed. Population, 5800 ; 
twenty-eight miles south-west of Er- 
furt 

SuHM, Peter Frederic von, Danish cham- 
berlain and historiographer at Copenha- 
gen, born in 1728, wss a philosopher, po- 
et and historian. His father, a Danish ad- 
miral, educated him carefully. He died, 
in 1798, at Copenhagen. Suhm possessed 
a large ibrtune, which he used m aid of 
charitable objects nnd literary enterprises, 
ile acquired reputation, as a critic and 
philosopher, by his moral essays and trea- 
tises of practical utility, as a poet, bv his 
Northern Idyls aud Tales, and as a classi- 
cal historiau, by his works on the history 
of his country. His library conuiined 
100,000 volumes. He supported a hbrari- 
an, and paid large sums for copying man- 
uscripts, and in aid of poor students. The 
library was open to every one. Of his 
numerous works we need only mention 
his Scriptorum Rtrum DanitB Mtdii Mvi ; 
his Introduction to the Critical History of 
Denmark (1769—73, 5 vols., 4lo,); the 
Critical History of Denmark durinff the 
Pagan Ages (1774—51, 4 vols.) ; the Mod- 
em History of Denmark (of which seven 
volumes have been published, the first of 
which appeared in 1782). His miscella- 
neous works were collected and reprinted, 
with an account of his life, at Copenha- 
gen ( 1788— 98, 15 vols.). 

Suicide. (See Homieide.) 

SuiDAs; a Greek grammarian, who 
lived, according to some, in the eleventh 
century, according to othere in the tenth. 
He wrote an encyclopesdia, particularly 
relating to geographical and historical 
subjects, which, though not perfectly ac- 
curate, is yet important, as it contains ma- 
ny things not to be found elsewhere. The 



best edition is that of KCister (Cambridge^ 
1705, 3 vols., folio). 

Suit at Law. (See Action,) 

SuLiOTs ; a mixed people of Amaout 
and Greek descent, speaking the Amaout 
and the Romaic dialects. They derive 
their origin from Amaout and Greciao 
shepherds, who, in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, settled in the Cassiopeian mountaina^ 
occupying a wild valley, enclosed on 
three sides by almost inaccessible moun- 
tains, and accessible on the fburdi only by 
a narrow defile. Here tReir numbers had 
increased, towards the end of the last cen- 
tury, to 10,000 souls, in seventy villages, of 
which Suli or Souli was the capital of the 
district. The Suliots are of the Greek 
church ; their government was republi- 
can. They are brave, hardy, active, res- 
olute and faithful. When, after a strug- 
gle of twelve years, Ali Pacha (q. v.) hiul 
rather reduced them to despair tlian con- 
quered them (1803), they abandoned their 
country, and entered the service of the 
powers who had possession of the Ioni> 
an Islands. But when Ali found himself 
hard pressed by the Turks and desertf^ 
by the Albanians, he recalled the Suliots 
to his asmstance. Their brave leader^ 
Marco Botzaris, gained some brilliant suc- 
cesses ; but the tyrant, who trusted nei- 
ther the Suliots nor the other Greeks, per- 
ished in 1822. The Albanians then join- 
ed the Turks ; but the Suliots remained 
true to the cause of Grecian liberty. Suli, 
however, was reduced bv famine, Sept 4, 
1822, and 3000 Suliots embarked in Eng- 
lish ships for Cephalonia: the rest dis- 
persed themselves in the mountains. The 
younji^r Marco Botzaris, son of the above- 
mentioned leader of the same name, 
threw himself into Missolonghi, which he 
successfully defended, and afterwards fell 
at Carpinitzi. (See Gretct, Revohiium of.) 
His uncle, Noto Botzaris, defended Misso- 
longhi in 1826. (See Missolorurhi.) The 
coqis of 500 men, raised and equipped by 
lord Byron at his own ex()ense, was com- 
^losed of Suliots, for whom he had a great 
admiration. (See Byron.) 

Sulla, or Stlla, Lucius Cornelius, 
Roman dictator, was bom at Rome, U. C. 
617 (B. C. 137), of the old and noble, but 
reduced, family of the Comelii. He re- 
ceived a good education, but indulged 
himself in excessive dissipation and de- 
bauchery. A large ibrtune, partly left 
him by a courtesan, and partly obtained 
by marriage, enabled him to take a 
distinguished rank among the Roman 
knights, and to turn his attention to the 
career of ambition. He served, with 



SULLA. 



47 



biBiBm micceas, as qiiffistor in Africa; and 
k was through his inatnimentality that 
Bocchus was prevailed upon to Burrendor 
Jugiurtha to the Romans— «n event which 
lenninated the Nuniidian war. Sulla next 
served under Marius in the Cimbrian 
war, untiJ, to avoid the jealousy of the 
latter, he joined the army of the consul 
Caiulus, and, having twice defeated the 
Samnites, was chosen pretor. Having 
paaded the year of his pretorship at Rome, 
he was, at the expiration of his term, ap- 
pointed to tiie government of Asia Minor, 
where he established Ariobarzanes upon 
the throne of Cappadocia, and complete- 
ly subdued Gordius, guardian of a son of 
Mithridates, then on the throne, in a single 
battle. He then concluded an alliance with 
the king of the Parthians, and conducted 
with so much haughtiness that one of the 
Cappadocians present exclaimed, ^ Surely 
this man is or will be master of the 
world." In the social war, in which Sul- 
la anci Marhis were at the head of two 
sefMirate armies, the indefiitiffable activity 
and daring courage of the former threw 
the reputation of the latter into the shade. 
Yet he himself declared that fortune had 
a greater share in his success than his 
own merit ; and he readily accepted the 
samame of Felix (fortunate). The con- 
sulship was the reward of his services 
(B. C. 88); and the province of Asia, with 
the conduct of the war against Mithri- 
dates, fell to his lot. But Marius was 
also ambitious of this command, and pro- 
cured a decree of the people that it should 
be intrusted to him. Sulla therefore en- 
tered Rome at the head of his army, and, 
after setting a price on the head of his en- 
emy, finailv saded for Greece, a great part 
of Which had been conquered fay Mithri- 
dates. Here his good fortune stul follow- 
ed him. He expelled Mithridates from 
Europe, pursued him into the heart of his 
Asiiktic dominions, was victorious in eveiy 
direcuon, and finally granted peace, on his 
own terms, to the enemy, on account of 
the state of affairs in Italy. During his 
three years' absence from Italy, his ene- 
mies had regained the superiority in 
Rome. Marius had been recalled ; the 
blood of the friends of Sulla had been 
shed in torrents; he himself had been 
proscribed, and his property confiscated. 
MariiM, exhausted by age and tortiuned 
by a guilty conscience, left his bed to op- 

Ci me return of his rival (see JMbriitf ), 
died soon after entering upon his sev- 
enth consutehip. The leaders of his par- 
IV, C^na and Carbo, still, however, cod- 
tonoed to conduct the public affidrs, when 



Sulla, havmg ntmsted the chief com- 
mand in Asia to Murena, hastened to Ita- 
ly at the head of 40,000 men. He landed 
at Brundusium, and was joined by many 
of his friends who had been banished 
from Rome. His enemies were much 
superior in numbers ; but his courage and 
address rendered him victorious. After 
having gained four battles over the Roman 
forces in person, besides several through 
his generals, and, at the close of die war, 
defeated a Samnite army under Telesi- 
nus, before the walls of Rome, and hav- 
ing wimessed the destruction, captivity or 
flight of his enemies, be entered the city 
as a master. One of his first acts wiw, to 
put to death between 6000 and 7000 pris- 
oners of war in the circus ; and when the 
senate, assembled in the temple of Bellonn, 
testified their horror at hearing the shrieks 
of the victims, he coldly said, ** Regard it 
not, fathers ; it is only a few rebels who 
are punished by tnv orders." Rome and 
all the provinces of Italy were filled with 
the most revolting scenes of cruelty. Af- 
ter satisfying his vengeance by the murder 
or proscription of several thousands, de- 
stroying all the cities of Samnium except 
three, and massacring the whole popu- 
lation of Preneste, he celebrated a tri- 
umph, exceeding in splendor any that 
had preceded it, and caused himself 
to be named dictator for an indefinite pe- 
riod (B. C. 81). He now niled without 
restraint ; repealed and made laws ; abol- 
ished the tribuneship ; added 300 knights 
to the senate, and admitted 10,000 slaves 
of persons proscribed to the rights of citi- • 
zenship. After a few years, to the aston- 
ishment of aU, he laid down his dictator- 
ship (B. C. 79), and declared himself ready 
to answer for his actions, although he had 
caused above 100,000 men, among whom 
were ninety senators, fifteen men of con- 
sular rank, and 1600 knights, to be put to 
death. Retiring to Puteoli, and aban- 
doning himself to all sorts of debauchery, 
he died, the following year, of a disgust- 
ing disease, occasioned by his excesses. 
Naturally insinuating and persuasivej Sul- 
la endeavored, in his vouth, to please uni- 
versally. He spoke or himself witli mod- 
esty, but was lavish of praises, and even 
of money, towards oti-ers. With the 
common soldiers he was familiar, adopt* 
ing their customs, drank with them, and 
partook of their amusements and hard- 
ships. At times, he was- severe, active 
ana vigilant, and impenetrable even to 
the companions of his excesses. He lent 
a ready ear to soothsayers and astrologers ; 
and hjfl character was stained by sensual 



48 



SULLA— SULLIVAN. 



itVy avarice and cruelty. Yet he had 
sufficient self-control to tear himself 
fit>ra his pleasures when ambition com- 
manded. He was an able general and 
a great statesman; crael, but faithful 
to his promises ; calm and cold, but in- 
flexible in his purposes. He sacrificed 
even his friends to the laws which he 
himself made and violated, and comnel- 
led his fellow citizens to be better than 
himself. He ordered it to be inscribed 
on his tomb, that no man had ever equal- 
led him in doing evil to his enemies, nor 
in doing good to his friends. 

Sullivan, John, a distinguished gen- 
eral in the American revolutionary army, 
was the eldest son of a Mr. Sullivan, who 
came from Ireland about the year 1723, 
and, after keeping a school m several 
parts of the eastern country, settled at 
Berwick, in the district of Maine, where 
he died at the age of 105. For several 
years before the revolution, the subject of 
this sketch practised law in New Hamp- 
shire with great success. In 1772, he be- 
came major of a regiiuent of militia ; and 
as soon ns hostilities commenced, he was 
among tlie first to take an active part. 
In 1774, he was a member of the first 
general congress, but resigned his seat to 
enter the army. In 1 775, he was appoint- 
ed a brigadier-^neral in the American 
army : and, dunng that campaign, com- 
manded on Winter hill. In the follow- 
ing year, he was promoted to the rank of 
major-general, and sent to Canada, where 
he took command of the troops on the 
death of general Thomas. In effecting his 
retreat from that province, he displayed 
great military skill and resolution. He 
was soon afterwards, in the same year, 
invested with the command of Greene's 
division, on Long Island, in consequence 
of the .illness of that general, and, in the 
Imttle of August 27, was taken prisoner. 
In October, he was exchanged for general 
l^rescott, and, in the ensuing December, 
was placed at the head of the division of 
general Lee, who had been captured by 
the enemy. At the battle of Trenton, he 
commanded the riffht division. August 
22, 1777, he planned and executed an ex- 
pedition against Staten Ishmd, for which, 
on an inquiry inu. his conduct, he receiv- 
ed the approbation of the court In the 
battles of Brandywine and Oermantown, 
he also command3d the right division. In 
th^ winter of 1777, he was detached to 
take command of the troops in Rhode 
Island ; and in August of the following 
year, he laid siege to Newport The 
causes (^ the fiulure of this enterprise ; the 



difficulties which occurred between gen- 
eral Sullivan and count d'E^staisn, the 
commander of the French fleet, who was 
to assist the land operations, but abandon- 
ed the siege, and sailed to Boston, — are too 
well known to require relation. He rais- 
ed the siege, and was pursued by the en- 
emy, whom he repulsed. The next day 
he passed over to the continent, without 
the slightest suspicion, on the part of the 
British, of his movements. In the sum- 
mer of 1779, he commanded an expedi- 
tion, planned by general Wasliington, 
against the Six Nations of Indians in New 
York. Being ioined by general Clinton, 
August 22, he oegan his march towards 
the enemy, who were stationed at New- 
town, between the south end of Seneca 
lake and Tioga river, and, attacking them 
in their works, completely dispersed them. 
He then laid waste the country, and de- 
stroyed all their villages, in order to put a 
stop to their depredations. General Sul- 
livan had made such high 'demainls for 
military stores, and had so f)ieely com- 
plained of the government for inattention 
to those demands, as to give great offence 
to some members of cong^'ess, and to the 
board of war. He, in consequence, re- 
signed his command, November 9. After 
the peace, he resumed the practice of his 
profession. He was one of the convention 
which formed the state constitution for 
New Hampshire, and was chosen a mem- 
ber of the first council. In 1786, he wwi 
chosen president of that state, in which 
station he continued for three years. In 
October, 1789, he was appointed district 
judge of New Hampshire. He died Jan- 
uary 23, 1795, aged 54 years. 

SULLIVAN, James, a brother of the fore- 
going, and governor of Massachusetts, 
was bom at Berwick, Maine, April 02^ 
1744. He was educated entirely by his 
father. The fracture of a limb, m early 
life, caused him to turn his attention to 
le^l pursuits, instead of embracing the 
military career, for which he had oeen 
destmed. After studying with his broth- 
er, general Sullivan, he was admitted to 
the bar, and soon rose to celebrity. He 
was appointed king's attorney for the dis- 
trict in which he resided ; but the pros- 
pects of advancement which he might 
nave reasonably entertained, did not pre- 
vent him from taking an early and decid- 
ed- part on the mde of his country, at the 
commencement of the revolutionary strug- 
gle. Being a member of the provincial 
congress of Massachusetts, in 1775, he 
was intrusted, together with two other 
gentlemen, witfi a difficult commission to 



SULLIVAN— SULLY. 



49 



TSconderoga, which was executed in a 
▼eiy eatismctory manner. In, the follow- 
ing year, he was appointed a judge of the 
sapeiior court. In 1779 and 1780, he 
was a member of the convention which 
framed the constitution of the state. In 
Feln-uary, 1782, he resigned his judi 
ship, and retunied to the bar. In 17c 
he was chosen a member of congress, 
and, in the followuig year, was one of the 
commissioners in the settlement of the 
controversy between Massachusetts and 
New York, respecting tlieir claims to the 
w^estem lands. He was repeatedly elect- 
ed a representative of Boston, in the legis- 
lature. In 1787, he was a member of 
the executive council, and judge of pro- 
bate for Suffolk ; and, in 1790, was ap- 
pointed attoniey -general, in which office 
be continued till June, 1807, when he was 
elevated to the chief magistracy of the 
eoinmonwealth. He was in 1706, ap- 
pointed, by president Washington, agent, 
under the fifth article of the British trea- 
ty, for setding the boundaries between the 
U. States and the British provinces. He 
waa a second time chosen governor of the 
state ; but soon afterwards, his health be- 
came enfeebled, and on the 10th of De- 
cember, 1808, he died, in the 65th year of 
his age. Govemor Sullivan was the pro- 
jector of the Middlesex canal. Amidst 
his professional and political pursuits, he 
found time to prepare several works, 
mostly on legal or polidcal subjects. 
One is a History of the District of Maine, 
which is a creditable monument of his in- 
dustry and research. 

Sullivan Island is between Ashley 
and Cooper rivers, six miles below Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. It is much resorted 
to by tlie people of Charleston, during the 
summer season. Fort Moultrie, on this 
island, received its name in honor of 
colonel Moultrie, for his very gallant de- 
fence of it, June 28, 1776. Sir Henry 
Clinton made an attack on it with the 
British squadron, for the purpose of tak- 
ing possession of Charleston. The Anier- 
icao army at this |)lace was then com- 
uianded by general Lee. The fire from 
the fort was so well directed, timt tlie 
British suffered very severely. The de- 
fence of the city was completely success- 
ful, and the American loss was only thir- 
ty-five men. 

Solly, Maximilian de Bethune, duke 
de ; marshal of France, and first minister 
of Henry IV ; one of the most estimable 
men that ever ruided the helm of state. 
He was bom at Rosny, of an ancient and 
noble family, in 1559, and educated in the 

YOL. ZIL fi 



Protestant (Caivmistic) faith. At the afe 
of eleven years, he was presented by hu 
father to the queen of Navarre, and her 
son Henry, with whom he was educated. 
In 1572, he accompanied the young 
prince to Paris, for the purpose of pursu- 
ing his studies there, and was preserved, 
during the massacre of St. Bartholomew's, 
by the president of the college of Burgun- 
dy, who concealed him for three days. 
In the service of the young king of PVa- 
varre (see Henry IV\ the baron de Ros- 
ny, as he was then styled, distinguished 
himself^ on several occasions, by a bravery 
approaching to rashness. At Ivry (1590), 
where he took the standard of the duke 
of Maine, he was most dangerously 
wounded. In 1591, he took Gisors; and 
the caj)ture of Dreux in 1593, Laon in 
1594, 1^ Fere in 159(5, Amiens in 1597, 
and Montmelian in 1600, added to his 
reputation as a wairior. liut his abilities 
as a diplomatist and financier were no 
less i-emarkable. > In 1586, he concluded a 
treaty with the Swiss, for a supply of 
20,000 troops for his master's service ; 
and in 1597, he was placed at the head of 
the department of finance, and two years 
after, he was declared superintendent. 
About the same time (1599), he also ne- 
gotiated the marriage of Henry with Ma- 
ry de' Medici. In his embassy to Eng- 
land, after the death of queen Elizabeth, 
(1603), he displayed great penetradon and 
address, and concluded a treaty with 
James I, advantageous to the interests of 
botli countries. In addition to his other 
offices, he was ap]>ointed grand surveyor 
of France, grand master of the artillery, 
governor of the Bastile (16G2), and super- 
intendent of fortifications throughout the 
kingdom. His labors, as minister of fi- 
nance, were attended with the happiest 
success ; and the revenues of the govern- 
ment, which had been reduced to a state 
of complete dilapidation, by the combined 
effect of civil anarchy and open warfare, 
were by his cai'e restored to order, regu- 
larity, and affluence. With a revenue of 
tliirty-five miUions, he paid off, in ten 
years, a debt of two hundred millions, 
besides laying up thirty-five millions. 
Though frequently thwarted in his pur- 
poses by the rapacity of the courtiers and 
misti-esses of the monarch, he nobly pur- 
sued his career, ever distin^iishing him- 
self as the zealous friend of his country, 
and not the tem])orizing minister of his 
master. His industry was unwearied. He 
rose every morning at four o'clock, and, 
afler dedicating some dme to business, he 
gave audience to all who solicited admis- 



50 



SULLY— SULPHUR- 



SBon to him, without distinction of persons. 
After his return from his mission to Eng- 
land, he was made governor of Poitou, 
and grand master of the ports and har- 
bors of Provence ; and the territory of 
SuU^-siir-Loire was erected into a duchy 
in his &vor, in 1606. On the murder of 
Henry IV, he was obliged to retire from 
court (1611); but, after some years, he 
was recalled by Louis XIII; and, on 
making his appearance in the royal circle, 
the courtiers chd not treat him with that 
res{)ect to which he thought himself en- 
titled; on which he said to the king, 
** Sire, when your iatlier did me the honor 
to consult me, we never spoke on busi- 
ness till he had dismissed his flatterers 
ami buffoons to the ante-chamber." In 
1634, he received the staff of a marshal, 
in exchange fot the oflice of grand master 
of the artillery. His death took place at 
Villebon, December 22, 1641. Although 
Sully approved Henry's conversion to the 
Catholic faith, yet he himself remained 
true to his Protestant principles. The 

I courtiers, dissatisfied with his strictness, 
oflen ridiculed and complained of him ; 
but even the king's most favored mistress 
could not prejudice his royal master 
against him. (see Estries.) Sully's M^- 
moires des sojgts d roi/ales Economies 
(TiUai, domesHques, polihqueSy et mUitaires 
de Henri le Grand, was printed at Sully, 
under the eye of the author, in 1636. 
The second acd third volumes did not ap- 
pear till 1662. There have been many re- 
impressions, some of which have been 
mutilated by other hands. These me- 
moirs give us a vivid and accurate picture 
of the courts of Charles IX, Henry III, 
and Henry IV, and particularly of the 
character, habits, public policy, and pri- 
vate life of the latter monarch. 

Sulphate. (For the various sulphates, 
see the respective articles.) 

Sulphur. We shall first give the min- 
eralogical history of this substance. It 
occurs abundantly in nature, both crystal- 
lized and massive. The form of its crys- 
tals is on acute octahedron, either perfect, 
or variouslv modified, and derivable from 

, an octahedron viith equal and similar 
scalene triangular planes, of which the 
common ba^ of the two pyramids is 
rhombic; cleavage imperfect; fracture 
conchoid&l ; lustre resinous ; color sever- 
al shades of sulphur-yellow, inclining 
sometimes to red or green ; streak jsulphur- 
yellow, passing into white; transpcLTent 
or translucent ; sectile ; hardnees between 
gypsum and calcareous spar; specific 
gravity 2.072. The massive varieties 



occur in imbedded globules, also in larm 
pieces, having a granular or impalpable 
composition, and an uneven or flat con- 
choidal fracture. The present species has 
usually been treated of under two divisions, 
viz. common and volcanic sulphur, in allu- 
sion to the geological situation of the two 
varieties ; me volcanic sulphur being a 
product of sublimation, while thecomiuon 
sulphur is found in strata not immediau^Iy 
connected with volcanic rocks. Volcanic 
sulphur appears in the shape of crusts, 
superficial coatincs, stalactites, or loose, 
mealy masses, and consists generally of 
columnar particles of com^Msiiion, not 
unfrequently terminating in crystalline 
points. Common sulphur has been fur- 
ther divided into compact and earthy, the 
last of which comprehends those varie- 
ties which, on account of the smallness 
of the individuals in the granular compo- 
sitions, appear as a friable, mealy powder. 
Sulphur is principally met with in beds 
of gypsum, or in the accompanying strata 
of clay. It is generally associated with 
sulphate of strontian. It also occurs 
widi copper pyrites, galena, and orpi- 
ment. It is deposited from several springs, 
and in large quantities from volcanoes. 
In Sicily, and several provinces of Italy, 
sulphur is found in splendid crystals, as 
well as in g^lobular concretions. It occurs 
in imbedded spheroidal masses of a 
brown color, which is owing to bitumen, 
at Radoboy, near Crapina, in Croatia. The 
finest crvstals, afler those of Sicily, are 
brought from Conil, near Cadiz, in Spain. 
tt occurs in veins in Suabia, Spain and 
Transylvania. The earthy sulphur is 
found In Poland, in Moravia, and other 
countries; the volcanic sulphur in Ice- 
land, near Vesuvius in the Solfatara, in 
fine crystals in Teneriffe, in ffreat profu- 
sion near the volcanoes of J^va, and in 
the vicinity of most other active volca- 
noes. In general, it requires to be puri- 
fied, either by melting or by sublimation, 
in order to render it fit for use in the arts. 
Sulphur, in a state of purity, is desti- 
tute of odor, and of a weak, though per- 
ceptible taste. It is a non-conductor of 
electricity, and of course becomes elec- 
tric by friction. The specific gravity of 
roll sulphur varies from 1.97 to 2.00. It 
undergoes no change from exposure to 
the air, and is insoluble in water. If a 
considerable piece of sulphur be exposed 
to a sudden, though gentle heat, by hold- 
ing it in the hand, for instance, it breaks 
to pieces with a crackling noise. Wh'^n 
heated to the temperature of about 170^, 
it rises up in the form of a fine powder. 



SULPHUR. 



51 



wiiich Dwr be easily collected in a proper 
>-ease1. This powder is called Jlowen of 
gylphur. When heated to the tempera- 
mre of 218°, it melts, and becomes as hquid 
as water. Between the melting point and 
258?, it is as liquid as varnish, and its 
color is tijat of amber. About the tem- 
perature of 340?, it begins to grow thick, 
and assumes a reddish tinge ; and if we 
continue to increase the temperature, it 
becomes so thick, that the vessel con- 
taining it may be turned upside down 
without the risk of spilling ftoyof it. 
Between the temperature of 428^ and 
that of 482^, it is thickest of all, and its 
color is reddish-brown. From 4^ to its 
boiling point, which is not fnr from 750^, 
it becomes thinner, but never so thin as 
it was when below the temperature of 
248^ ; and its reddish-brown color does 
not alter. If it be suddeiily cooled while in 
the most Uquid state, as by throwing it into 
water, it becomes instantly brittle ; but if 
it was so hot as to be viscid, and be sud- 
denly cooled, it remains quite soft ; so 
that it may be drawn into threads. In 
the first case, it crystallizes ; in the sec- 
ond, it does not This state of softness 
is probably connected with the viscidity ; 
which, when the cold is suddenly ap- 
plied, prevents the possibility of the par- 
ticles arraneing themselves in regular or- 
der. If sulphur be melted in a ladle, or 
oval vessel, and, as soon as its surface be- 
gins to congeal, the liquid portion be- 
neath the sur&ce be poured out, the in- 
ternal cavity will exhibit long, needle- 
^aped cnrstals. Alcohol, sulphuric 
ether and the oils dissolve a smaU por- 
tion of sulphur. It combines in five pro- 
portions with oxygen, and frrms ^ve 
compounds, which have received the 
names of sidpkurie acid, ndphurous acid^ 
hfponUphurwis aeidj stdtavJohunnts acid, 
and hfpostdpkuric acid. We shall de- 
scribe the itUphurous ac%4 first It is 
formed when suljphur is bui nt, either in 
the open air or m oxygen gas. But the 
way in which it is usually obtained for 
experiraen'*, is to heat a mixture of sul- 
phuric acid and mercury in a small re- 
tort ; a gas Is evolved, which is sulphur- 
ous acicL It is colorless, is possessed of 
an exceedingly suffocating and disagreea- 
ble smell, precisely similar to that of burn- 
ing sulphur. Its taste is intensely acid 
and sulphureous. It converts vegetable 
blues to red, and then fptulually destroys 
theoL Its specific gravity is 2.^293. The 
gas may be collected over mercury, or 
received into water, which, at the tempe- 
rature of 6P, will absorb thirtj'-three 



times its tMilk, or nearly an eleventh of 
its weight It consists of sulphur 50 
and oxygen 50. It is used in bleaching, 
particuuirly for silks: it liKenvise dis- 
charges vegetable stains and iron moulds 
from linen. In combination with the sal- 
ifiable bases, it forms sulphites, which 
differ from the sulphates in their proper- 
ties. The alkaline sulphites are more 
soluble than the sulphates; the earthy, 
less so. They are converted into siu- 
phates by an addition of oxygen, which 
they acquire even by exposure to the air. 
By putting sulphuric acid and mercury 
into the sealed end of a recurved glass 
tube, then sealing the odier end, and ap- 
plying heat to the former, a liquid sul- 
phurous acid may be obtained: it re- 
mains in a liquid state in the air at 0° 
Fahr.: it is colorless, transparent, and 
very volatile ; specific gravity 1.45. Ii 
boils at 14° ; but, in consequence of the 
cold produced by the evaporation of the 

Eortion that flies off, tlie residue remains 
quid. It causes a feeling of intense 
cold when dropped on the hand. 

Sulphuric acta is obtained by burning a 
mixture of about seve.^ parts sulphur, 
and one part nitre, in large cliambeFS, 
lined with lead. By this combustion, 
sulphurous acid and deutoxide of nitro- 
gen are formed. The deutoxide absorbs 
oxygen from the atmosphere, and is con- 
verted into nitrous acid. Both the acids 
are absorbed by water. The nitrous acid 
gives out part of its oxygen to the sul- 
phurous acid, and converts it into sulphu- 
ric acid ; and, being reduced to the state 
of deutoxide, again flies off, unites to oxy- 
gen, is converted to nitrous acid, and ab- 
sorbed by the water. This process goes 
on till the whole of the sulphurous acid 
is converted into sulphuric acid. The 
water, thus acidulated, is evaporated in 
leaden vessels to a rertain point The 
evaporation is then continued in glass re- 
torts, till the acid acquires the requisite 
degree of strength. The ordinary form 
of a sulphuric acid lead chamber is the 
parallelopiped, and its dimensions about 
seventy leet long, ten or twelve high, and 
sixteen wide. At the middle height of 
one end, a small oven is built up, with a 
cast-iron sole, having a \Brfe lead pipe, 
ten or twelve inches in diameter, pro- 
ceeding from its arched top into the end 
of the lead chamber. On the sole the 
sulphur is burned ; the combustion being 
aided, when necessary, by heat applied 
from a little furnace below it. Above the 
flaming sulphur, a cast-iron Iwis'ii is sup- 
ported" in an iron frame, into v.hich the 



53 



SULPHUR. 



nitre, equal to one tenth of the sulphur, is 
put, with a little sulphuric acid. The 
combustion of the sulphur is regulated by 
a sliding door on the oven. In the roof 
of the remote end of the large chamber, 
a small orifice is left for the escape of the 
fitmospheric nitroeen, and other incon- 
densable gases. This apparatus is used 
for the continuous process ; but there is 
another, or that of the intermitting 
combustion, which is worthy of no- 
tice. Large flat trays, contauiing the sul- 
phur and nitre, are introduced into the 
mterior of the chamber, or into the oven, 
and fire is applied to the materials. When 
the sulphur is burned, and the chamber 
filled with sulphurous and nitrous acids, 
the steam of water is thrown in, in de- 
terminate quantity, by a small pipe at the 
side. This causes a tumultuous motion 
among the gases and the atmospheric 
oxygen, whicm favors the mutual reac- 
tion. As the steam condenses, the sul- 
phuric acid falls with it Afler some time, 
ihe chamber is aired by oj^ning valves 
of communication with the external at- 
mosphere. The operation is then com- 
menced anew. Sulphuric acid was for- 
merly obtained by distillation from sul- 
phate of iron; sixty-four pounds are 
yielded by six hundred pounds of the 
sulphate of iron. The folio wing are the 
properties of pure sulphuric acid. It is 
colorless, has somewhat of an oily or 
glutinous consistency, and hence the an- 
cient name of oil of vitrioL It speedily 
chars animal and vegetable substances, 
when placed in contact with them. It 
converts vegetable blues to red, and is 
possessed of an exceedingly acid taste. 
Acid of the specific gravity 1.85, boils at 
the temperature of 620°. The boiling 
point diminishes with the strength. Acid 
of the specific gravity 1.78, boils at 435% 
and acid of the specific gravity 1.65, at 
350®. The quantity of water present in 
one hundred parts of concentrated and 
pure sulphuric acid is very nearly 18.46. 
It consists of three proportionals of oxy- 
gen, one of sulphur, and one of water ; 
and by weight, therefore, of 3.0 oxygen 

i- 2.0 sulphur -}- 1.25 water, which equals 
125, which represents the combining 
weight of the concentrated sulphuric 
acicf; while 3 -{- 2 =z 5, which is the 
equivalent of the dry acid. Sulphuric 
acid strongly attracts water, which it takes 
from the atmosphere very rapidly, and in 
larger quantities if suffered to remain in 
an open vessel — imbibing one third of its 
weignt in twenty-four hours, and more 
than six times its weight in a year. If 



four parts by weight be mixed with one 
of water at 50^, they produce an instan- 
taneous heat of 300® ; and four parts 
raise one of ice to 212®. On the contrary, 
four parts of ice mixed with one of acid, 
sink the theimometer to 4® below 0. It 
requires a great degree of cold to freeze 
it; and, if diluted with half a part or 
morp of water, unless the dilution be car- 
ried very &r, it becomes more and more 
difficult to congeal ; yet, at the specific 
gravity 1.78, it may be frozen by sur- 
rounding it with melting ice. Its conge- 
lation forms regular prismatic crystals, 
with six sides. All the simple combusti- 
bles decompose sulphuric arid with the 
assistance of heat At about 400®, sul- 
phur converts sulphuric acid into sulphur- 
ous acid. Several metals at an elevated 
temperature decompose this acid, with 
evolution of sulphurous acid gas, oxidize- 
ment of the metal, and combination of 
the oxide with the uudecomposed portion 
of the acid. Sulphuric acid is of very 
extensive use in chemistry, as well as in 
metallurgy, bleaching, and some of the 
processes for dyeing. In medicine, it is 
given as a tonic and stimulant, and is 
sometimes used externally as a caustic. 
The combinations of this acid with the 
various bases are called sulphates, and 
constitute a very important class of salts ; 
for an account of which, see their respec- 
tive bases. — Subrulphurovs acid. It has 
been found, that sulphurous acid has the 
property of dissolving iron, without the 
evolution of any gas. The acid gives 
out half its oxygen to the iron, and con- 
verts it into the protoxide of iron, which 
combines with the acid in question, and 
which crnsists of half the oxygen found 
in sulphurous acid. When the salt is de- 
composed, the subsulphurous acid is re- 
solved into sulphurous acid and sulphur. 
It seems incapable of existing except in 
combination with a base. When insu- 
lated, half tlie sulphur separates, and sul-i 
phurous acid remains. — The hyposvlfhur- 
ous (icid also seems incapable of existing 
except in combination with a base. When 
sulphuric acid in a slight excess is poured 
into a dilute solution of hyposulphite of 
stixintites, the whole strontites is throwa 
down, and the filtered liquid consists 
chiefly of a solution of hyposulphurous 
acid in water. This liquid' is transparent 
and colorless, is destitute of smell, and 
has an acid, astringent, and very bitter 
taste. On standing a few hours, it un- 
dergoes spontaneous decomposition, the 
liquid becomes milky, sulphur is deposit- 
edf and sulphuious acid reijiains in so 



SULPHUR. 



53 



; acid. By causiDg 
a current of the* sulphurous acid gas to 
pass through black oxide of manganese, 
suspended in water, a neutral salt is form- 
ed, i^iicfa, when dissolved, consists of a 
mixture of neutral sulphate and hyposul- 
phate of manganese. By pouring into 
this adution Inmes water, the whole of 
the sulphate of manganese is thrown 
down, 'while the hyposulphate is convert- 
ed into hyposulphate or barytes, which 
remains in solution. A current of car- 
bonic acid throws down any excess of ba- 
rytes that may have been added; and 
then, by evaporating the liquid, the hypo- 
Bulpiiate of barytes is obtained in crystals. 
These crystals are dissolved in water, and 
the barytes they contain precipitated, by 

1. Hyposulphurous acid, 

2. Subsulphurous acid, 

3. Sulphurous acid, 

4. Sulphuric acid, 

5. HypoBulphuric acid. 

Sulphur combines readily with chlo- 
rin^ forming a liquid compound called 
ehkride of wlphur. It is formed by poss- 
inf a current of chlorine through nowere 
of^ sulphur, or by beating sulphur in a 
dry glass vessel, fiUed with chlorine gas. 
Its cmor is brownish-red, and it possesses 
an odor similar to sea-plants. Its taste is 
acid, hot and bitter, it does not chan^ 
the color of litmus paper ; specific gravi- 
ty 1.67. When dropped into water, it is 
decomposed, sulphur being evolved. It 
is composed of sulphur 2 and chlorine 
4.672. By pouring bromine on flowers 
of sulphur, an analogous compound is 
formed, called brondde <ff sulphur. Cold 
vrater has but little action on it, but, at a 
boiling temperamre, a slight detonation 
takes place, and hydrobromic acid is form- 
ed, together with sulphuric acid and sul- 
phureted hydrogen. It consists of bro- 
mine 10 and sulphur 2. Sulphur has 
the property of combining with iodine, 
and of rorminff a compound called iodide 
of ndphur, ft is easily formed by mix- 
ins together the two constituents in a glass 
tube, and exposing them ta sufficielit heat 
to mek the sulphur. It is of a grayish- 
black color, and has a radiated texture. 
It lias not been analyzed. Sulphur has 
the property of combining with hydro- 
gen, and of forminff a gaseous compound, 
wiuch has received the name of svlphu- 
rtied hydrogen. It has also been called 
hydromdfhurie acid. It may be obtained 
by pounng sulphuric or muriatic acid 
upon several metallic sulphurets. Sul- 
5* 



means of sulphuric acid ; care being ta- 
ken not to add the sulphuric acid in ex- 
cess. The liquid now consists of watei 
holding hyposulphuric acid in solution. 
This acid is colorless and destitute of 
smell. It may be concentrated till tta 
specific gravity is 1^7. It then begins 
to be decomposed by heat, sulphurous 
acid flies ofi^ and sulphuric acid remains 
behind. It is found that it can be com- 
pletely resolved into sulphurous and sul- 
phuric acids, in the proportion of four 
parts of the former to five {Murts of 
the latter. Thus we know five com- 
pounds of oxygen and sulphur, all of 
which are acids. Their names, con- 
stituents, and combining weights, are as 
follows : 



Sulphur. 






Oxyfen. 


Combining Weight. 


2 atoms 


- 


- 


1 atom 


5 


1 


- 


- 


1 


3 


1 


. 


_ 


2 


4 


1 


_ 


_. 


3 


5 


2 


- 


- 


5 


9 



pliiiret of iron is commonly employed, 
and may be formed by heating together 
iron filings and sulphur in a covered cru- 
cible. Sulphureted hydrogen gas is color- 
less, and has a strong, fetid smell, not un- 
like that of rotten eggs. It does not sup- 
port combustion, nor can animals breatne 
It without suffocation. Its specific grav- 
ity is 1.1805. It is rapidly absorb^ by 
^vater, — 100 cubic inches of this liquid 
absorbing 308 cubic inches of sulphureted 
hydrogen. The water thus impregnated 
is colorless, but it has the smell of the 
gas ; and a sweetish, nauseous taste. It 
converts vegetable blue colors to red. 
When the gas is mixed with common 
air, it bums rapidly, but does not explode. 
When three volumes of sulphureted hy- 
drogen gas, and two volumes of sulphur- 
ous acid gas, both dry, are minded over 
mercury, they unite together, ancfare con- 
densed UDto a solid body, which adheres 
firmly to the sides of the vesael. To this 
compound, which possesses acid proper- 
ties, the name of hjdrosvlphurous acyl is 
applied. Its taste is acid and hot ; and it 
leaves an impression in the mouth, which 
continues for some time. It requires 
a greater heat to produce fusion than sul- 
phur. Another compound of sulphur 
and hydrogen, called hisvlphurel of hy- 
drogen, is formed as follows : Carbonate 
of potash is fused with an excess of sul- 
phur in a covered crucible, by which a 
sulphuret of potash is formed. A con- 
centrated solution of this sulphuret is 
poured, by little and little* into dilute murl- 



54 



SULPHUR-SUMACa 



atic acid, whicn gives rise to a yellow, oily- 
lookinff liquid, which collects at the bot- 
tom of the vessel This liquid is the hi- 
sulphuret of hydrogen. It cannot be 
kept, for it undergoes spontaneous de- 
composition even in weu-closed vessels, 
being converted into sulphur and sul- 
phureted hydrogen. Sulphur has the 
property of conioining with carbon, and 
of forming a very remarkable compound, 
called biatdphuret of carbon. It is K>rmed 
as follows: — ^Fill a porcelain tube with 
charcoal, and make it pass through a fur- 
nace in such a way, that one end shall be 
considerably elevated above the other. 
To the lower extremity lute a wide glass 
tube, of such a length and shape, that its 
end can be plunged to the bottom of a 
glass bottle filled with water.' To the ele- 
vated extremity lute another wide glass 
tube, filled with small bits of sulphur, and 
secured at the further end, so that the sul- 
phur may be pushed forward by means 
of a wir^ without allovong the inside of 
the tube to communicate with the exter- 
nal air. Heat the porcelain tube, and, 
consequently, the charcoal which it con- 
tain% to redness, and continue the heat, 
till air bubbles cease to come from the 
charcoal ; then push the sulphur slowly, 
and piece afler piece, into the porcelain 
tube. A substance passes through the 
glass tube, and condenses, under the 
water of the bottle, into a liquid. This 
liquid WHS obtained bv LAmpadius in 
X796, and described under the name of 
alcohol of atdphw. It is as transparent 
and colorless as water ; its taste is acid, 
pungent, and somewhat aromatic; its 
smell is nauseous and fetid, though quite 
peculiar; specific gravity 1J27. It boils 
at 105^, and does not congeal when cool- 
ed down to 60°. It is one of the most 
volatile liquids known, and produces a 
greater degree of cold by its evaporation 
than any other substance. It takes fire 
in the open ^r, at a temperature scarcely 
above o20°. It is scarcely soluble in 
water ; but alcohol and ether dissolve it 
readily. It is composed of sulphur 84.83 
and carbon 15.17. Bisulphuret of carbon 
was found by doctor Brewster to exceed 
all fluid bodies in refractive power. In 
dispersive power, it exceeds every fluid 
substance except oil of cassia, holding an 
intermediate place between phosphorus 
and balaam or Tolu. Sulphur combines 
witi) boron, ailicon and phosphorus, and 
forms sulphkrels of these substances. ( For 
an account of the sulphuretsof the metals, 
see the different metals.) 

SuLPHUBic Acid. (See Sulphur,) 



Sultan, in Arabic, signifies mighty* 
The Tur^h emperor is called mton, 
or grand suUan, although the title of jni- 
dimah (q. v.) is more dignified. The 
princes of the family of the khan of the 
Crim Tartars are also styled suUan, The 
pacha of Egypt is' likewise honored with 
this title, by the inhabitants of the coun- 
tnr, but not at the court of Constantino- 
ple. In common life, every person is ad- 
dressed, out of civility, as svUanum (my 
lord). The Europeans also call the wives 
of the sultan, sultanas ; but the Turks call 
tisem merely first, second, or third wife, 
&c. Tlie first is she who first bears a 
son to the sultan. She is likewise called 
by Europeans the favorite sultana. She 
has the precedency of all the women of 
the seraglio, unless her son dies before 
the sultan, and another of the wives has a 
son older than any of hers surviving. The* 
title of sultana is applied properly only to 
one of the wives, who is actually declared 
wife and empress ; but this is rarely done, 
on account of the expense of a second 
court, which would be necessary. At 
Constantinople, only the daughters of 
the sultan are called suUanas ; and ,they 
retain this title even after marriage with 
the officers of the sultan. The daughters 
of such a marriage are tenned kanum 
sultanas (ladies of we blood). If the moth- 
er of the sultan is living, she is styled 
Walidet'SuUana, or suUana Valide. She 
is treated with great respect, and her son 
cannot choose a new wife or concubine 
without her consent. (See Harem,) Sul- 
tana is also the name of a Tuiicish ship of 
war, carrying about sixty-six guns, witl> 
800 men. 

Sumach {rhus); a genus of plants, be- 
longing to the natural femily terebintha- 
ce<e, consisting of shrubs or small trees, 
with small, inconspicuous flowers, dispose- 
ed in racemes or panicles, and leaves usu- 
ally pinnate, somewhat resembling those 
of the walnut, but in some species temate 
or simple. More than seventy species 
are known: all have a lactescent juice, 
more or less acrid, and containing a gum- 
resui. — R, coriaria is found in the coun- 
tries about the Mediterranean. The younff 
branches, dried and powdered, wei*e used 
by the ancients for tanning leather ; and 
at the present time, in some parts of Spain 
and Italy, the black morocco is chiefly 
prepared with this plant The roots con- 
tain a brown, and the" bark a yellow dye. 
The seeds are in common use at Aleppo, 
at meals, to provoke an appetite. Both 
leaves and seeds are used in mediciue, as 
astringent and styptic. — R, t^hina is a 



SUMACH— SUMATRA. 



SS 



fifaruli, twelve or fifteen feet high, com- 
moD in the northern paAsof the U. States. 
The young branches are thick, and cov- 
ered with a dense coating of hairs ; hence 
the common name of sUif^B horn aumacK 
The leaves are pinnate, and composed of 
eleven to fifteen serrated leaflets. The 
flowers are small and numerous, disposed 
in an upright hairy panicle, and are suc- 
ceeded by small berries, which finally 
mm red, and render this shrub a conspic- 
uous object in the woods. It has been 
long cultivated in the European gardens 
for omaoienL The berries possess the 
same properties as those of the preceding, 
and a vexy abundant milky juice flows 
from the bark. This last "^ pulverized, 
and employed for tanning. — R, glabra 
precisely resembles the preceding in hab- 
it, and is only distinguished by the smooth- 
iieas of the leaves and young shoots. It 
extends farther south, and is common in 
the Middle States ; often overrunning land 
left for a few years in pasture. The ber- 
ries dye red, and the branches boiled with 
the berries afibrd a black, ink-like tinc- 
ture. It is likewise cultivated for orna- 
ment, in the European gardens, and pos- 
sesses the same properties as the preced- 
ing. — R. pumUa is a low, pubescent spe- 
cies, from the mountains of Carolina, 
which is said toJB|j||A most poisonous of 
the genus. — R. ^^^v? commonly call- 
ed dog-wood or jtKIm sumach^ is not un- 
common in the Korthem and Middle 
States. It attains the height of twelve to , 
twenty feet. The leaves are smooth and 
entire'; the flowers greenish-white, dis- 
posed in loose panicles, and succeeded by 
whitish berries. Tbe poisonous qualities 
of this plant are well known. Some per- 
pons are aflfected by touching or smelling 
any part of it, or even by coming within 
a certain distance; while others appear to 
be entirely exempt from its influence. 
When the poison has been communicat- 
ed, inflammation appears on the skin, in 
large blotches, in a day or two ; soon af- 
ter^ small pustules rise in the inflamed 
parts, and nil with watery matter, attended 
with intolerable itchii^ and burning, and 
lasting several days. — AcopcdUna is abun- 
dant in sandy soil, in many parts of the Mid- 
dle and Southern States. It is easily distin- 
guished by tbe leafy expansion on each 
side of the common petiole. The flowers 
are greenish-yellow, and are disposed in 
panicles at the extremities of the branch- 
esw — R, radicaru, often tailed, in this coun- 
try, /loison try, is a climbing, woody vine, 
which adheres to the trunks and branches 
of trees, by means of root-like suckers. 



The leaves are teniate, and the flowers are 
disposed in litde axillary racemes. It is 
common in the Northern and Middle 
States, and affects certain individuals in 
the same manner as the poison sumach ; 
but it seems to be less virulent, and fewer 
persons are exposed to its influence. — R. 
aromaJUca diflers widely in habit from the 
others. It is a small shrub, with temate 
leaves, having the flowers disposed in 
aments, which grows chiefly on the Alle- 
ffhanies, and in the Western States. The 
berries are hairy and red. The celebrat- 
ed Japan varnish is obtained from a spe- 
cies of r^ttf, which was formerly consid- 
ered identical with our poison sumach ; 
but now is recognised as a distinct spe- 
cies, having the under surface of the leaves 
downy and velvety. This varnish oozes 
from the tree, on its being wounded, and 

Sows thick and black when exposed to 
eair. It is so transparent, that when 
laid pure and unmixed upon boxes or fur- 
niture, every vein of the wood may be 
clearly seen. With it the Japanese var- 
nish over the posts of their doors and win- 
dows, their drawers, chests, boxes, cim- 
eters, fans, teu (*ups,soujp-diBhes,and most 
articles of household nirniture made of 
wood. 

SuMAROKOFF, Alcxsudcr Petrowitscii, 
a distinguished Russian tragic poet, who 
formed himself on French models, was 
bom in 1718, and died at Moscow in 177 V. 
His tragedies, in point of harmony, taste, 
and purity of style, are compared to those 
of Racine, though inferior m poetical in- 
spiration. His principal woiics are Sine- 
us and Truwor (which appeared in 1755), 
Semire, Jaropolkund Demise, Korew and 
Aristone; all of which were translated 
into French in 1801. He also wrote 
Hamlet,Ritschelas, and the Pseudo-Deme- 
trius. The last is considered his best 
work (translated into French in 1800, also 
into English). Sumarokoff also wn>te 
comedies, fables and epigrams. 

Sumatra ; an island in the eastern seas, 
the largest and most westerly of the Sun- 
da islands, separated from, the continent 
by the straits of Malacca, and from Java 
bv the straits of Sunda. It is divided 
obliquely by the equator into almost equal 

Sarts, and its general direction is from 
[. W. to S. E. ; lat. of one extremity 5°5(y 
N., of the other 5° 56^ S. It is about 1000 
miles long, and 165, on an average, broad ; 
square miles, about 160,000. A chain of 
high .mountains runs through the whole 
extent of the island, and the ranges are, in 
many parts, double and treble. Mount 
Ophir, immediately under the equinoctial 



56 



SUMATRA— SUMMER. 



line, is suppowid to be the highest visible 
from the sea, its summit being elevated 
13,842 feet above that level Amonff the 
ridges of mountains are extensive plains 
of great elevation, and of temperate cli- 
mate, the most valuable and beet inhabit- 
ed portion of the island. Here, too, are 
found many large and beautiAil lakes. 
The ridges of mountains lie towards the 
vi'estem shore; in consequence, all the 
greatest rivers are found on the eastern 
side. The climate varies with the height 
of the ground ; but on the plains, the heat 
is not so great as might be expected from 
the position; the thermometer, in the 
greatest heat, about two o'clock P. M., 
generally fluctuatiug from 82° to 85° : at 
sunrise, it is usually as low as 7(F. The 
soil is generally fertile ; the population for 
the most part thin ; and a great portion 
of the island is covered with an in^pene- 
trable forest The most important article 
of cultivation is rice, of which there are 
many different species. Of articles of 
commerce, the most abundant is pepper, 
formerly obtained in greater quantities than 
at present Other productions are, gum- 
benzoin, camphor, cassia, cotton, cofiee, 
&c. The upas (q. v.] tree, and the gigan- 
tic rafflesia {q. v.), are among the vege- 
table curiosities. It is rich in mineral and 
fossil productions ; has long been famous 
for gold, which is still procured in con- 
siderable quantities; and has mines of 
iron, copper, and tin. It produces a great 
variety and abundance of^fhiits, and wild 
animals, as elephants, tigers, rhinoceroses, 
alhgators, &c. ; also birds of various kinds. 
The inhabitants are rather below the mid- 
dle size : their Umbe are for the most part 
slight, bat well shaped. The women flat- 
ten the noses and compress the skulls of 
children newly bom ; and the males de- 
stroy their beards. The inhabitants have 
made but little progress, generally, in the 
arts of industry, Uiough they excel in 
some particular manufactures. The Ma- 
lay language is every where spoken along 
the coasts of Sumatra. (See Malays,) 
Among the modern political divisions of 
the island, the principal are the empire of 
Menancabow and the Malays, the Achi- 
neese (see Acheen), the Battas (q. v.), the 
Rejangs, and the people of Lampong. 
The Dutch first began to form settlements 
on the coasts in 1666, and in 1685, the 
English also established themselves at 
Bencoolen. (a. v.) In 1825, the presiden- 
cy of Bencoolen, of which the capital was 
Fort Marlborough, was ceded to the 
Dutch, in return for Malacca, (q. v.) The 
lattet were already in possession of Pa- 



dang, a strong fortress on the western 
coast^ and of Palembang (25,000 inhabit- 
ants), on the eastern coast. Previous to 
the late revolution in the Netherlands, 
they were making preparations to reduce 
the whole island. Sir Thomas Stamford 
Raffles (q. v.) was the first European who 
penetrated to the interior of the island, 
which he crossed from Bencoolen to Pa- 
lembang. See Maisden's HisUary of Su- 
matra, and Anderson's Mission on ih^ 
East Coast of Sumatra (Edhib., 182(i, 
2 vols.). 

SuMMEB ; in the northern hemisphere, 
the season comprehende(3 in the montli;» 
of June, July, and August; the warmest 
period of the year. South of the equator, 
the summer corresponds, in time, to our 
winter. The entire year is also sometimes 
divided into the summer, or warm season, 
and the winter, or cold season. The 
astronomi(;al summer begins, in the 
northern hemisphere, when the sun has 
reached its greatest northern elevation, — 
therefore arout June 21, — and ends when 
it crosses the equator the second time 
in the year, about September 23. Not- 
withstanding the changes in the signs of 
the ecliptic, produced by the precession 
(q. V.) of the equinoxes, the ancient sisns 
of summer have remained in the calen£u-. 
In the northern hemtohere, they are 
Cancer, Leo, Virgo ; in me southern, Cap- 
ricorn, Aquarius, Pisces. Our summer 
takes place at the time when the earth is 
at the greatest distahce from the sun, 
and hence moves the slowest The di- 
ameter of the sun, therefore, appears con- 
siderably smaller at this season than in 
winter, and the summer of the northern 
hemisphere has ninety-three and a half 
days, — a few days more than the winter, — 
and, therefore, more than the summer of 
the southern hemisphere. Notwithstand- 
ing the greater distance of the sun in 
summer, his rays have much more efifect 
than in winter, because thev fidl more 
directly upon the northern hemisphere. 
He also rises much sooner, and sets much 
later, and, therefore, describes a much 
greater arc in the heavens than in 
winter. At the time when he has reachecl 
the tropic of Cancer, he ascends highest 
in the heavens, and remains longest above 
the horizop ; and we miglit, therefore, 
suppose that this would be the period of 
the greatest heat. But experience sheik's 
that the greatest heat generally takes 
place in August, throughout the whole 
northern hemisphere, far beyond the 
polar circle. The reason of this circum- 
stance is, that, in August, the influence 



SUMMER— SUN. 



57 



of the sun's rays has been felt for a long 
lime on the eartfi, and that, whhin the 
polar circle, as &r as to the tenth or 
twelfth degree from the pole, the ice has 
been thawed and the temperature of the 
air moderated ; hence the wind which 
blows firom those northern regions to me 
south is milder.. — See Meyer's Munwd 
of Pkyncal JUtifmomy, theory of the 
Earthj and Meteorology (German, Got- 
tingen, 1805). 

Sumter, Thomas, a distinguished par- 
tisan officer, during the American revo- 
lutionary war, died June 1, 1832, at his 
residence, near the Bradford springs, 
South Carolina, afler a short ilhiess, in 
the ninety-eighth year of his age. In the 
commencement of his militaiy career, he 
was severely tried by advernty, and ac- 
quired such circumspection and pru- 
dence, that the enterprises which he 
subsequently conducted were, for the 
most part, crowned with brilliant success. 
He gave the first check to the' success of 
the British in South Carolina, afler the 
fall of Charleston, in 1780. The aflSiirs 
of the state then wore the most gloomy 
aspect ; the citizens were in the deepest 
d^pondency, and had abandoned all hope 
of further resistance, when colonel Sum- 
ter, at the head of a small baud of fol- 
lowers, who had been forced to retreat, 
returned to the state, raised again the 
standard of opposition, and revived and 
maintained the spirits of the people b^ a 
'series of gallant achievements, tie first 
routed, July 12, 1780, at Williams's planta- 
tion, a marauding detachment of the ene- 
my's army, commanded by captain Huck, 
a miscreant who had excited universal 
abhorrence by his cruelty and profanity. 
In the same month, he made attacks on 
the posts of Rocky mount and Hanging 
rock, the first of which was completely 
successful, as would have been the sec- 
ond, also, could he have restrained the 
insubordination of his troops, and de- 
stroyed their avidity for plunder and 
lk)uor. He destroyed, however, the 
princ« of Wales's regiment. Soon afler, 
he captured a convoy nf stores passing 
from Ninety-Six to Cainden ; but, unfortu- 
nately, encamping within striking dis- 
tance of the enemy, he was surpiised by 
Tarieton, and routed, with the loss of 
many men and all the prisoners and 
stores that had recently rallen into his 
hands. He was next attacked near Broad 
river by Weniyss, who was repulsed, and 
he himself wounded and taken. Major 
Garden, in his Anecdotes of the Revolu- 
tion, states, that lord Comwallis wrote, 



immediately afler this, to Tarieton, ''I 
shall be g!ad to hear that Sumter is in no 
condition to give us further trouble ; he 
certainty has been our greatest plague in 
this countiT." He was accordingly at- 
tacked by Tarieton, in his strong position 
on Blackstock hill, with the usual impet- 
uosity of that officer, who, however, was 
compelled to retreat, with a severe losa^ 
leaving his wounded to the meroy of the 
victor. In this action, Sumter received 
a severe wound, which, for a considerable 
time, arrested his career ; but he viras no 
sooner able to take the field, than he 
again appeared as an active partisan, 
breaking up the British posts in the lower 
country. About this period, he was pro- 
moted to the rank or brigadier-seneral. 
On one occasion, lieutenant-colonelHamp- 
ton, commaiJing under him, dispersed a 
large body of turies, near Dorchester. 
Placed at the head of the light troops, both 
reffulars and militia, Sumter next com- 
pelled lieutenant-colonel Coats to destroy 
his stores, at Monk's .comer, and abandon 
his position. Important services were 
aeain performed by Sumter at Eutaw, 
after which, the enemy, retiring within 
thei> lines, seldom ventured beyond the 
gates of Charleston. General Sumter 
was for a long time a member of the 
American congress, first hb a representa- 
tive, and then a senator, and enjoyed the 
highest respect. He is thus described in 
Lee's Memoira : — " Sumter was younger 
than Marion, who was about forty-eight 
years of age, larger in frame, better fitted, 
m strength of body, to the toils of war, 
and, like his compeer, devoted to the 
freedom of his country. His as|)ect was 
manly and stem, denoting insuperable 
finiiness and lofty courage. Deteniiined 
to deserve succc^ss, he risked his own 
life and the lives of his associates widiout 
reserve." 

SuPT. This magnificent luminarv, the 
great source of light, beat, and life, ap- 
pears to us a circular and resplendent 
disk; from which appearance, and the 
observation of the solar spots (described 
below), it follows that tliis l)ody has a 
form nearly spherical, and turns round its 
axis once m about tweniy-iive and a half 
days, because a sphere only can appear to 
the eye like a cuxulardisk in all {Kwitions. 
The true relation of the sun, not only to 
our earth, but to all the planets of our 
system, has been known since the discov- 
eries of Kepler. The primary planets, 
accompanied by their moons, revolve 
about the sun in elliptical orbits, which 
have but little eccentricity the sun Itself 



58 



SUN. 



being situated in a focus common to all 
these ellipses. His mean distance from 
the earth, which has been finally deter- 
mined, with tolerable accuracy, by the 
observation of his parallax (see the sub- 
sequent part of this article), amounts, in 
round numbers, to about 95,000,000 miles : 
the sun, therefore, is above 400 times far- 
ther distant from us than the moon ; and 
a cannon ball which moves 600 feet in each 
second, would require about 26 years to 
reach it. The apparent diameter of the 
Sim is pretty nearly the same as that of 
the moon : it is somewhat above half a 
decree ; yet, according to the various 
pomtB of the earth's orbit, from which we 
observe the same, varies somewhat — a 
necessary consequence of the elliptical 
form of this orbit The conclusions which 
we draw from the differences in the ap- 
parent magnitude of the sun as to the 
different distances of this body from the 
earth, agree perfectly with what we learn, 
respecting tne same subject, from other 
sources ; so that this point may be con- 
sidered as well settled. The mass of the 
sun, which exceeds that of all the planets 
together 800 times, is, in proportion to that 
of our earth, according to Piazzi,as 329,630 
to 1 ; the diameter exceeds that of the earth 
112 times, the surface 12,700 times, the 
solid contents 1 ,435,000 times. The earth 
appears, as Biot says, by this statement, a 
mere grain of sand, compared to the sun, 
which, again, in his turn, is but a point 
in infinite space. Respecting the physi- 
cal structure of the sun, astronomers have 
cntjrtained different opinions, from times 
immemorial. The hypothesis of Herschel 
is, tliat the sun is an opaque body, having 
on its surface mountams and valleys, like 
the earth, the whole surrounded by an 
atmosphere constantly filled with lumi- 
nous clouds. These sometimes open in 
particular places, and allow the body of 
the sun to be seen ; hence the appearance 
of solar spots. This hypothesis seems to 
be preferable to that of Laplace (who 
imagines the sun to be a burning body), 
because it allows us to conceive that the 
sun is inhabited, which better agrees with 
the wise use made of space by a benefi- 
cent Omnipotence. 

Parallax of the Sun, — Parallax and 
horizontal parallax have been explained 
in the article Parallax. The horizontal 
parallax of the sun has been known with 
greater accuracy since the transit of Venus 
over the sun's' disk in 1761 and 1769. 
As the orbit of the earth includes that of 
Venus, the latter must sometimes appear 
1»etween us and the sun. The duration 



of such a transit for the centre of the 
earth ma^ be calculated ; and on com- 
parinff this with the duration actually ob- 
served on the surface of the earth, the 
difference of the two results enables us to 
deduce the horizontal parallax of the sun, 
and hence the distance of the two lumi- 
naries from each other. In this way the 
mean horizontal parallax of the sun has 
been estimated by Dur6jour at 8^ 8^', and 
by Biot at & 7", which makes the mean 
distance of the sun from die earth amount 
to 23,439 tunes the radius of the eortli 
f which is about 4000 miles in lensth), or, 
m round numbers, 94,000,000 miles. If^ 
this horizontal parallax is taken but one 
tenth of a second smaller, we must add 
to this distance an amount equal to 215 
times the radius of the earth, which ex- 
plains the difference in the statements of 
the distance. This distance having been 
ascertained with tolerable accuracy, we 
possess the measure of our whole planer 
tary system, aft, according to the second 
law of Kepler (q. v.), the cubes of the 
mean distances of the planets from the 
sun are as the squares of the periods of 
their revolutions (which have long been 
known). Therefore the determining of 
this distance is of the highest importance. 
Respect'mg the transit of Venus, see La- 
londe's Astronomic, Enke's Distance of 
the Sun from the Earth, by the Transit 
of Venus in 1761, and the Transit of Ve- 
nus in 1769 (in German). (See TVansit,) 
Spots on (he Sun. — Spots of irregular 
form are oHen observed in tlie disk of the 
sun (q. v.), in greater or less number. 
They appear in the centre dark, and to- 
wards the margin have a whitish-gray 
umbra, which, however, is oflen observed 
spreading over large sur&ces, without 
that black centre. They originate and 
disappear, sometimes quickly, and with- 
out apparent cause, in the middle of the 
disk; but more frequently are observed 
to rise on die eastern margin, and move 
towards the western, where, thirteen days 
after being first seen, they disappear, and 
again appear on the eastern margin after 
a litde longer period. The spots appear 
to revolve round the sun in about twenty- 
seven days. At particular seasons, thev 
move over the sun in straight lines ; at all 
other times, in lines more or less curved ; 
and the padis described by different spots 
observea at the same time are always par- 
allel to each other, and always have their 
curvature and position determined by the 
season. They appear broadest when 
near the middle point of their passage. 
All this is satisfactorily explained, if Uie 



SUN— SUNDAY-SCHOOLS. 



59 



«pota are considered to adhere to the sun, 
and the latter is considered to turn ac- 
rording to the order of the signs round its 
axis, which is iuclined at aii angle ofSSii^ 
to the ecliptic of the earth. The real 
duration of this rotation, as deduced 
froui the apparent rotation of twenty- 
sex en days, is equal to twenty-five days. 
This difierence is occasioned by the 
fact that the earth, from which this 
rotation is ohserved, is itself moving 
ill the mean time. Herschel's opinion on 
tlje nature of these spots we have men- 
tioned in the previous part of this article. 

Su.x-DiAi. (See Dial,) 

SuNDA Islands ; a group of islands 
lying to the south of Father India. The 
principal islands of the group are Suma- 
tra, Borneo and Java. (See the articles.) 
The gtr€tits of Sunda lie between Suma- 
tra and Java. 

Su^toat; the first day in the week, 
which has its name from the swij as this 
day was already called dies solis with the 
Romans. It is celebrated by Christians 
io commemoration of Christ's having risen 
00 the first day of the week. It was also 
on the first day of the week that the Holy 
(tbost was poured out upon the disciples. 
We have given a history of the Christian 
Sunday under the article Sabbath, and 
shall here only refer the reader, for more 
informatk>n on some points, to Hallam's 
ConttUtdional History of England (ch. , 
viL viiL). In the church services of Eu- 
rope, the Sundays are named from the 
feasts which precede them, or from the 
collects or passages of Scripture with 
which the religious service was formerly 
commenced on the several Sundays : — 
1. Sunday qfler JS/ew Year, so called 
when new year begins on one of the four 
last days of the week. 2. Sundays after 
Epiphemy, which vary from one to six, 
according to the time of Easter. 3. Sep- 
tuafrtsima (q. v.), Sexagesima, and Eslo 
mOu (in the English church, qutnquagesi- 
ma (q. v.) Sunday), The third has its 
Latin name from the beginning of the 
lesson of the day (Psalm Ixxi, 3). 4. Sun- 
days in Ltni. (q. v.) Their names are 
taken from the words with which the les- 
sons of the day begin : Invocaioit (Psalm 
xci, 15); Rtminiscert (Psalm xxv, 6|; 
Oeii/t (Psalm xxv, 15); LtBtare (Isaian 
Ixvi, 10); Judica (Psalm xliii, 1); Podma" 
mm. Palm Sunday, (q. v.) 5. Sundays 
(tfter Easter, six in number, which almost 
all have names of rejoicing : ^uasimodo- 
remH (1 Peter ii, 2), or Whitsunday (see 
jPeii(ecosf); Mtsericordias Domini (Psalm 
xxiii, 6, or Psalm Ixxxix, 2); JuhUate 
(Psalm hm, 1) ; CastHpU (Psalm zcvi, 1) ; 



RogaU (Matt vii, 7) ; Exaudx (Psalm xxvii, 
7). & Sundays after Trinity, The feast 
of Trinitjr was esublished in 1150. The 
greatest number of these Sundays is 
twenty-seven : the number depends upon 
the time of Easter. The later Easter 
&Jls, the more Epiphany Simdays and 
the fewer Trinity Sundays are there. 7. 
Sundays in Advent, (see MvenL) 8. 
Sunday after Christmas, so called when 
this festival fidls upon one of the fin^t four 
days of the week, reckoned from Mon- 
day. (See Festivals,) In the English 
church, the sixth Sunday afler Easter is 
called Sundfxy after Ascension^ and the 
seventh WhiUuftday, 

Sdnoat Letter. (See Dominical 
Letter,) 

Sunday Schools. The founder of the 
modern Sunday schools was Mr. Raikes 
(q. v.), editor of the Gloucester (Eng- 
land) Journal. Struck with the wretched 
appearance of a number of children 
whom he saw playing in the street in the 
suburbs, he was informed by an inhabit- 
ant to whom he addressed himself, that 
on Sundays, when they were released 
from work, and the few who enjoyed the 
benefit of any instruction during the 
week, were let loose from school, they 
presented a more afflicting sight of mise- 
ry and vice. This observation immedi- 
ately suggested to him the idea that the 
profanation of the day might be prevent- 
ed by putting them to school ; and he en- 
gaged several women, who kept schools in 
the neighborhood, to receive such chil- 
dren as he should send to them on Sun- 
days, and instruct them in reading and 
the catechism, paying each of them a 
shilling for their day^s work. He soon 
collected a considerable number of chil- 
dren, distributed books among them, gave 
them advice, settled their quarrels ; and 
the effects of his benevolent exertions 
were so striking, that his example was 
followed by other charitable persons in 
different quarters of the city ; and in a 
few years Sunday schools were establish- 
ed in almost every part of England. Mr. 
Raikes made his first experiment in 1781, 
and, in 1786, it was estimated that 250,000 
children were receiving instruction in 
Sunday schools. (See a letter of Mr. 
Raikes, giving an account of his proceed- 
ings, in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 
liv, p. 410, 1784.) A Sunday school so- 
ciety was formed in 1785 for the encour- 
agement of Sunday schools by pecuniary 
aid, &c., the schools having been at first 
taught by hired teachers. Gratuitous in- 
struction was a great improvement in tho 
system, and appears to have become gen- 



60 



SUNDAY-SCHOOLS— SUN-FLOWEIL 



«ral about 1800. In 1803, the firat Sun- 
day school union was ibrxned in London, 
and the example was soon imitated in 
Ibany large towns and some of the coun- 
ties. In 1826, the number of Sunday 
schools in England under the care of the 
. established church was about 8000, with 
550,450 pupils: the number of those 
established by dissenters is also very 
great. The Scotch Sabbath evening 
schools (first established m Edinbui^h in 
1787) arose from the English Sunday 
schools, but are modified by the circum- 
stance that, as nearly all the children in 
that countiy are taught to read in the pa- 
rochial schools, the Sabbath evening 
schools are more entirely devoted to di- 
rect religious instruction than the Sunday 
schools. In this country, the first Sunday 
schools were opened at New York, in 
1816 ; and they have since multiplied rap- 
idly, and overspread the whole country. 

SuNDERBUNDs ; an extensive, woody, 
inhospitable district of Hindoostan, inter- 
sected by the mouths of the Ganges, in 
the south part of the country of Bengal. 
This district is about 10,000 square miles 
in extent, and is intersected bv innume- 
rable rivers and creeks, all of which are 
salt ; and through the whole tract nothing 
but brackish water is found; and it is 
generally uninhabited, except by tigers 
and deer. The navigation by boats 
through the Sunderbunds is very roman- 
tic, and boats coming down to Calcutta 
in the hot season are obliged to take this 
route. The trees are all of small size, not 
useful for timber, but very valuable in 
affording a supply of fuel for Calcutta 
and other towns on the river. 

SuffDERLAND; a market-town and sea- 
port of England, county of Durham, near 
the mouth of the Wear. Here the malig- 
nant cholera made its first appearance in 
England in 1831. With Monk Wear- 
tnouth and Bishop Wearraouth, it forms 
one connected town. The High street 
is spacious, and tolerably handsome, 
especially the central part, which rises 
with a considerable ascent. Some of 
the other streets are narrow and dirty ; 
but of late years the general ap|)earance 
of the town has been improved. Of its 
public buildings, the church, a chapel of 
ease, a Methodist chapel, and meeting- 
houses for the Presbyterians, Inde- 
pendents, Baptists, Quakers, and Unita- 
rians, the exchange, &c., are the princi- 
paL The harbor is formed by two piers, 
on the south and north sides of the river. 
The iron uridge consists of an arch of iron 
frame- work, thrown over tfie river, 237 
feet i^Mm, and rising 100 feet above the 



level of the water ; so that ships of 400 
tons can sail und^r it, by striking their 
top-gallant masts. The trade of Sunder- 
land has been lone on the increase. Coal 
is the staple article of export, employing 
600 craft The manufiictures are chiefly 
of fiint and bottle gla^s, earthen ware, cop- 
peras. Coal is the staple article of export. 
Ship-building is carried on to a great ex- 
tent. By the reform bill it returns, with 
the Wearmouths, two members to parlia- 
ment Population of the whole town in 
1821,33,911. 267 milesnorthfi-om London. 

Sun-Dew (drosera). These delicate 
plants are found in marshes and moist 
places. They attract attention chiefly 
from their leaves, which are all radical^ 
and, fringed with hairs, each of which 
supports a globule of pellucid, dew-like 
liquor, even in the hottest weather. The 
flowers are small, and mostly white ; but 
in one Morth American species, they are 
conspicuous, and of a fine purple color. 
These plants are remarkable for having ' 
the unexpanded leaves rolled up in the 
same manner as the ferns — a disposition al- 
most unique among phsenogamous plants. 
The most common species, D. rotundH- 
folia, is an acrid, caustic plant, which cur- 
dles milk, removes warts and corns, and 
takes awity freckles and sunburn : distil- 
led with wine, it produces a verv stimu- 
lating spirit ; and it was formerly much 
used as a tiuctnre, spiced and sweetened. 

Sun-Fish (ortkagoriscus) ; a cartilagi- 
nous fish of a very singular form : the 
body is compressed, broad, abruptly 
tnmrAted, resembling, in fact, the head of 
a large fish separated from the body : tlie 
mouth and eyes are very small. Its 
nearly circular form, and the silvery 
whiteness of the sides, together with their 
brilliant phosphorescence during the 
night, have obtained for it very generally 
tlie appellations of sun or moon-fish. 
While swimming, it turns upon itself like 
a wheel. It grows to an immense size, 
often attaining the diameter of four feet, 
and sometimes even that of twelve, 
and weighing from three to five hundred 
pounds. It is very fat, and yields a great 
quantity of oil ; but the flesh is ill tasted, 
and exhales a disagreeable odor. It 
is found in all seas, from the aiTtic 
to the antarctic circle. Two or three 
species are known. In the U. States, 
the same name is often applied to a fish 
of the perch lamily ( pomotis\ of a com- 
pressed and elevated iorm, very common 
m most of our lakes and rivers. The 
fenus pomotis is peculiar to North Amer- 
ica, and several species are now known. 

SuN-Fi^owKB (hfJiarUhus) ; a genus o{ 



SUN-FLOWERr-SUPERIOR. 



61 



plants, 8o caSed from the ideal resem- 
blance of the yellow flowers to the sun 
with his golden rays. The root is mostly 
perennial ; the stem herbaceous, upright, 
and often very tall; the leaves opposite 
or alternate, undivided, often rigid and 
scabrous ; the flowers large and ternunal, 
usually disposed in a corymb. It belongs 
to the comp^mtit. The species are nume- 
rous, and mostly inhabit North America. 
The gigantic sun-flower (H. annuus), so 
cT>nmion in our cardens, is a native of 
Peru. The root is annual ; the stem 
thick, cylindrical, roush, flrom six to fif- 
teen feet in height ; the leaves alternate, 
petiolate, lam, and somewhat heart- 
slhqjed ; the flowers, sometimes a foot in 
diameter, are so inclined as to take nearly 
a vertical position, and usually are turned 
towards the south ; they have th^ disk 
very large, and the rays short in propor- 
tion. The seeds form excellent nourish- 
ment for poultry and for cage birds ; and 
an edible oil has also been expressed fiom 
them. — H. tubtraaus is a native of Brazil, 
and has been extensively cultivated in Eu- 
rope for the sake of its tuberous roots, 
which are used as a substitute for the po- 
tato. It is often called Jeruftdem ma- 
choke, the first term being a corruption of 
the Italian word girasoU ; and the latter 
has been applied to it firom the resem- 
blance in the flavor of the roots to that of 
the common artichoke. These roots are 
paten cooked in various manners, but 
are not so generally liked as potatoes; 
neither are they so nourishing or whole- 
some : they are, however, excellent for 
sheep and other domestic animals during 
the winter season. The plant flourishes 
in every soil, requiring little attention ; 
but in a good soil the roots are larger and 
of a better quality. When once planted, 
they may be left Yor years upon the same 
ground, as there are always enough roots 
remainmg for reproduction, after the re- 
moval of all that are wanted for the pur- 
poses of aliment. The season in which 
they are diig up f<5r use is from about the 
middle of September to November. So 
extremely productive is this valuable 
plant, that between seventy and eighty 
tons of the roots are said to have been 
obtained in one season from a sinde acre of 
ground. This plant grows to tne height 
of eight or nine feet: the flowers are much 
smaller than those of the preceding. 

SuiTNA ; with the ancient northern 
tribes, the soddess of the sun. Her 
brother was Mani, god of the moon.* In 

* hi Gennan, the ran (Sonne) is feminine, and 
the moon {Mond) maaeuline. 
VOL. XIL 6 



honor of her, a boar was fattened through 
the year ; and at the be^innuig of Febru- 
ary, it was sacrificed, with many ceremo- 
nies. Eight days before January, the 
boar was carried to the ruler of the coun- 
try, and on its back the principal men took 
the oath of fidelity and alleffiance. The 
image of Sunna was a half-naked wo- 
man, standing upon a column, with rays 
round her head. Before her breast she 
held a radiant wheel with out-stretched 
arms. 

Sunna, in the Mohammedan religion. 
(See Sunn^J) 

SiTNNiTEs; those Mohammedans who 
receive the Swma(i,e, a collection of tradi- 
tions relating to Mohammedanism) as of 
equal importance with the Koran. There 
are several diversities in tlie copies of the 
Sufma, Those of the Persians, Arabians 
and Africans are entirely opposed to each 
other ; hence the various sects. The ad- 
herents of Ali, who reject the Stinno, and 
regard Ali as Mohammed^ successor in 
the dignity of high-priest (for instance, 
the Persians), are called by the Suimites 
(the Ottoman Turks) ShvUes (i. e. her- 
etics). 

SuovETAURiLiA ; s Roman sacrifice, 
usually oflTered after the census of the 
people had been taken. It consisted of a 
hog (9U8), a sheep (ovw), and a steer {tau- 
nu) ; hence the name. All these animals 
were males. 

Superior; the largest lake in North 
America, and the largest body of fresh 
water that has been discovered in any 
pan of the globe. Its length is difl*erent- 
Jy estimated by travellers and geogra- 

})her8: some make it 490 or 500 miles 
ong, and 1700 in circumference ; others, 
^50 miles long, and 1500 miles in cir- 
cumference. Its widest part is said to 
be 190 miles. This is the most western 
of the great chain of lakes, which dis- 
charge their waters by the St. Lawrence. 
Its surface is 641 feet above the Atlantic. 
It is 900 feet deep. Its waters are very 
pure and transparent; and it abounds 
with trout, white fish and sturgeon. The 
names of these fish are likely to convey 
diminutive ideas both as to numbers and 
quantity; but we must think of trout 
quite equal in size to the cod of the New- 
foundland banks, and of white fish and 
sturgeon comparatively lai-ge. The ave- 
rage weight of the trout exceeds twelve 
pounds, and many weieh forty, and some 
even fifty pounds. These fish exist in 
such numbers, that there can be no doubt 
that they will supply the whole country 
in the north-west section of the U. States, 



superioiu-supernaturalism: 



and Upper Canada, with dried fish, ^en 
that country shall be peopled by many 
millions. Lakes Huron and Michigan 
also abound with them. This lake, and 
the others, also, abound witlj pike, pick- 
erel, carp, bass, herring, and numerous 
other kinds of fish. The great lakes, 
firom the comparative shallowness of their 
beds, and tbe circumstance that their 
waters possess less specific gravity than 
those of tbe ocean, — and it may be firom 
other causes, — wben swept by tne winds, 
raise waves more rough and dangerous 
than those of the sea, though not quite 
so mountainous. It has been often as- 
serted that they have diurnal and septen- 
nial fluxes and refluxes. This, howev- 
er, is not an established fiict; and we 
are certain that, even if they exist, they 
are irregular and inconsiderable. The 
waters of lake Superior are partly 
derived from the marshes and shallow 
lakes, covered with wild rice, which sup- 
ply the upper watera of the Mississippi. 
These are slimy and unpalatable until 
they find their level, and undei^o the 
action of the lake, where they become 
transparent, and lose tlieir swampy taste. 
The lower strata of the waters of the 
lake never gain the temperature of sum- 
mer. A bottle sunk to the depth of a 
hundred feet, and there filled, in midsum- 
mer, feels, when brought to the surface, 
as if filled with ice-water. The shores 
of this lake, especially on the north and 
south, are rocky and nearly barren. In 
some places, the coast is ver^ rouffh, and 
highly elevated. The lake is of difficult 
navigation ; but there seem to be no in- 
surmountable obstacles to its becoming a 
pathway for all vessels of stren^h and 
ffood size. It contains many islands. 
Isle Royal, the largest, is said to be one 
hundred miles long, and forty broad. It 
receives more than diirty rivers, and dis- 
charges its watera into lake Huron by the 
river or strait of St. Marv. The pictured 
rocks, so called from their appearance, 
are on the south side of the lake, towards 
the east end. They are an extraordinary 
natural curiosity. They form a perpen- 
dicular wall (loo feet high, extending 
about twelve miles. They present a great 
variety of forms, having numerous pro- 
jections and indentations, and vast cav- 
erns, in which the entering waves make 
a jarring and tremendous sound. Among 
the objects here which attract particular 
attention, are the cascade La Portaille and 
the I>oric arch. The cascade consists of 
a considerable stream, precipitated firom 
the height of about seventy feet by a 



single leap into the lake. It leaps to 
such a distance, that a boat may pass dry 
between it and the rocks. The Doric 
rock, or ar^.h, has the appearance of a 
work of art, consisting of an isolated 
mass of sandstone, with four pillara sup- 
porting an entablature or stratum of stone, 
covered with soil, and a handsome growth 
of pine and spruce trees, some of which 
are fifty or sixty feet high. The only 
outlet to tliis lake ib St. Mary's strait. 
This extends to lake Huron : othera con- 
nect the other lakes ; and the combined 
watera of all find their way to the oceaa 
by the St. Lawrence. It is not, however, 
to be ima^ned, that the St La^vrence 
discharges an amount of water that is dt 
all comparable with what the lakes re- 
ceive. They spread over so great a sur- 
fiice, that the evaporation from them must 
be immense. They are scarcely affected 
by the spring floods of the hundreds of 
rivera which they receive ; and their out- 
lets have no such floods. Like the ocean 
itself, these mighty mland seas seem to 
receive without increase, and to impart 
without diminution. 

Superior Planets. (See Phmets,) 
SuFERNATURALiSM, a word chiefly 
used in German theology, is contradistin- 
guished to raJtumedism. It is difficult to 
give any satisfactory view of these con- 
flicting religious opinions, within our 
limits ; but the subject is too interesting to 
be wholly passed over. In its widest ex- 
tent, supernaturalism is the doctrine, that 
religion and the knowledge of God re- 
quire a revelation fix)m God. So far there 
is no difference of sentiment All admit 
that God cannot be conceived of, except 
on the supposition that he has manifested 
himself; but the next step gives rise to 
disagreement What is this manifesta- 
tion or revelation, from which we deri^-e 
the knowledge of God ? Some conceivo 
such knowledge to be conveyed only bj' a 
direct external communication from God ; 
to which it is objected that freedom of 
faith and knowledge would be thereby 
destroyed, and, at the same time, all exam- 
ination of true religion, and distinction of 
it from superetition and fanaticism, would 
cease. To this supernaturalism, which 
considera religi6n {is something supernat- 
ural, excluding the free activity of the intel- 
lectual nature of man, is opposed the other 
extreme, that religion is founded on hu- 
man reason alone, and can dispense with 
a revelation firom God. But, generally 
speaking, the words siq^trnatwrmism and 
rationalism are used particularly in refer- 
ence to the ChiiBtian religion. Rationaliam 



SUPERNATURAUSM-SUPREMACY. 



63 



that the Chriatkn religion 
must be judged of^ like other phenomena, 
by the only means which we have to 
judge with, viz. reason. It often goes 
fiuther, and asserts, that Jesus was only 
a man of an elevated character, who pu- 
rified religion fix>m corruption, and incul- 
cated nobler views respecting God, and 
the destiny of man, than tliose which had 
prevailed among the Jews and heathens 
oeibre him, and preached and practised a 
purer morality, which, through God's fa- 
vor, became widely diflfused. All notions 
which cannot be reconciled with these, 
they say, ought to be considered as addi- 
tions to the simplicity of Christianity, and to 
be set aside, or rejected. Supematuralism 
considers the Christian religion as an ex- 
traordinary phenomenon, out of the cir- 
cle of natural events, and as communi- 
cating truths above the comprehension of 
human reason. Jesus is tliat person of 
the Godhead who brought this supernat- 
ural truth to men, and, by his blood, saved 
the human species from the lost stale to 
which it had been reduced by tlie fall of 
Adam, rose again, and now rules the world 
with God the Father. Human reason 
roust therefore receive, unconditionally, 
the mysterious truths, divinely couimuni- 
cated in the Holy Scripture; and this 
is the only way to learn tlie truth and ob- 
tain salvation. These views are variously 
modified ; and, as is the case with all im- 
portant questions, many believe that both 
run into extremes ; that in the one, too 
much is claimed for human reason, whilst 
in the other, feeling has an undue ascen- 
dency; that supernaturalism has depth 
without clearness, and rationalism, such 
as we have represented it, clearness with- 
out depth. This intermediate party, who 
by some have been termed ratiwiali^, 
whilst the extreme party are called hy- 
perralumalisU^ say that supematuralism 
remoyes religious truth beyond the sphere 
of the human understanding, and even 
beyond the possibility of recognition. If, 
say they, divine truth issomethinff which 
comes entirely from without, ana is un- 
connected with other truth, where is our 
capacity to recognise it? The revelation 
of the omnipresent Ruler of the world, 
which pervades all a^^es, is, they further 
say, annihilated, if Chnstianity has no con- 
nexion with that revelation, or manifes- 
tation, and if it is essendally different from 
what existed before, or without it. On 
the other hand, they allow that the hy- 
perrationalists nusunderstand the charac- 
ter of human reason, and oppose it to 
Chrivtianiiy, so as to reduce this to an or- 



dinaiy subject of human judginent. Chris- 
tianity they consider as intermediate 
between these two views, as presenting in 
Christ the sublimest union of man with 
God, whilst it leaves to theological sci- 
ence the task of unfolding the full extent 
of revealed truth. 

Superstition ; the error of those 
who, in their opinions of the causes on 
which the fate of men depends, believe 
or disbelieve, without judgment and 
knowledge. The external causes by which 
the fate of men is decided, are God 
and nature ; and accordingly there is a 
religious, and a philosophical supersti- 
tion. Superstition shows itself either in 
deriving natural effects from supernatural 
causes, attributing, for instance, an un- 
common disease, connected with striking 
symptoms, to the influence of some evu 
spirit, or in believing such events as 
accidentally follow each other to be 
united by invisible connexions ; as, for ex- 
ample, in considerin|^ a comet a messenger 
of oisu-ess, because it has happened some- 
times, that, after the appearance of a 
comet, a misfortune has taken place. It 
is impossible to point out all the kinds of 
superstition, as they have existed among 
dinerent nations, and to estimate the mel- 
ancholy effects which they have had on 
human virme and happiness. Yet it is not 
always easy to fix tne limits of supersti- 
tion ; and many an assertion or opinion, 
which has been rejected, at one time, as 
mere sui)erBtition, has been proved, in 
later times, to be founded in tnith. Med- 
ical science, in particular, a^rds many 
such instances. 

. SuppiKMENT OP AN Arc, in goomctry, 
is the number of degrees that it wants of 
being an endre semicircle ; as eomplemetd 
signifies what an arc wants of being a 
quadrant In literature, supvlcmcnt is 
an appendage to a book, which supplies 
what was deficient in it. 

Supporters, in heraldry ; figures stand- 
ing on the scroll, and placed by the side of 
the escutcheon, and seeming to support 
or hold up the same. They are sometimes 
human figures, and at other times animals, 
and creatures of the imagination. 

Supremacy. According to the Roman 
Catholics, St Peter was not only the head 
of the apostolical college, but the pastor 
of the universal church. The Roman 
pontifi* is the successor of this prince of 
the apostles, and, like -him, has authoritv' 
and jurisdiction over the whole church, aU 
believers, without exception, owing him 
respect and obedience. The council of 
Trent declared that the sovereign pontiff 



64 



SUPREMACY-*€URGERY. 



18 the' vicar of Gocl upon earth, and haa 
BUfvenie power over all the church. The 
extent of the authority thus aaBumed by 
the pope, is difTereot in different countries, 
and the whole doctrine of the papal bu- 
preinacy is of course rejected by the Prot- 
estant, Greek and other churches. In 
1534, Henry VIII assumed the title of the 
only supreme head, on earth, of the church 
of Elngland. The oath o/Mupremacy (that 
is, of renunciation of the papal suprema- 
cy), with the oath of abjuration (q. v.l 
was formerly required to be taken bv all 
persons m office, and might be tendered, by 
two justices of the beace, to all persons 
suspected of disaffection in England. 
Some modiilcations of the law requiring 
this oath were made in 1793 (see Cathr 
olic Emancifoiion) ; but it was still, with 
the declaration i^inst transubstantiation, 
the invocation of saints, and the sacrifice 
of the mass, requisite as a qualification 
for sitting and voting in parliament, and 
for holding certain offices, until the pas- 
sage of the Catholic relief bill This bill re- 
peals all former acts on the subject, and re- 
quires of a Roman Catholic peer, or mem- 
ber of the house of commons, &c., be- 
sides the oath of allegiance and abjuration, 
the following oath of supremacy : I do 
declare that it is not an article of my fiiith, 
and that I do reject, renounce and abjure 
the opinion, that princes exconununicated 
or deprived by the pope, or any other au- 
thority of the see of Rome, may be de- 
posed or murdered by then* subjects, or 
by any person whatsoever ; and I do de- 
clare that I do not believe that the pope 
of Rome, or any other foreign pnnce, 
prelate, person, state or potentate, hath, or 
ought to have, any temporal or civil juris- 
diction, power, superiority or preemi- 
nence, durecdy or indirectly, within this 
realm. 

Supreme Court of the U. States. 
(See Courts ofihtU. States, ^sramphS.) 

Surat; acity of Hindooetan, in Guzerat, 
on the Taptee, twenty miles from its 
mouth ; Ion. 73» 3' E. ; laL 21^ IS' N. 
The population was estimated, in 1796, at 
800,000 ; the returns of 1816 gave a pop- 
uladon of about 325,000. It is one of 
the most ancient and populous cities of 
India, and was fbrmeriy called the impe- 
rial port, and was the place whence 
Mohammedan pilgrims were conveyed to 
Mecca, often at me expense of govern- 
ment The articles of its commerce were 
of the richest kind, viz. diamonds, pearls, 
gold, mudc, ambergris, spices, indigo, 
saltpetre, silk, and fine cottons. But since 
the rise of Bombay, its commerce has 



much declined, and now conasts chiefiy 
of raw cotton, a few of its ovm manure- 
tures, and articles imported from Guzerat. 
The greater number of vessels that now 
enter the port are Arabs. All large ves*- 
sels are obliged to remain at the mouth of 
the river called Swallow roads, where 
they are somewhat exposed to storms ; but 
the anchorage is good. The value of the 
exports, in 1811, amounted to 3,964,523 
rupees. Surat is situated in a fertile 
plain, protected on one side by the river, 
and on the three others by a brick ram- 
part and ditch. It also possesses a strong^ 
citadel, surrounded by an esplanade. It 
is inhabited by a great variety of people ; 
but the Parsees, or fire worshippeiv, are 
most affluent. In 1807, there were reck- 
oned 1200 Panees of the sacerdotal ckus, 
and 12,000 of the laity. The hospital for 
the preservation of maimed or diseased 
animals was fbrmeriy occupied by rats, 
mice, bugs, &c. The squares of the city are 
large, the streets spacious, but not pared, 
and the dust troublesome. The larger 
houses are flat roofed ; the houses of the 
common people hifh roofed. The civil 
administration of this city has been vested 
m the hands of the English East India 
company since 1800. 

Surd, in arithmetic and alselxa, de- 
notes any number or quantity tnat is in- 
commensurable to unity ; otherwise called 
an irrational number or quantity. (See 
Irrational Quantity.) 

Surgery (from the Greek x^f ^^ hand, 
and hy^Vf work) ; that branch of the heal- 
ing art which cures or prevents diseases 
bv the application of the hand, either un- 
aided or with the aid of instruments. 
War early made the healing of wounds 
more important than the curing of dis- 
eases, which were then less frequent, on 
account of the simple manner of living. 
Fift)ryearB before the Trojan war, Melam- 
pus, Chiron, and his disciple iEsculapius, 
accompanied the Argonautic expedition in 
the quality of surgeons ; and in the Tro- 
jan war, two sons of iEsculapius, Ma- 
chaon and Podalirius, took care of the 
wounded Greeks. The Greek and Ara- 
bian physicians, at a later period, cultivat- 
ed surgery and medicme together, as is 
proved by the works of Hippocrates, Ga- 
len, Celsus, Paulus of iEgina, Albucasis, 
&c However, in the time of Hippoc- 
rates, some surgical operations were kept 
separate from medicine. In the oath of 
Hippocrates, lithotomy was forbidden to 
physicians. The Arabians also felt an 
averaion for operations, and it was con- 
sidered beneath the dignity of phyadans 



BURGERY--SURINAM. 



65 



to operate themBelTee. The Romans left 
them geneiallv to their slaves. In the 
middle ages, the practice of the healing 
8ft was alinoBt exclusively confined to 
the monks and priests. But, in 1 163, the 
council of Toiiis prohibited the clergy, 
who then shared with the Jews the prac- 
tice ot* medicine in Christian Europe, 
from performing any bloody operation. 
Surgery was banished from the universi- 
ties, under the pretext that the church 
detested all bloodshed. Medicine and 
saTf&rj were now completely separated. 
Th» separation was the more easily ef- 
fected, since the bath-keepers and barbers 
had undertaken the practice of surgery. 
At the time of the crusades (from 1 100), 
many diseases were introduced into Eu- 
rope from the East, particularly into Italy, 
France and Germany, which caused the 
frequent use of baths, and the establish- 
ment of bathing-houses. In France, the 
company of barbers was fonned, in 1096, 
when the archbishop William, of Rouen, 
ibrfaade the wearing of the beard. These 
bath-keepers and barbers remained for 
several centuries in possession of the prac- 
tice of surgery. Aieanwhile the mists of 
the middle ages disappeared. Enlight- 
ened by anatomv, surgery assumed a 
new form ; and the woiks of Berensario 
de' Carpi, of Fallopius, of Eustacnius, 
&C., were the true source of the knowl- 
edge with which Ambrose Far6 enriched 
this science, which had been degraded by 
its union with the barber's trade. By the 
discoveries of Ceesar Magatus, Fabricius 
ab Aqua pendente, Wiseman, William 
Harvey, and Fabricius Hildanus, surgeiy 
made new progress. In 1731, the surgi- 
cal academy was established in France, 
which aoon became celebmted throughout 
Europe. Mai^chal la Peyronie, Lamar- 
tini^re, &c., were distinguished surgeons. 
The collection of memoirs and prize 
writings of the surgical academy contains 
the h^ry of this flourishing period. 
There are preserved the labors of J. L. 
Petit, Garengeot, La&ye, Lecat, Sabatier, 
and of several other practitioners. The 
emulation of all Europe was excited by 
such an example. At this period flour- 
ished, in England, Cheselden, Douglas, the 
two MonroB, Sharp, Alanson, Pott, Smel- 
lie, the two Hiuters ; in Italy, Molinelli, 
B^trandi, Moscati ; in Holland, Albinus, 
Deventer, Camper; in Germany and the 
north of Europe, Heister, Zach, Plamer, 
Stein, Roderer, Bilguer, Acrell, Callisen, 
Theden, and Richter. Down to the end 
of the last eentuiy, the French surgical 
academy contained many distinguished 
6» 



members. Desauh (q. v.) became the 
chief of the new school. Besides the 
surgical school of Paris, that of Strasburg, 
and panicularly that of Montpellier( where 
Delpech distinguished himself), which 
has not always agreed with that of Paris, 
are celebrated. Now that surgeiy goes 
hand in hand with medicine, and is sup- 
ported by exact anatomical knowledge, it 
advances with certainty towards perfec- 
tion. All surgeons, however, are not ca- 
pable of performing great operations. 
Some of the necessary qualities may be 
acquired by practice ; but some of them 
must he received from nature. Sam. 
Cooper's Dictionary of Surgery, &c. 
(fourth edition), and Riclierand's Ori^n 
of Modem Surgery (fif\h edition, Paris), 
are much celebrated. 

So RiN AM ; a territory and colony of South 
America, in Guiana, belonging to the 
Netherlands, lyiiig west of French Gui- 
ana and east of English Guiana; bound- 
ed north by the Atlantic, east by the river 
Maroni, south by a country of tlie Indians, 
and west by the river Courantyn. It is 
about 150 miles from east to west, and up- 
wards of sixty from north to south ; square 
miles, about 11,000 ; population, 57,000. 
The principal rivers are the Surinam, 
from which the colony takes its name, the 
Courantyn, Copename, Seramica, and 
Maroni. The first only is navigable : the 
others, though long and broad, are so shal- 
low, and so crowded with rocks and small 
islands, that they are of but little conse- 
quence to Europeans ; nor are their banks 
inhabited, except by Indians. In all of 
them the water rises and falls for more 
than sixty miles from the mouth, occa- 
sioned by the stoppage of the freshes by 
the tide. In the Maroni is found a peb- 
ble called the Marorvi diamond. The 
climate, which was formerly extremely 
fiital to Europeans, has, within the last 
twenty years, been much improved, by the 
increased population of the colony and 
the better clearing of the ground. The 
year is divided into two wet and two dry 
seasons. The highest heat during the 
hot season is stated at 9P ; the common 
temperature from 75® to 84^ This equal 
degree of heat is owing to sea-breezes, 
which regularly set in at ten o'clock, and 
continue till five P. M., cooling the atmos- 
phere with a constant stream of delightful 
air. The settlements are chiefly on the 
Surinam and its branches. The soil is 
very fertile, producing sugar, coffee, cot- 
ton, cocoa, maize, and indigo. The un- 
cultivated parts are covered with im- 
mense forests, rocks, and mountains; 



SURINAM-SUSSEX. 



some of the latter enriched with a varie^ 
of nuDeral productions. The river Sun- 
naoi, which gives name to the colony, 
rises from mountains in the interior, and, 
after a course of about 150 miles, flows 
into the Atlantic, Ion. 55^ 4(y W., laL G^ 
SS^ N. It is about four miles wide at its 
mouth, and from sixteen to eighteen feet 
deep, at low water mark, the tide rising 
and falling above twelve feet. It is navi- 
gable for small craft 120 miles. Parama- 
ribo, twelve miles from its mouth, is the 
capital of the colony. It has a safe and 
convenient harbor, with an active com- 
merce, and contains a population of 8000 
whites, and several thousand ^me blacks, 
slaves, &c. The EInglish have several 
times been in possession of Surinam, but 
finally restored it, in 1815, to the Dutch 
government. 

SuRRET. (See Howard, Henr^,) 

Surrogate ; one who is substituted or 
appointed in the room of another ; as the 
bishop or chancellor's surrogate (from the 
Latin aurrogart). 

SuRsoLio, in arithmetic and algebra; 
the fifth power, or fourth multiplication 
of any number or quantity, considered as 
a root (See RooLS 

Sdrtdrbraitd, fossil wood, impregnat- 
ed more or less with bitumen, is found in 
great abundance in Iceland. A bed of it 
extends nearly through the wliole of the 
north-western part of the island. It is, 
in fact, a subterranean forest, impregnated 
vrith bimminous sap, and compressed by 
the weight of the superincumbent rocks. 
Branches and leaves are pressed togetlier 
in a compact mass ; but the fibres of each 
may be distinctlv traced. The sunurbrand 
is used by the Icelanders chiefly in theu* 
smithies, and in small quantities. It is 
sometimes so little mineralized as to be 
employed for timber. — Surtur is tlie name 
of the northern god of fire. (See Jsfbi^i- 
em Mythology.) 

SuRVETiNo, in a general sense, denotes 
the art of measuring the angular and line- 
ar distances of objects, so as to be able to 
delineate their several positions on paper, 
and to ascertain the superficial area, or 
space between them. It is a branch of 
applied mathematics, and supposes a good 
knowledge of arithmetic and geometry. 
It is of two kinds, land surveying and 
marine surveying, the former having gen- 
erally in view the measure or contents of 
certain tracts of land, and the latter the 
position of beacons, towers, shoals, coasts, 
&c. Those extensive operations which 
have for their object the determination of 
the latitude and longitude of places, and 



the length of terreitrial arcs in difierent 
latitudes, also fall under the general term 
atarveymg, though they are frequently 
called tngonomSrieal nirveyc, or gtotUtic 
operatiofUf and the science itself geodeay. 
(See Trigonometry^ Dtgru9y Haghis, and 
Triangle,'! Land surveying consist of 
three distmct opemtions : 1. the measur- 
ing of the several lines and angles ; 2. pro- 
tracting or laying down the same on pa- 
per, so as to form a correct map of an 
estate or country ; 3. the computation of 
the superficial contents, as round by the 
preceding operation. Various instru- 
ments are used for the purpose of taking 
the dimensions, the most indispensable of 
which is the chain commonly called Gun- 
lei's chamy which is 22 yards long, and is 
divided into 100 links, each 7.92 inches : 
10 of these square chains, or 100,000 
square links, is one acre. This is used 
for taking the hneardimenmons when the 
area of the land is required ; but when 
only the position of objects is to be deter- 
mined, a chain of 50 or 100 feet is more 
commonly used. A great deal of labor is 
fi^uently saved by having proper instru- 
ments for measuring an^es. The most 
usual and the best adapted for this pur- 
pose are the circumferentor, theodolite 
and semicircle. The surveyor's cross, or 
cross-staff^ is likewise very convenient for 
raising perpendiculars. For surveying in 
detail, the plain table is the best instru- 
menL Of the .German worics on this 
subject, Meyer's Unlerrieht zur praktisehtn 
Geometrie (1815), and Lehmann's .^n- 
toeiaung zur richiigen Erkenmmg und gt- 
ncnien Abbiidung Obt Erdobet[/la^ (1812), 
deserve to he i^ecommended. (See To- 
pography.) 

Bus. PER Coll. On the trial of crimi- 
nals in £n|^land, the usage at the assizes 
is for the judge to sign the calendar, or 
list of all the prisoners' names, with their 
separate judgments in the margin. For 
a capital felony, the sentence ^ mnged by 
the neck" is written opposite the prison- 
er's name. Formerly, in the days of 
Latin and abbre\iation, the phrase used 
yrassus, per coU., forsuspendatvrper coUtan, 

Susquehanna, the largest river of 
Pennsylvania, is formed bv two branches 
which unite at Northumberland. The 
east branch rises in Otsego lake, in New 
York : the western branrn rises in Hunt- 
ingdon county, Pennsylvania. After 
their junction, the river flows south-east 
into the head of Chesapeake bay, and is 
one and one fourth mile wide at its mouth. 
It is navigable only ^ye miles. 

Sussex, Augurs Frederic, duke of, 



SUB8EX--SUTTEE. 



cr 



nth son of Geone III, and second sor- 
nving brother of the present king, was 
bom Jan. 27, 1773, and received hid edu- 
cation, with his brothers, the dukes of 
Cumbeiiand and Cambridge (see the ar- 
ticles), at G6ttingen. He then travelled 
in Italy, and 'spent four years at Rome, 
where, in 1793, he married lady Augusta 
Murray, dau^ter of the Catholic earl of 
Dcmmore, according to the forms of the 
Roman Cathohc church. On their re- 
turn to Endand, they were again married 
by bans in London ^ and the duke offered 
to reajp his claims as a member of the 
royal ramily, on condition that his mar* 
riage should not be disturbed. It was, how- 
ever, soon after declared invalid by the 
ecdenastica] court, as contrary to the pro- 
visions of the royal marriage act, 12 Geo. 
ni, c 11, which declares that no de- 
scendant of Geoi|pe II shall be capable of 
contracting matnmony without the con- 
sent of the king. On the publication of 
this sentence. My Augusta, who had be- 
come the mother of two children, sepa- 
noed from the duke, and passed the rest 
of her life in retirement In 1801, the 
prince was created earl of Inverness and 
duke of Sussex, and received a parLia- 
meAtary grant of £12,000 per annum, 
which was subsequently increased by the 
addition of £9000. It is the boast of the 
duke that he has never applied for any 
grant fiom parliament, and that he has 
paid hia debts fully from the savings of 
his pension. The duke is an easy speak- 
er, and has often spoken in the house of 
lords, particulariy m &vor of measures ibr 
the relief of Catholics, and usually ad- 
dresses the manv charitable and literary 
societies of which he is a member, rie 
has been for a long time president of the 
society for the encouragement of the use- 
ftil arts, and has recently been elected 
nrendent of the royal society. He has 
been the friend and jntron of learned 
men, and is himself a scholar. He has 
collected a valuable library, particularly 
rich in Bibles and dictionaries. A cata- 
logue has been published by Pettigrew 
{BihlioOiieca SussexianOf 18&), In his 
political principles, the duke has been at- 
tached to the whigB,and was consequent- 
ly in the opposition during the regency 
uid reign of his brother George IV. His 
liberal opinions in politics, and the part 
which he took in favor of the queen (see 
Caroline Amdia)y estranged him from the 
court; but a reconciliation took place 
during the king's last illness. The chil- 
dnm of the duke bv lady Augusta Murray 
bear the name of D'Este. 



SussKETsa, Francis Xavier; a com- 
poser at Vienna, a pupil of Salieri, and, 
from 1795, attached to the imperial opera 
at Vienna. He died in 1808, thirty -seven 
years old. He composed several opento, 
and supplied those parts of Mozairs re- 
quiem which that great master left unfin- 
ished. 

Suttee, or, more properly, Sati; a 
word in the Sanscrit, or sacred lanffuage 
of the Hindoos, meaning jmre, and nence 
extensively applied to theur fomale deities, 
and to acts of purification, esiiecially to 
that preeminent species, the self-immola- 
tion of the widow on the funeral pile of 
her deceased husband. The name of 
this horrid sacrifice is commonly written 
suUee by the English ; but saH is the cor- 
rect mode of spelling it, according to the 
orthographical system of sir W. Jones. 
The origin of satiism, or sutteeisro, is 
buried in mythologv. The goddess Sati, 
to avenge an insult offeree^ to her hus- 
band Iswara by her Other's neglect to 
invite him to an entertainment, consum- 
ed herself before the assembled gods.* 
To lord Bentinck, governor-general 
of India, belongs the honor of having 
abolished this shacking perversion of de- 
votion in the British dominions. This 
abolition took place in December, 1839. 
Until then, the British government had 
permitted it, provided the act was perfect- 
ly volunuiiy (which the religion of Brah- 
ma also prescribes), and if notice of such 
resolution had been previously given to a 
magistrate, who was required to see that 
the suttee was public, and that all the 
requisitions of the law were fulfilled. We 
learn from bishop Heber*s Narrative that 
the opinions of^ well-informed men, to 
whom the cause of humanity was equal- 
Iv dear, were divided respecting the abo- 
htion of these self-sacrifices, some believ- 
ing that suttees would then take place in 
secret, and be more common than before, 
and that opportunities, moreover, would 
be afibrded for many murders. The peo- 
ple are said to have heartily rejoiced at 
the abolition ; but, what may well sur- 
I»ise us, the East India Magszine states 
that an English lawyer went from India 
to England to prosecute an appeal before 
the privy council, made by some Brah- 
mins in Benffal, against lord Bentinck's 
prohibition of suttees. The same journal 
states that tliis '^ custom had its origin in 
the excessive jealousy of the early Hindoo 
princes, who, with a view to prevent their 

* See Tod's Atmalt and Antiqtdtie* of Ra- 
jasVhan ; also the review of it in the American 
Qnailerly, number xx, December, 1891. 



« 



SUTTEE-^UWAROFF. 



Dumerous widows forming subsequent at- 
tachments, availed themselves of their 
irresponsible power; and, with the aid of 
the priests, it was promulgated, as if by 
tocred authority, that the wives of the 
Hindoos of every caste, who desire future 
beatitude, should immolate themselves on 
the demise of their husbands. Since 
1756, when the British power in* India 
became firmly established, upwards of 
70,000 widows have been cruelly sacri- 
ficed ! A Brahmin possesses the privilege 
of marrying as many wives as he pleases. 
Ununtu, a Brahmin who died at Bagna- 
pore, had more than one hundred wives: 
twenty-two were burned at his death. 
The nre was kept burning three days. 
He had married four sisters, two of whom 
were burned with his corpse. A short time 
before lord Bentinck's order, a rajah in the 
hill country, who died, had twenty-eight 
wives burned with his body." So far the 
East India Magazine. Perhaps, however, 
this self-immolation is in part owing to 
the surprisingly iittlQ Value which Hin- 
doos put on human life (hence so many 
suicides, infanticides, immolations and 
self-immolations), and to the relation of 
the Hindoo wife to her husband. None of 
the sacred books. of the Hindoos command 
the suttee, though they speak of it as 
highly meritorious : it is believed to render 
the husband and his ancestors happy, and 
to purify him from all offences, even if he 
had killed a Brahmin. (See the Veda, &c., 
quoted before the privy council, June 23, 
1832, to support the above-mentioned peti- 
tion.) The rule is, that the act of the widow 
must be voluntary; but we can easily 
imagine that the fanaticism or cupidity of 
relations oflen compels the Hindoo wid- 
ow to immolate herself, just as they forced 
women, in the middle ages, to take the 
veil, which also is required, by the rules 
of the church, to be voluntary. The cer- 
emonies of a suttee are various, and last 
from a quarter of an hour to two hours. 
Sometimes the widow is placed in a cav- 
ity prepared under the corpse of the 
husband; sometimes she is laid by the 
body, embracing it If the husband was 
not a Brahmin, it is not required that the 
corpse should be burned with the widow: 
any tiling which belonged to the deceas- 
ed — ^Iiis garments, slippers, walking-staf!-— 
may be substituted for the corpse. There 
were, according to official report, above 
forty suttees in the province of Ghaze- 
poor in 1 424 ; and several had taken place 
not repa.ted to the magistrate. 

SuwAROFF-RiHNiTZKOT, Pctcr Alexis 
Wasiliowitsch, count of, prince Italinski, 



field-marshal and generalisBimo of the 
Russian armies, one of the most distin- 
guished generals of the eighteenth centu- 
ry, was bom at Suskoy, a village of the 
Ukriyne, in 1730. His father, an officer, 
placed him in the military academy at . 
Petersburg; and, in his seventeenth year, 
Suwarofi* entered the service as a com- 
mon soldier, and gave proofs of his cour- 
age in the war against Sweden. In 1754, 
he became lieutenant, and, afler distiu- 
ffuishing himself in the seven years' war 
(q. v.), received the command of a regi- 
ment, in 1763. In 1768, he obtained the 
rank of brigadier-general, and served sev- 
eral campaigns in Poland, receivmg, in 
reward for his coura^ and conduct, the 
crosses of three Russian orders of knight- 
hood. In 1773, he was appointed to the 
command of a division of the troo|)s under 
count Romanzoff, and completely defeated 
a portion of the Turkish army at Turtu- 
key, killing several of the enemy with his 
own hand. ■ Crossing the Danube, he 
aflerwards, in conjunction with the force 
under Kamenskoy, routed the army of 
the rets effendi with great slaughter, and 
the capture of all his artillery. In 1783, 
he reduced the Budziac Tartars under 
the Russian yoke. In 1787, being chief 
in command, he was intrusted with 
the defence of Kinbum, then attacked by 
the Turkish forces both by sea and land ; 
and, after an obstinate sie^e, succeeded in 
repulsing his assailants with considerable 
loss. At Oczakow and Fockzami (at the 
former of which places he receiveu a se- 
vere wound) his daring valor was equally 
displayed ; and, in the Septemlwr of 
1789, the Austrian troops, under the 
prince of Saxe-Coburg, being sur- 
rounded, on the banks of the Rimnik, by 
100,000 Turks, owed their preservation 
to his timely arrival vrith 10,000 Russians, 
who not only rescued them from a de- 
struction that appeared inevitable, but oc- 
casioned the utter overthrow of the ene- 
my. To this victory he was indebted for 
the first of his above-named titles, and the 
dignity of a count of both empires. The 
next, and perhaps the most sanguinary of 
his actions, was the storming of Ismail 
(q. v.), in 1790. This strongly fortified 
tovm had resisted all attempts to reduce 
it for a period of seven months, when 
Su%varofi*received peremptory orders from 
prince Potemkin (q. v.) to take it without 
delay, and pledged himself to execute the 
task assigned him in three days. Of the 
sacking of the place on the third, and the 
indiscriminate massacre of 40,000 of its 
inhabitants, of eveiy age and sex, tlie ac- 



SUWAROFF— SWALLOW. 



ooontB of the period give the most revok- 
ing reix>rtB. The announcement of his 
bloody triumph was made hj the general, 
wiio afiected a Spartan brevity in his de- 
ffiatches, in the words ''Glory to God! 
Ismail is ours.'* Peace being proclaimed 
^Tidi Turite^, the empress (see CaHuaine 
II) had leisure to mature her designs 
against the devoted kingdom of Poland ; 
and Suwaroff was selected as a fit instru- 
ment to cany them into execution. He 
marched, accordingly, at the head of his 
troops, to Warsaw, destroyin|r about20,000 - 
Fol^ in his way, and ended a campaign 
of which the unprincipled partition of 
the country was the result (See Praga^ 
and Pokmd,) On this occasion, he re- 
ceived a field-marshal's baton, and an 
estate in the dominions which he had 
contributed to annex to the Russian, 
crawn. The last and most celebrated of 
his actions was his campaign in Itahr in 

1799, when his courage and genius for a 
while repaired the d£«sters of the allied 
forces. Paul gave him the command of 
the Russian forces destined to act with 
the Austrians, and tlie emperor of Germa- 
ny created him field-marshal, and com- 
mander-in-chief of the Austrian troops in 
Italy. He gained several brilliant victo- 
ries at Piaoenza, Novi. &c., and drove the 
French from all the towns and fortresses 
of Upper Italy, and was rewarded for his 
services with the title of prince RaUmkL 
But, in consequence of a change in the 
plan of operations, he passed the Alps; 
and the defeat of Korsakoff at ZMch (see 
MoMshidt to{|ether with the failure of the 
expected assistance fit>m the Austrians, 
obliged Suwaroff to retreat from Switzer- 
land Paul, ofirnded with the Austrian 
court, now recalled the prince, in spite of 
his remonstrances ; and preparations were 
made for* his triumphal enuy into Peters- 
bmv. Meanwhile, Suwaroff, having 
evaded an imperial order, directing the 
generalissimo to name each general in 
turn general of the day, by appointing 
prince Bagration standing general of the 
day, was declared, by command of the 
emperor, to have deserved censure, and 
the preparatioDS for his triumph were sus- 
pended. Chagrin at this dissnu^ hasten- 
ed his death, which took puice May 18, 

1800, sixteen days afler his arrival at Pe- 
teiBbuz«%--Suwaioff was a remarkable 
man. Thou^ feeble and mckly in his 
youth, he had acquired a sound constitu- 
tion by bis simple and abstemious mode 
of life: be slept upon straw, and his 
whole wardrobe consisted of his reffi- 
mental nuifoim and a sheepskin. He ob- 



served punctiliously all the ceremonies of 
his relif^on, and never ijave the ngaal lor 
battie without crossing hmiself^ and kissing 
the image of St Nicholas. He was inflexi- 
ble in his purposes, faithful to his promiseH, 
and incorruptible: in courage, promptness 
of decision and action, he has had few 
ef]uala His contempt of money, his coarse 
manners, and his intrepidity, rendered him 
the favorite of his soldiere ; but the supe- 
rior officen were often offended by the 
severity of his discipline. Although ac- 
quainted with several modem bmguages, 
he never entered into any political or 
diplomatic correspondence; and he vraa 
accustomed to say that a pen was unbe- 
coming the hand of a soldier. His ordere 
and reports were often vmtten in doggerel 
verse. 

SwABiA. (See Suabia,) 

Swallow (hinmdo). The air seems to 
be truly the home of the swallows: they 
eat, drink, sometimes even feed theur 
.voung, on the vring, and surpass aU other 
birds in the untiring rapidity of their 
fiight and evolutions. The beak is sboit, 
broad at base, very much flattened, and 
verv deeply clefl, forming a large mouth, 
well adapted to the purpose of seizing 
winged insects, which constitute their ac- 
customed food. The feet are very short, 
and the wings remarkably long. In win- 
ter they migrate to tropical climates, a few 
days being sufficient topass from the arctic 
to the torrid zone. In the spring the^ 
return ; and it has been found by experi- 
ment that individuals always come twck 
to their former haunts. They sweep over 
our fields, our rivers, and through our 
venrstreetiB, easily eluding all enemies by 
their powere of wing. • We have six spe- 
cies in the U. States. — ^The barn swallow, 
(H, ni^a) is most abundant east of the 
Alleghany mountains. Here it is our most 
common species, alwa^ seeking the soci- 
ety of man, and very frequently attachmg 
its nest to the raflera in bams, &c. The 
upper parts are steel blue, the lower light 
chestnut, and the wings and tail brownish - 
black ; the tail is gready forked, and each 
feather, except the two middle ones, ia 
marked on the inner vane with a white 
spot— The white-bellied swallow (jff. vi- 
ruUa) is less abundant than the preceding 
but not unfirequently takes possession of^ 
the boxes intended for the purple martm. 
The upper parts are light, glossy, pwnish- 
blue ; tne wings brown-black, with slight 
green reflections, and the whole lower 
parts pure white : the tail is forked, but 
slightnr, in comparison with the bam swal- 
low, firom which it may also be distin- 



70 



SWALLOW— SWAMMERDAM. 



fiishcd bv its Bailing more in its fticht. — 
he purple laaj^iH, purpurea) inhabits 
all parts of the U. States, and Uanada to 
Hudson's bay. It is a general favorite, 
and every where takes up its abode among 
the habitations of men. The Indians and 
Negroes hang up gourds, properly hol- 
lowed, for its convenience; and, m the 
more settled parts of the Union, consider- 
able expense is sometimes incurred in 
preparing for it a suitable residence. In 
the country, it renders essential services, 
by attacking and driving away crows,' 
hawks, eagles, and other brge birds. Its 
note is loud and musical. It is much 
the largest of our swallows. The color of 
the male is a rich and deep purplish blue, 
with the wings and tail brownish-black ; the 
female Ls more plainly attired, and has the 
under parts whitish, with dusky and vel- 
lowish stains. — ^The bank swallow (H. ri- 
paria) is common in the U. States, as well 
as in the eastern continent. Unlike the 
others, it has no partiality for the society 
of man, but dwells in communities idong 
steep gravelly banks, in which it scratches 
out norizontal holes for breeding places. 
It is particularly fond of the shores of 
rivers, and b found in immense multitudes 
in several places alonff the Ohio. It is 
the smallest of our swaUowB. The color is 
brown above, and beneath white, with a 
brown band across the breast — ^The re- 
publican or cliff swallow (H.ftdva)\B 
easily distinguished l^ its even talL The 
upper parts of the body are black, glossed 
with violaceous ; the under parts whitish, 
tinged with ferruginous brown; the 
throat and cheeks duk ferruginous ; and 
the front pale rufous. The note ia very 
ain^lar, and may be imitated by rubbing 
moistened cork round the neck of a bot- 
tle. It lives in communities, building in 
unsettled places, under projecting ledges 
of rocks. The nests are formed of mud, 
are very friable, and somewhat resemble, in 
form, a chemist's retort It is conmion 
about the base of the Rocky mountains, 
and within a few years has become famil- 
iar in many parts of the Western States, 
as well as m the state of New York, and 
even in Maine. — The chimney swallow 
( H, pdtugia) differs widely from the oth- 
ers, in its form and manners. The color 
is cutirelv deep sooty brown ; the tail is 
short and rounded, having the i-hafls ex- 
tending beyond the vanes, sharp pointed, 
strong and elastic, by means or which 
structure the bird is eniabled to rest against 
perpendicular walls. It is easily custin- 
guished in the air by its short body and 
long wings, their quick and slight vibra- 



tion, and its wide, unexpected, diving ra- 
pidity of flight In the settled parts of 
the countiy,jt builds only in vacant chiin- 
neys, and in passing up and down pro- 
duces a noise somewhat resembling dis- 
tant thunder. The nest is small and phal- 
low, attached by one side, and composed 
of very small twigs glued together with 
a strong adhesive gum. Sometmies chim- 
ney swallows congregate in inmiense 
numbers, to roost in certain hollow trees ; 
and such are generally noted in the coun 
try as ^ swallow trees." While roosting, 
the thorny extremities of the tail are 
thrown in for support The birds' nests 
of Chma, so celebrated as an article of 
food, are the fiibric of a small species of 
swallow, found in the Indian archi- 
pelago. 

SwAHMERDAM, John, a very distin- 
fished naturalist, was bom at Amsterdam, 
m 1637. His father, who was an apoth- 
ecary, designed him for the church ; but, 
as he preferred ph^ic, he was allowed to 
pursue his studies m ^at profession. He 
was sent to Leyden, where he quickly 
distinguished himself by his anatomical 
skill, and the art of ma^g preparations. 
After visiting Paris for improvement, be 
returned to Leyden, and took the degree 
of M. D., in 1667, and about the same 
time began to practise his invention of 
injecting the vessels with a ceraceous mat- 
ter, which kept them distended when 
cold — a method from which anatomy has 
derived very important advantages. En- 
tomology, however, became bis great pur- 
suit ; and, in 1669, he published, in the 
Butch language, a General History of In- 
sects. In 1672 appeared his Miraculum 
Ndiwrety sen Uteri muliehris Fabricoy to 
which was added an account of his new 
method of waxen injection. Rendered 
hypochondriacal by intensity of study 
and otlier causes, he became totally unfit 
for society, in which state he received im- 
pressions from the mysticism of Antoi- 
nette Bourignon, whom he followed to Ho)- 
stein. He lulerwards returned to Amster- 
dam, where ho died, in 1680. Previously 
to his death, in a paroxysm of enthusi- 
asm, he burnt all his remaining papers, 
but, under the pressure of indigence, had 
already sold the greater part of his writ- 
ings and drawings to Thevenot These, 
hiuf a century afterwards, came into pos- 
session of Boerhaave, who caused them 
to be published in Latin and Dutch, under 
the title of Biblia IMunt^ avot Historia 
Insectorum %n Classes eerlas rtduefa^ &c. 
(2 vols., folio, Lcnrden, 1737). This publi- 
cation, which has been translated i 



BWAMMERDAM-^WEDEN AND NORWAY. 



71 



English by sir John HUl, abounds with 
the most curious di8coverie& Besides the 
mvfcs before mentioned, he is author of 
TVmeiahts Phwieo-^^nahmico-Medicua dt 
Rupiraiione (Leyden, 1(>79, Svo., and 
17^ 4u>.). 

SwAX (^cygmu). The swans are so 
closely aUied to the duck and goose, in 
th€tr anatomicai structure, that it is diffi- 
cult to point out distinctive characters; 
ahhougfa most of the species are readily rec- 
ognised by their external form. The color 
of the pluDEiajge is, in general, pure white ; 
a black species, however, has been lately 
discovered in New Holland. In northern 
elimates, the swans are the ornament of 
the rivers and lakes, over which they seem 
to preside, from the majesty, ease and 
grace of their movements. They swim 
rapidly, and their flight is powemil and 
long continued ; they live in society, and 
feed chiefly on the seeds, roots, and other 
parts of aquatic plants, but eat frogs, in- 
Kcta, and worms. They make their nests 
near the tnar^n of the water, upon the 
pound, and attain a great a^e. The flesh 
B coarae, dark-colored, and m general not 
much esteemed. The tame swan is dis- 
tinguished by its red bill, having a protu- 
berance on the f]x>nt. In its wild state, it 
inhabits the great interior seas of Eastern 
Europe, but is now domesticated in all 
parts of that continent It often measu^^es 
eight feet, when the wings are extended, 
and weighs twenty or twenty-five pounds. 
Its strength is such, that it has no formi- 
dable enemy, except the eagle, and in its 
battles with this antagonist often comes 
off* victorious. It is to be regretted that 
we have not this noble bird more com- 
mon in the U. States. The American . 
wild swan breeds and passes the sum- 
mer in the Arctic regions, but on the ap- 
proach of winter, migrates to temperate 
climates. In the Atlantic states, it is 
hardly knovm east of the Chesapeake, 
which seems to be a favorite resort during 
the winter season. 

Swan River ; a British colony, on the 
western coast of New Holland, establish- 
ed in 1829. It is situated on Swan river, 
so called from the fjeat number of black 
swans seen upon it, which empties into 
the ocean in lat. 32° 16^ S., Ion. US'' 4(y 
£. Several settlements have been form- 
ed, and the soil is represented as fertile. 
Swan river was explored for nearly sixty 
miles flom its mouth, by M. Bailly, min- 
enloffist to the expedition of Baudin, who 
foond it to flow over calcareous rocks, 
tfarou^ a coimtry covered with thick ibr- 
esaofgcun trees. At the point where 



his examination ceased, the river was a' 
third of a mile in width, with a slow cur- 
rent A group of islands opposite the 
mouth of the river offers some roadsteads 
with safe anchorage for large vessels. 

SwEABORG. (See Sueaborg,) 

Sweat. (See Perspiration,) 

Sweating Sickitess, in medicine; a 
febrile epidemic disease, of extraordinary 
malignity, which prevailed in England, at 
different periods, towards the end of the 
fifteenth century and the beginning of the 
sixteenth, and spread very extensively in 
tlie neighboring countries, and on the con- 
tinent It appears to have spared no age 
nor condition, but to have attacked more 
particularly persons in high health, of 
middle age, and of the better class. Its 
attack was very sudden, producing a sen- 
sation of intense heat in some particular 
part, which afterwards overspread the 
whole body, and was followed Dy profuse 
sweating, attended with insatiable thirst, 
restlessness, head-ache, delirium, nausea, 
and an irresistible propensity to sleep, to- 
gether with great prostration of strength. 
The patient was frequently carried off in 
one, two or three hours from the eruption 
of the sweat It seems to have first ap- 
peared in the army of the earl of Rich- 
mond, upon his landing at Milford haven, 
in 1485, and soon spread to London. This 
body of troops had been much crowded 
in transport vessels, and was described by 
Philip de Comines as the most witnchcd 
that he bad ever beheld, collected proba- 
bly from iails and hospitals, and buried in 
filth. It broke out in England four tunes 
after this, in 1506, 1517, 1528, and 1551. 
The process eventually adopted for its 
cure, was to promote pcrsfuration, and 
carefully avoid exposure to cold. The 
violence of the attack generally subsided 
in fifteen hours; yet the patient was not 
out of danger under twenty-four hours. 

SwEoEN AND Norway, or, as the united 
kingdoms are sometimes styled, even in 
official papers, Scandinavia, form tlie 
Scandinavian peninsula, which is connect- 
ed with the continent of EuroiJe by Lap- 
land, and comprises 295,4G8, or, according 
to some, 291,224 square miles. It extends 
beyond the Arctic circle, stretching from 
55° 23^ to 7(P IV 20" N. lat, and is bound- 
ed by the North sea and tiie Cattesjat on 
the west and south-west ; by the Baltic and 
the gulf of Botlmia on the east and south- 
east; its northern boundary is the Fro- 
zen ocean ; on the north-east, Norwegian 
and Swedish Inland border on Russian 
Lapland. The Paes, and (since 1809) the 
Tomeo and Muonio, here form the sepsr 



72 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY- 



rating line between Ruanaand Sweden. 
A chain of mountains forma a natural di- 
vision between Norway and Sweden : the 
highest summits are the Syltop, 6079 feet 
high, and the Schneeh&ttan, 8337 feet 
high, in Sweden ; and the Folgesonde, 5432 
feet high, in Norway. The northern part 
forms the Kj61 or Kiel mountains, and 
the southern, the Seve mountains. The 
former terminates in the North cape, the 
extretae northern point of Europe; the 
latter is nearer the western than the east- 
rm shore, whence the main streams are 
on the eastern declivity, and How partly 
into the gulf of Bothnia, and partly into 
the CattegaL It divides into three branch- 
es ; the Long Fj&lls (Lan^field and Dofre- 
fieid), extending to cape Lindesneas (Lin- 
denas), on tlie North sea; a second branch 
separating the Norwegian basin of the 
Glommen from the Swedish basin of the 
Gotha-Elf, and sinking down to the Cat- 
legai; and a third dividing the sources 
of the Clara, which, after flowing through 
lake Wener (ilOO square miles in extenr), 
in Sweden, takes the name of Gotha-Elt; 
from those of the Dal-Elf^ and stretching 
between lakes Wener and Wetier, to the 
sound. The summits of the Scandina- 
vian mountains, from 67^ to 70° N. lat^ are 
masses of barren rocks (Fj&lls), covered, at 
the height of from 3900 to 2700 feet, with 
perpetual snow, and abounding with steep 
precipices, frightful clefU, lakes, and rapid 
tomnts. The declivity towards the North 
sea is extremely precipitous, and full of 
abrupt crags and awful chasms. Nearer 
the eastern coast lies lake Malar, fifty-five 
miles long, and from twenty-three to 
twenty-seven miles broad, containing 1300 
islands, whose waters are emptied into 
the Baltic: lake Hielmar is connected 
with it Lake Wetter receives forty riv- 
ers, and empties itself through the Motala 
mto the Baltic. To Sweden belong 
CEland and Gothland, two fertile islands 
in the Baltic. The Aland group, at the 
mouth of the gulf of Bothnia, was ceded 
to Russia in 1809. The coast, broken by 
numerous indentures (Fiordsi forms nu- 
merous holms or rocky islets (Stockhohn, 
for instance), and safe harbors, especially 
on the shores of Norway ; on which the 
Saltstrom, a dangerous strait, and the 
Maelstrom, a whirlpool, are jMuticularly 
remarkable. The ctunate of Sweden and 
Norway, owing to the nature and eleva- 
tion of the country, is, with the exception 
of the southern and western shores, dry 
and cold. Among the productions are 
orchard fruity com (in inadequate quan- 
tity, 80 that, in many places, the people 



mix powdered fir-bark or moss with tbeir 
com meal ; in the south of Svireden, how- 
ever, the cultivation of com is increafling)| 
potatoes, flax, hem]^ hope, and tobacco, 
which, however, thrive only in the south- 
em Iregions. In the north, the country is 
an almost impenetrable forest of pines 
and firs, and dwaif-birches, and abounds 
in deer, hares, elk^ bears, and wolves. 
Berries and reindeer moss only grow 
here. Grluttons, lynxes, fi>xes, marmots, 
tame and wUd birds, are also found. The 
poverty of the pasmrage renders the hom- 
ed cattle, goats, swine and sheep small ; 
though the breed of the latter has been 
improved, since 1715, by the introduction 
of English and Spanish rams. The rein- 
deer is a native of ihe north. (See Deer, and 
Lapland,) The climate of 9 weden is, on 
the whole, warmer than that of Norway. 
On the coast, particularly on the Cattegat, 
the herring fiuiery was, a short time ago, 
of considerable importance. Seals, dol- 
phins, and other fishes, are tiken in plenty. 
The mineral kingdom is rich. Gold oc- 
curs only in small quantities. Silver is 
more abundant The silver mines of Sa- 
la have yielded, durine the three lasit 
cenmries, 1,640,000 majnKs of pure silver. 
The copper mines at Fahlun (a mining 
town, with 4200 inhabitanls) produce, at 
present, 1,200,(00 to 1,800,000 pounds, 
and all the Swedish copper mines, a total 
of 1500 tons annually. Excellent iron is 
obtained in large quantities: 120,000,000 
pounds are smelted every year, consti- 
tuting seven eiffhthsof all the mining prod- 
ucts. The richest iron mines are those 
of Danemora, in Upland. Lead, cobalt, vit- 
riol, sulphur, alum, some salt, marble, por- 
phyry, granite, grind-stones, mill-stones, 
and sandstone, asbestos, slate, talc, lime, 
&c. occur. There are many mineral 
springs in Sweden ; in Norway, only one 
The Swedes and Norwegians are of 
a middle stature, and compactly buih 
The purity and coldness of the air, and 
the necessity of extorting every thing 
finom the earth, gives them a hardness akin 
to then* native iron, and a bold indepen- 
dent spirit In the sciences, the Swede 
shows a sound and penetrating raind 
Poetry and the fine arts have also put 
forth some ftiir blossoms in this rude cli- 
mate. The language is of Teutonic ori- 
gin. The Swecush and Norwegian dia- 
lects differ but litde. The language of 
Lapland is a Finnish dialect The two 
kingdoms, Norway and Sweden, bad, in 
18SS, according to official documents, a 
popidation of 3,819,714 — about thirteen 
to a square mile. But in the wmthera 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



73 



proTisces of Sweden, there are 143 io- 
babitants to a square mile. The popula- 
tion, in 1828, was 3378,700. Sweden 
alone contains 168,363 square miles, and 
2,800,000 inhabitants. In all the cities, 
there are about 322,000 inhabitants. 
Stockhoku, the capital of the kingdom, 
lias a population of 79,526 ; Gottenburg 
(Gotaborg), the principal commercial cit^ 
in Sweden, 24,000 ; Christiania, the capi- 
tal of Norway, 20,600 ; and Bergen, the 
chief commercial city of Norway, 20,800. 
But few towns, however, number more 
than 4000 inhabitants, and many have 
scarcely 500. Out of Europe, Sweden 
possesses, since 1784, St. Bartholomew, 
one of the West India islands, containing 
fifty-three square miles and 18,000 inhat^ 
itants. — A. Su)€dm (Svea) com^u^hends 
four regions : 1. Sweden Proper, or Svea- 
land, compri8in]B^ eight provmces, amoug 
which are Upland, Sudermannland, or 
Sudermania, I)alBmc,orDalecarlia(a poor, 
hilly country, in which there were 40,000 
men, in 1819, destitute of tlie means of 
nippoTt), and Wermeland, now forming 
eight governments (lane) ; 2. Gothland, 
or Gothia, comprising tlurteen govern- 
ments (Schonen, or Scania, one of its 
provinces, contains Helsingborg, on the 
sound, the place of enlbarkation fi>r Den- 
mark, and Ystadt, the place of embarka- 
tion for Stralsund) ; 3. If orrland, contain- 
ing five provinces (Heijedalen, J&mtland, 
Westerbotm, &c.); 4. Swedish Lap 
land, containing irora 34,000 to 38,000 
square miles. The whole number of 
Swedish Laplanders was estimated, in 
1818, at only 3000 persons, of whom 669 
were owners of reindeer. To these must 
be added about 2000 colonists. Several of 
the colonies in Lapland were founded by 
baron Hermelin, at his own expense. 
This region yields but a triflimr revenue 
to the crown.— B. Nwway. The south- 
em part (S6denfield) comprehends Chris- 
tiania and Christiansand ; the northern 
(Xordenfield), the dioceses of Bergen, 
Drontheim and Nordland: to the latter 
lielongs Finnmaik, or Norwegian Lapland. 
(See jVbriMi^f.) 

The orifinal inhabitants of Sweden were 
of Finnisn descent — Finns and Lapland- 
ers, who were driven to the extreme north 
1^ Gennanic tribes. Among the latter, 
the Goths and Swedes soon sained the 
ascendency, subjecting the other tribes. 
Their chief maftistrates were judges of 
the fiibulous fiuoofly of the Ynglings, which 
claimed a descent from a son of Odin. 
In the jQflh century, thcnr assumed the title 
of kings of Upsala, and reigned in Swe- 

VOL. XII. 7 



den till 1068. A regular ffovemment was 
first established by Oloi^ or Olaf I, in 
994, who was converted to Christianity. 
The Goths and Swedes still remained dis- 
tinct, and their disputes distracted the 
kingdom for centuries. In 1250, when 
the powerful family of the Folkungs as- 
cended the throne, the two hostile tribes 
became united into one nation ; and, at the 
same time, the succession was settled. 
Sweden tlien extended only to Helsing- 
land. In 1248, Eric XI conquered the 
interior of Finnland ; and, in 1293, Tor- 
kel Knutseu, the guardian of Birger, con- 
quered Carelia, the extreme province of 
that country ; so that Sweden now became 
the immediate neighbor of Russia. In 
1332, Magnus Smek obtained possession, 
through Mats Kettilmundsen, of the prov- 
inces of Schonen, Bleckingen and Hal- 
land ; but they were lost agam m 1360. 
Tired of his oppression, the Swedes re- 
belled in 1363, and gave the crown to his 
sister's son, Albert of Mecklenburg. The 
Swedes soon became dissatisfied with 
their new kin^, who fell, in 1388, in the 
battle at Falkoping, fighting against the 
Danes, whom his subjects hid called in to 
their assistance. In 1389, Margaret, queen 
of Denmark and Norway, added Sweden 
to her other possessions ; and the diet of 
Calmer (q. v.) ratified this union, 1397; 
each state retaining its own constitution. 
Troubles, rebellions, and, finally, com- 
plete anarchy, followed this measure ; and, 
m 1448, the Swedes and Norwegtana 
elected a separate king, Karl Knutsen 
(i. e. Charles, the son or Canute), and for- 
mally renounced the union. Afler the 
death of Charles, several of tlie family 
of Sture reigned in succession, with the 
thle of presidents, tliough with regal au- 
thority, until, in 1520, Christian II of 
Denmark was acknowledged king of 
Sweden. But his t^^ranny disgusted the 
people. Even during the ceremony of 
the coronation, notwitnstanding his prom- 
ises of amnesty, he ordered ninety-four 
Swedish noblemen to be beheaded m the 
market-place of Stockholm, and perpe- 
trated Bunilar acts of cruel^ in the prov- 
inces. In 1521, Gustavus Wa8a,or Vasa, 
who had escaped fixtm the Danish pris- 
ons, put himself at the head of the mal- 
contents^ and, in 1523, after the expul- 
sion of Christian, was elected to the 
crown. He introduced the refonnatian 
among his subjects, added the estates of 
the clergy and the monasteries to his own 
domains, promoted the trade and com- 
merce of Sweden by treaties with Eng- 
kmd and Holland, and, in 1544, secvml 



74 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



to his &mily the succession to the throne. 
His son and successor, Eric XIV (reined 
1560—68), added Esthonia to Sweden, 
and, at his coronation, in 1561, introduced 
the titles of count and baron, before un- 
known in Sweden, which .he bestowed 
upon Several famiJies. His suspicious 
disposition and tyrannical acts made him 
an object of popular hatred. He was 
deposed, and, after nine years' imprison- 
ment, poisoned in a dungeon. He was 
succeeded (1568 to 1592) by his brother, 
John II, who, by the peace of Stettin, 
1570, ceded to Denmark Schonen, Hal- 
land, Blekingen, Herjedalen and Goth- 
land ; and, in 1580, embraced the Catho- 
lic religion, in which he caused his son, 
Sigismund, to be educated. Sigismund, 
who received at the same lime the Polish 
crown, was dethroned, in 1602, in Swe- 
den, by his ambitious uncle, Charles, a 
zealqus Lutheran, who was formally 
crowned, in 1604, as Charles IX. The 
wars, in which he became involved with 
Russia, Poland and Denmark, were hap- 
pily concluded after his death, in 1611, by 
the great Gustavus Adolphus II (q. v.), 
who fell at Liitzen, in 1632. (See TViirty 
Years^ War,) In the reign of his daugh- 
ter, Christina (q. v.), the war in Grermany 
was honorably carried on and completed. 
During its progress, Sweden was men- 
aced by Denmark; but the victories 
of Torstenson, and tlie mediation ,of 
France, led to the peace of Bromsebro 
(1645), by which Denmark gave up 
to Sweden Jemtland and Herjedalen, 
with the islands Gothland and CEsel, 
agreed to surrender Halland for twen- 
ty-five years, and exempted Swedish 
vessels from the sound dues. By the 
peace of Westphaliaj Sweden obtained 
the German duchies of Bremen, Ver- 
den, Hither Pomerania, a part of Fur- 
ther Pomerania, and Wismar, with a seat 
in the German diet. In 1654, Christina 
resigned her crown to Charles X, Gusta- 
vus of Deux-Ponts, the nephew of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus. This martial prince ad- 
ministered the government till 1660. He 
bad to contend with the Poles, Russians 
and Danes, and astonished the world by 
his daring enterprises ; but he was unable 
to procure permanent tranquillity for his 
nation. The guardians of hik son,Chaiies 
XI, concluded the peace of Oliva (q. v.), 
with the Poles, in 1660, by which all Livo- 
nia to the Dwina was transferred to Swe- 
den ; the peace of Copenhagen, with Den- 
mark, by which they restored Drontheim 
and Bomholm (gained by Charles Gusta- 
vus in the peace of Roeehild with Den- 



mark (1656), together with Blekuigeii, 
Schonen and Halland), and came to a 
reconciliation with Russia, on the basis of 
the peace of Stolbow. Sweden became 
involved in an unsuccessftil war against 
Brandenburg, Holland and Denmark; 
but, by the peace of St Germain and 
Lund, in 16/9, she lost only the part of 
Pomerania beyond the Oder. Charles 
XI entered upon the government in 1682, 
and admitted females to the succession. 
He improved the internal condition of his 
kingdom, revoked the grants of the crown 
lands, augmented the revenue, but made 
many enemies among the nobles, and left 
a full treasury to his son Charles XII 
(q. v.), who reigned from 1697 to 1718. 
But all his treasures were expended, to> 
gether with the blood of his subjects, in 
protracted and useless wanu (See Gariz^ 
and JVortkem War,) On the death of 
Charles, in 1718, Ulrica Eleanora, his 
youngest sister, the last of the house of 
Wasa, succeeded to the throne, less by- 
hereditary right than by the voluntary 
choice of the states, who revived the an- 
cient form of government, but with great- 
er limitations of the royal power. The 
ruling party, by the peace of Stockholm, 
in 1719, ceded Bremen and Verden to tho 
elector of Brunswick, and, in 1720, Stet- 
tin and Hither P<}merania, as far as the 
Peene, to Prussia ; by the peace of Ny- 
stMt, in 1721, Livonia, Esthonia, Ingna, 
Wiburg, and a part of Carelia, to Russia ; 
and, by the peace of Fredericksbors, 
with Denmark, in 1720, renounced all 
claim to the exemption from sound dues. 
Frederic of Hesse, the husband of Ulrica 
Eleonora, who assumed the government, 
with the consent of the slates, and ad- 
ministered it from 1720 to 1751, was a 
weak prince, ruled by his nobles ; and the 
council of state made itself entirely inde- 
pendent Instigated by France, he en- 
gaged in a new war with Russia (1741 \ 
fpr die recovery of the provinces that hail 
been ceded to Kussia. By the peace of 
Abo (q. v.), which concluiied the war, in 
1743, he lost part of Finland, to the river 
Cymmene ; and, as the queen was child- 
less, the succession was settled on Adol- 
phus Frederic, duke of llolstein and bish- 
op of Ltibeck. Adolphus Frederic, in 
whose peison the house of Holstein as- 
cended the Swedish throne, reisned from 
1751 to 1771. He took part feebly in the 
seven years' war. (q. v.) The kingdom 
was distracted by the Actions of the hats 
and caps, and the regal authoritv became 
a mere shadow. Gustavui^ HI (<!• ▼•) «t 
length happily threw off the yoke of the 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



75 



anstoGxiunr. He restored to the kingdom 
its strength and its honor ; but, in 17^ he 
fell a victim to a conspiracy. His son, 
Gustavus IV (q. v.), ascended the throne 
under the guardianship of his uncle, but 
lost it in 1809. His uncle, who assumed 
the^remment under the tide of Charles 
XIU (q. v.), gave the kingdom a new con- 
sdtution, and chose, for his successor, 
prince Christian Augustus of Sleswic- 
nolsteixi-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, who 
adopted the name of Charles Augustus. 
He concluded the war with Russia by the 
peace of Friedrichshamm, in 1809, by 
which he ceded all Finnland, and, in 1810, 
renewed the previous relations of the 
kingdom with France. The crown-prince, 
however, died suddenly ; and the diet of 
Oerebro chose, for his successor, the 
French marshal Bemadotte, prince of 
Ponte Corvo, who was adopted by the 
king under the name of Charles John. 
(See C^uirks XIV.) Sweden now de- 
clared war against Great Britain ; but the 
pressure of die war, and the increasing 
encroachments of France, produced a 
change of policy (1812), and she joined 
the allies a^nst Napoleon. (See Charka 
XIV J and Kuui(m-GenMm War,) By the 
peace with Denmaik, concluded at Kiel 
(Jan. 14, 1814), Sweden received Norway 
as an independent, free, indivisible and 
inalienable kingdom, in return for her 
possessions in romerania and the island 
of RugeUir I 

Since the union of Norway and Swe- 
den, concluded by the storthing at Chris- 
tiania, OcL 18, 1814 (see JVonDOv), this 
double kingdom has combined, under one 
king and two very difierent constitutions, 
two proud and free-spirited nations, each 
jealous of its peculiar privileges. The 
political condition of Sweden and Nor- 
way ibrms a permanent partition between 
them : there, a jealous aristocracy is per- 
petually watching over its ancient privi- 
leges ; here, the democracy struggles to 
defend its new-bom rights. In bothkinff- 
« doms, the peasantry and the citizens hold 
a higher rank than in most European 
states. In Norway, there is no heredita- 
ry nobility, and the veto of the king is 
only conditional. These circumstances 
seem to separate the Scandinavian penin- 
sula from tne European system of politics, 
with which, however, it is closely con- 
nected. To the discrepancy of domestic 
and foreign relations is added an inces- 
sant struggle with the climate and soil, with 
obstructions in trade, depreciated paper 
money, and an oppressive public debt 
Charles XIV is a sovereign suited to the 



country and the age. Looking steadily 
to the future, he meets present difficulties 
witli firmness and wisdom. He possesses 
the affections of the majority of the na- 
tion, and especially of the army ; and has 
imbued his successor with his own prin- 
ciples. The crown-prince, Os6ar, lives 
and thinks as a Swede. He met with a 
distinguished reception, at Verona, at the 
time of the congress, Oct 26, 1822, where 
the visits of the two emperors seem to 
confirm the opinion that hjs succession to 
the throne was guarantied bv Russia. 
Soon afterwards, the marriage or the prince 
with Josephine Maximiliana, daughter of 
Eugene Beauhamais, duke of Leuchten- 
berg (whose wife was Augusta Amelia, 
princess of Bavaria), took place at Stock- 
holm, June 19, 182a The first fruit of 
this^ marriage, Charles, bom May 3, 1826, 
is styled duke of Schonen ; the second, 
Francis, bom July 9, 1827, duke of 
Upland; the third, bom 1829, duke of 
Gothland. Some intrigues and conspi- 
racies for the restoration of the fimnily 
of Wasa have occurred in Sweden ; but 
the estates took this opportunity (1823) 
to give the king and the crown-prince 
the strongest assurances of fidelity. The 
king and Swedish estates, in order to in- 
terrupt all communication with the ex- 
iled family, determined to transfer to it all 
its property remaining in the kingdom, 
and to extinguish its pension by the pay- 
ment of a certain sum mutually agreed 
upon by the two parties, which was done 
in 1824. The personal character and con- 
stitutional principles of the king have se- 
cured him the love and fidelity of his 
subjects. He oflen visits the remote prov- 
inces of his two kingdoms, relieving dis- 
tress wherever he finds it, usually firom 
his private purse, and takes no important 
measures without being assured of the 
concurrence of the estates, which meet 
every six years, and of the majority of 
the nation. 

It has been the object of the govern- 
ment in Sweden to give unity to the ad- 
ministration ; and the minister at the head 
of each department is responsible for its 
measures. The constitutional committee 
of every diet has the right to examine the 
journals of the cabinet, to discover any 
violation of the constitution. Since 1821, 
the judicial power has been separated 
from the executive. The administration 
of justice has been essentially improved. 
The new Swedish constitution of June 7, 
1809, is given in the second volume of Con- 
stitutions of the European States (in Ger- 
man, Leipsic, 1817). To separate the roy- 



76 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



al power more completely from the judi- 
cial, the kinff propoeed, in the diet of 
1823, the abolition of his right to preside 
in the supreme court. The proposal of 
the estates, in 1833, to make their sessions 
and those of the supreme courts public, 
was, however, negatived by the king. 
The finances and credit of the state were 
restored by careful management and ^at 
economy. The public accounts were ngid- 
ly inspected, and reduced to perfect oi^er, 
and government soon hod it in its power to 
pay off, annually, $120—150,000 of the na- 
tional debt, which amounted, in 1820, to 
6,500,000 SweJLlish rix dollars. The diet 
of 1823 fixed the total expenditure of 
Sweden at 8,121,357 dollars banco. Still 
complauits were made of the expenses of 
the court, and the state of the currency 
stood in need of further changes. The 
organization and .discipline of the army 
have been improved, while the burden of 
militaiy service and the expenses of tlie 
militaiy establishment have been dimin- 
ished. The army is composed of 45,203 
men, and the whole armeni force amounts 
to 138,569 men, exclusive of the naval 
service. The number of officers in the 
army is very small: there is not more 
than one officer to forty men ; while, in the 
French army, there is one to eveiy ten 
men. The navy consists of twelve ships 
of the line, thirteen fi-igates, sixty smaller 
vessels, and a Scheeren fleet of 342 sail. 
(See Scheerefu) The Swedish soldiers 
are employed, in peace, in building canals, 
roads, forts, and other pubUc works. The 
freedom of the press is established by 
law, but under such restrictions that it is 
little more than nominal. Still the jour- 
nals often speak with great freedom, and 
exercise considerable influence upon pub- 
lic opinion. Political clubs and fiiendly 
societies cannot exist without the con- 
sent of the government; and a society 
modelled on the plan of our common 
debating societies, was put down. In 
conformity with the principles of the 
prohibitive system, which prevailed in 

1820, but has since heed modified, the 
government attempted to encourage do- 
mestic industrv by laying restrictions on 
foreign manumctured articles. Foreign 
manufacturers were encouraged to estmi- 
lish new branches of industry in Sweden 
by bounties. The abolition of guilds, 
which was attempted under the direction 
of the king, was not accomplished. The 
whole system of policy in regard to com- 
merce and manuiactureswas abolished in 

1821, and a new tariff has been adopted 
since the beginning of 1825. Since 1820, 



the navigation of the rivers, especially in 
tlie northern provinces, has been improv- 
ed. Steam navigation has also been in- 
troduced, and canals have been con- 
structed. 

The government of Norway is prompt 
and regular, and much more economical 
and simjple than that of Sweden. The 
organization of the courts, and the admin- 
istration of justice, are also better; thuB, 
in the supreme court of Christiania, pub- 
Kcity of procedure and oral pleadings 
have long been established. The fami- 
lies of the ancient national nobility in 
Norway had gradually sunk to the rank 
of peasants, while Danish and German 
fiunilies had taken tlieir place, by being 
appointed to offices of government for- 
meriy held by Norwegian noblemen. 
The constitution of 1814 prohibits the 
creation of counties, baromes, &c., and 
admits no hereditary rank. The Norwe- 
^ans fiuther wished to abolish the exist- 
mg nobility ; and resolutions to that effect 
passed the Norwegian diets of 1815 and 
1818 ; but the royal sanction could not be 
obtained for them. In the storthing of 
1821, a majority voted a third time for its 
abolition ; and the measure, having been 
approved by three successive storthings, 
became a law without the royal sanction. 
The king asked for a delay, at least, in the 
measure, but it was refused, and endeav- 
ored to obtain the right of creating a new 
nobility in Norway, as a reward for dis- 
tinguished services ; but without success. 
The storthing also rejected a proposal of 
the king to establish a jury for the trial of 
offences of the press, a censorship and 
jury not heuig consistent with the legisla- 
tion of Norway, although offences of the 
press were, in fact, punished by impris- 
onment, and, in 1825, by a fine. It was 
not till afler a long opposition, that the 
storthing finally consented to pay, within 
eight years, the Norwegian debi' to Den- 
mark, whose demands were supported .by 
Austria, Russia, Prussia and England. 
These proceedings induced the king to ^ 
visit Christiania in person ; and Swedish 
and Norwegian troops, with a squadron 
of ships, were assembled in the neighbor- 
hood of the capital, seemingly with the 
purpose of overawing the storthing. No 
measures, however, vrerh taken ; and it is 
said that a note from the emperor Alex- 
ander, as a guarantee of the peace of Kiel, 
dissuaded any innovation upon the con- 
stitution of Norway. The acts of the 
storthing, during the session of 1624, at- 
tracted much attention even in foreign 
countries. The king had appointed hia 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



77 



•on viceroy of Norway, and thus made 
him commaiider-in-chief of the land and 
•ea forces. The presence of this prince 
was, perhaps, designed to countenance the 
propositions for chan^ in tliirteen sec- 
tioDS in the constitution, namely, the in- 
troduction of the absolute veto; the crea- 
tion of a Norwe^an nobility; the appoint- 
ment of the president of the storthing by 
the king, &c. But these and other pro- 
posals were unanimously rejected by the 
storthing, May 22. (See the J^orwegian 
CmutihOUmj in the 2d volume of the Eu- 
ropean Constitutions.) When the cro^vn- 
pnnce prorogued the storthing, Aug. 9, 
1S24, he expressed a hope that Uie wishes 
of the government would meet witli more 
&vor in a future session ; but, in the session 
of 1^7, the proposition for an absolute veto 
was unanimously rejected. The crown- 
prince was then recalled to Stockholm, 
and his appointment as viceroy of Nor- 
way was revoked. The king and queen 
^'isEted Christiania in September, 1825; 
and their presence in that city in the year 
1827, at tfio fiflh regular storthing, and 
again in 1828, jiave me monarch an op- 
portunior to witness anew the love and 
fiiith of^ his Norwegian subjects. But 
their attachment to their constitution was 
as warmly displayed on the anniversary- 
of the establishment of the Norwegian 
conatitution. May 17, 1827. (See J^or- 

In 1822, the free navigation of the 
B]ack sea by Swedish and Norwegian 
ships was obtained from the Porte, and a 
treaty was concluded with Great Britain, 
in 1824, for the suppression of the slave- 
trade. In 1828, a treaty of commerce and 
navigation between Sweden and the U. 
States placed the vessels of the contracting 
powers on the fix>ting of national vesseb 
in the ports of the respective nations. 
—See Geijer's HtHory of Sweden (in 
Swedish, 1826); Ekendalil's History of 
(^ Swedes (in German, 1827 seq.). 

We have akeady given an account of 
the present condition of Norway in a sep- 
arate article. Sweden is a hereditary 
monarchy, limited by estates. They are 
divided into four ranks, the nobility, cler- 
gy, citizens and peasantry. The nobility 
are subdivided into three classes, the 
lords, including counts and barons, the 
kmsfats, or those whose ancestors liave 
held the place of royal counsellors, and 
the flimple noblemen. The clergy is rep- 
resented by the bishop of each diocese, 
and the citizens and peasants, the latter 
comprising only the free peasants of the 
crown, by deputies. The sovereign dis- 



poses of the higher civil and military 
offices, from which fbreisners are ex- 
chided by law. Without the consent of 
the states, the king cannot enact new 
laws or abolish old ones. The constitu- 
tion requires the king to assemble the 
states once in five years.* The legislative 
power in Norway is lodged in the stor- 
thing, which meets eve^y three years. 
A viceroy, or governor-general, resides at 
Christiania. The revenue and troops of 
the tAiv'o kingdoms are kept distinct. The 
fortifications of Norway are only in part 
occupied by Sweden. For the levying 
of taxes, the consent of the states is neces- 
sary, and all the troops and officers are 
required to take the oath of allegiance to 
them, as well as to the king. Since 1798, 
the sovereign has had the right to make 
war and peace, to regulate the judiciary, 
and to conduct the general administration 
without restraint. The succession to the 
throne is hereditary in the male line ac- 
cording to the law of primogeniture. On 
the extinction of the male line, the estates 
have full power to elect a king. The 
sovereign is of flill age in Norway at the 
completion of his eighteenth year, and in 
Sweden at the close of his twentieth. 
Before his coronation, the king is requir- 
ed to take the inaugural oath, and to sub- 
scribe an engagement to maintain invio- 
kie the Evangelical Lutheran reli^on. 
A Swede who abandons the Lutheran re- 
ligion loses his civil rights. The king- 
dom contains one archbishop, thirteen 
bishops, and 192 provosts. The piincipal 
administrative bodies in Sweden are, 

1. the council of state, the highest delib- 
erative body, consisting of nine members; 

2. the committee on the general affairs of 
the kingdom, consisting of eight mem- 
bers ; 3. the royal chancery, which is un- 
der the king's immediate direction, and 
superintends the geneml affairs of state, 
foreign and domestic. Connected with it 
is the royal cabinet for foreign corre- 
spondence, the bureau of the president of 
the chancery and the archives of the 
kingdom. The finances are managed by 
a board of finance. The war and navy 
boards have the control over those depart- 
ments, under the presidency of a general 
and the hi^h admiral. The highest tribu- 
nal of justice is the supreme court, the 
president of which, in the king's absence, 
IS chief majrisdrate of the kingdom. The 
decisions of this court are regulated by the 
code of 1731, as revised in 1778. The 
ecclesiastical afiairs are conducted by the 
connstory, the president of ^hich is the 
first court preacher. The medical insti- 



78 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



tutioiw are directed by the eoUeghm 
n^edicunu All the hiffh offices in the 
Swedish army have hitherto been venal. 
The present government has made great 
exertions to iSwlish this abuse, so that the 
road to promotion is now open alike to rich 
and poor. In Sweden, there are five or- 
ders of knighthood: 1. the order of Sera- 
phim, founded, according to tradition, by 
kine Magnus. History sbows that it ex- 
isted in 1336. It was renewed by king 
Frederic I, April 17, 1748. Its motto is 
I. H. S. 2. The order of the Sword, ac- 
cording to tradition, was instituted by 
king Gustavus I, and was renewed, April 
12, 1748, by king Frederic I. a The or- 
dei of the Norm Star is traced by some 
to the a^ of Odin. King Frederic I re- 
newed It April 17, 1748. The motto is 
JVeseit oecasum. 4. The order of Wasa, 
or Vasa, founded May 26, 1772. 5. The 
order of Charles XIII, instituted by the 
king. May 27, 1811, is bestowed only up- 
on freemasons of the higher desrees* 
Agriculture and manufaiStures have nour- 
ished since the accession of the present 
king. In Sweden, there are about 900 
manufiictories of cloth, silk, cotton, wool- 
len, linen, leather, sugar, tobacco, glass, 
mirrors, watches, porcelain, paper, marble, 
porphyry, and of metals, in which the iron . 
works hold the most important place, yield- 
ing annually 72,000 tons of bar iron, and 
10,000 tons of manufiictured iron. Accord- 
ing to the tabular views of Sweden, the val- 
ue of its annual productions is estimated at 
88,000,000Swedish bank doUaiB, including 
wooden vrare to the value of half a million ; 
manufiictures, more than 12,000,000 ; trade 
and navigation, about 14^00,000 dollars. 
The iron works of Norwav (the most im- 
portant are at Laurvig and at Moss) yield 
8000 tons of iron per annum. Many ves- 
sels are built, both in Sweden and Nor- 
way, for foreign countries, and lafge 
quantities of wood are worked up into 
boards (espedally on the river Drammen), 
laths, joists, masts, &c. The situation is 
favorable to trade, which is carried on 
with the nations bordering on the Baltic, 
Great Britain, Holland, France, in the 
Mediterranean sea, and with the U. States. 
A Swedish East India company trades 
to China. Articles of export are wood, 
boards, ship timber, joists, tar, pitch, pot- 
ash, iron, steel, <^opper, herrings, whiede- 
oil, peltry, &c. The imports consist 
mostly of grain, wine, resins, oil, salt, 
wool, flax, hemp and groceries. In 1818, 
theuseofcoflRwwasprohilMted. The gov- 
ernment of Sweden appropriates 4,000,000 
Swedish bank doUaxB annually to pur- 



chase com; but no such provision is 
made in Norway, whence the scarcity o€ 
com is more sensibly felt, and, at the same 
time, the hi^h duties render the importa- 
tion of gram very difficult. In 1818, 
Sweden had about 1100 trading vessels, 
with 9200 sailors, and Norway about 800, 
with 6500 sailors. Half of them can be 
fitted out in war as privateers. The diief 
conmiercial towns in Sweden are Stock- 
holm, Gottenburg, Nordkoping, Gefic, 
Carlscrona, MahiKie, Landacrona, Ystadt, 
and Udawalla ; in Norway, Bergen, Chris- 
tiania, Drontheim, Christiansand, Stavai>- 

fer, Drammen, and Fredrickahald. In 
818, four new roads were constructed 
through DarlecarUa and Helsingland, for 
the promotion of trade. Two of tliem 
lead to Norway. There are likewise sev- 
eral canals ; for example, the Trollh&tta 
canal, round the falls of the Gotba-Elf, 
whose perpendicular descent is estimatc^d 
at 130 feet ; and the Gotha canal, joiuiiiii^ 
the Baltic with the German ocean, which 
was completed in 1827. (See Canais.) 
The whole distance from Gottenburg to 
S6derkdpinff, on the Baltic, is 240 miles ; 
of which 186 are occupied by the Gotha- 
Elf, the Trollhatta canal, and some lakes. 
A third canal is that of Sddertelje, thirteen 
miles firom Stockholm, by which a new 
junction of lake Miilar with the Baltic was 
made in 1819 ; thus bringing twenty towns 
in the interior into connejdon with the sea, 
and fncilitatinff the commerce of the capital* 
Under the reigns of Gustavus Adolpbus, 
Christina, and Charles XI, manufactures 
of iroh, brass, steel, leather, soap, woollen, 
and silk, first became prosperous ; but tlio 
wars of Charles XII involved the whole 
in a general ruin. The manu&ctures of 
the Swedes, however, recovered them- 
selves ; and the^ produce all wares (of 
which the raw materials are not too high 
in other countries), as fiir as the want of 
hands, occasioned by numerous wars» per- 
mits. Nevertheless, when we compare 
the productions and revenue of Sweden 
with its extent, in which it yields only to 
Russia, we must pronounce it the poorest 
country in Europe. EbEcellent institu- 
tions have been established, especially in 
Sweden, for the insmiction of Uie people. 
The univenity founded in 1476; at Upaal, 
>vith twenty-rour professors, has an ex- 
tensive Ubrary, a botanical oarden, a cab- 
inet of coins, and of natural nistory, an ob- 
servatory, &c. The univenity erected at 
Lund, in 1666, with twenty-three profea- 
sors, has also a library, a museum, a bo- 
tanical jfiardflo, and an ebserratory. The 
two universities, in 18Si9, contained 2156 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



79 



stodenls: they are under the direction of 
eleven bishops and the archbishop, the 
heads of the clergy : the same protection 
is shared by eighteen gymnana. There 
are common schoois in every town of the 
kingdom. At Carlsberg. there is a milita- 
ry academy ; at Skara, a veterinary school ; 
at Stockholm, a military academy. In 
17.^, an academy of sciences was insti- 
tuted at Stockholm, and, in 1753, the 
academy of fine arts, which was divided 
into the Swedish academy and the acad- 
emy of fine arts, and afterwards reorgan- 
ized. In Norway, a few years since, the 
university of Christiania was established, 
and in 1827 it contained 549 students. It 
has a library, a botanical garden, and col- 
lections of natural history. At the same 
place there is a military* acadcmv and a 
commercial institute. At Kongsberg, or 
Conisberg, tliere is a mining school, and 
at Drontheim a seminary for young Lap- 
landers. Norway has also five g^'nmasia, 
afid two seminaries for school-teachers. 
The village schools are few. — See Brooke's 
Dntvds Vvrovgh Sweden, JVonaay arid Fin- 
mark (London, 1823, 4to.|; Schubert's 
Thwels ikrough Sweden, Norway, Lajh- 
land, FWcmd and htgermanland, orhtgria 
(in German, 1823, 3 vols.); Everest's 
humey tknmgh ATorway, &c. (1829). 

Sweaisk Language antt LUerature, On 
account of the distance of Sweden from 
the parts of Europe which were early 
civilized, Christianity did not gain a 
firm footing throughout the country until 
the middle of the twelfth cenmry ; and 
even then civilizatioDf followed but slow- 
ly, because of the incessant feuds of &c- 
tioDs and families, which continued for 
centuries. It derived litde aid from the 
Hergv, who were numerous, but rude, and 
mainly bent on securing their own power 
and influence, or from the kings ; and the 
fiivorable circumstances which, in some 
other countries, enabled it to develope it- 
Helf unaided, did not exitt in Sweden. 
If this dark period was enlightened by na- 
tive sagas, their light is lost to us. The 
writings of the foreigners Saxo (q. v.) and 
Snorro (see Shtrwon) are the only 
known sources of information respecting 
the ancient times of Sweden; and their 
records are but meagre. The Swedish 
Chronicle of Erik Oiafien, bek>nging to 
the end of the fifteenth century, and writ- 
ten in Latin, ibllowB too cloaefy the 
rhymed chronicle and fables of Jolm 
Magnus (1488—1544) loba considered of 
impoittuioe^ in regard to the history of 
this eariy period. But the historical in- 
vestigator may learn much fitmi ifae an- 



cient provinciai and country laws, and 
fit>m the Kununga oh? H6fAnga StHUe 
(The Government of Kings and Chieft)— 
a picture of the princes of the end of the 
fourteenth cenmry. The Gothic Unmn, 
founded by Geiier in 1811, has awakened 
an interest for domestic antiquities. The 
Aurora Union, established by Atterbom 
in 1808, had prepared the way for it 
Jacob Adlerbeth (son of the poet men- 
tioned below| is at present the most active 
member of tne Gothic Union ; he is the 
editor of the Iduna. Afzelius, editor of the 
Eddas in the original, and of the old pop- 
ular ballads, is also iiidefatigable. 

From the time of the reformation more 
monuments exist for the history of the 
Swedish language. • The reformadon ; the 
translation of the Bible (the Old Testa- 
ment by Lor. Andresp, Stockholm, 1526, 
folio, and the Old and New Testament 
by Ol. and Lorenz Petri, Upsal, 1541, fol.) ; 
the various conunerciaJ and political re- 
lations of Sweden with Gennany ; its 
monarchs of German origin ; and even the 
wars with that country, — caused a lean- 
ing towards the Grerman in the Swedish 
language, which derived some support 
from the translation of the Bible afler Lu- 
ther's version, and from the other trans- 
lations of German works which soon fol- 
lowed. In the middle of the seventeenth 
century, and at later periods, the Swedish 
literati' (for instance, Ihre and Rudbeck) 
turned their attention towards the remains 
of ancient northern times ; but thev wrote 
in Latin ; and the short rei^ of Cnristina 
led to the study and imitation of foreign 
models, particularly French, which main- 
tained itself in the unquiet period that 
followed, %vhilst the language of society 
was neglected. Louisa Eleonora, sister 
of Frederic tlie Great, awakened an in- 
ter^ for polished conversation. She 
founded an academy of sciences in 1753, 
which published its transactions in the 
language of the country, and thus attracted 
the regard of the scholars of Europe to 
the Swedish idiom. In this period Otaus 
Dalin attempted to give to Swedish prose 
a flexibiUty and Ixilliancy ill suited to 
the northern idioms. This style, borrow- 
ed from the French, maintained its place 
for some time, but could not be of^long 
duration. Gustavus III, thouch the pupS 
of Dalin, and expressing nimself in 
French with greater ease than m Swedish, 
strove to restore the dimity of the Swedish 
idiom, by the foundation of the Swedisb 
academy in 1766 ; but the forms which 
he prescribed to this society, his own ex- 
ample, and the favor bestowed on foreign 



80 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



customs and modes of thinking, mode the 
labors of the society of little avail. The 
language had certainly gained, during this 
period, in extent and polish ; but it had 
been also burdened with so much foreign 
matter, that a very thorough renovation 
was required. The first steps were taken 
by a society of young men at Upsal, in 
1803. A thorough study of classical lite- 
rature and reflection on the labors of for- 
eign nations, particularly Germans, in the 
department of criticism, led them to a 
close investigation of the state of literature 
in their country, and to a deep disrelish 
for the exisdng French taste. A patriotic 
feeling was awakened ; the old historical 
sources and the first monuments of the 
Swedish language were now studied, and 
the more recent works on the Swedish 
language, e. g. Silverstolpe's (died 1816] 
Attempt at a geneml Grammar (Stock- 
holm, 1814),Broocraann's Larobok (Stock- 
holm, 1813)i and especially Collnei^s i^r96it 
i'Svenska Spr6kldran (Stockholm, 1812), 
tmd Larobok i Su, Sp.y by the same author, 
depart considerably from the standard of 
the Swedish academy. The study of the 
Icelandic, which gains daily in interest ; 
Winter's De Origine d ant Lingua Suec, 
Monum. (Stockh., 1802, 4to.), and Lin- 
for's Introduction to Icelandic Literature 
and its History in the Middle Ages (1804\, 
mostly from Danish sources ; Litjegrfen's 
JVore&aka FomMd ESeUt Sagar (Stock- 
holm, 1817), and JSTordiska Fomiemningar 
(Stockh., 1819— 22),— must have an nn- 
portant influence upon the developement 
of the language, particularly at a period 
in which so much attention is paid to the 
monuments of the ancient history of the 
country. Yet there are many vestiges of 
the French influence in the Swedish lit- 
erature. It is much to be regretted that 
modem Swedish poets have paid so litde 
attention to the old national songs, the re- 
mains of which are now zealously sought 
for; e. g. Ismal's Marriage, an ancient 
Faroe song, recast by Gumselius in the 
tenth numW of Iduna; also the Svenska 
Folkcisor (Swedish Popular Melodies), 
edited by Geijer and Afzelius (Stockh^ 
1814—16, 3 vols.), and the Swedish Pop- 
ular Harp, with an appendix containing 
Songs and Melodies, by Studach (Stockh., 
1826). If poets of talent had employed 
themselves in the composition of sacred 
hymns after the reformation, perhaps 
poetry would have risen above a learned 
school-exercise, or an entertamment of 
Swedish scholars, and gained a hold on 
the hearts of the people. — ^Forinforma- 
tioa retgee&ng that eariy period of poeti- 



cal activity, we refer to C. Carleson'j 
Forsok tU su SkaHdt Konriens uphjdpande 
Hock (Stockh, 1737, 2 vols., 4io.V— 
Olof Dalin, who was bom in 1708, at Vin- 
berga, in Holland^ gave an impulse to 
Swedish literature by his periodical, 
called Argus (1733 — 34), which appear- 
ed when me country was much distracted 
by the factions of the nobility. At this 
period of degeneracy and humiliation, 
particularly of^the higher classes, a zeal 
for science prevailed in Sweden, hardly 
equalled at any subsequent f>eriod. We 
need only mention Linnaeus (1707 — 1778), 
Ihre and Lageri>ring. At this time, Dalui 
attracted the attention of the Swedish 
public by his wit, polish of language, and 
accommodation to the French taste, which 
he did much to fix in the literature. Hia 
poems (best edition, 1782, 2 volsA served 
to entertain the court ladies of^ Louisa. 
His prose works — e. g. his History of .the 
Realm (Stockh., 1747, 3 vols., 4to.)— arc 
more to be commended for their style 
than for their critical research. Dalin 
died in 1763. He had made poetry a 
kind of court entertainment, culti\'ated* by 
circles o£btaux espriU (mttre), but having 
littie of an elevated character. Under 
such circumstances, madame H. C. Nor- 
denflycht (died 1763) received the name 
of the Swedish Sappho (Uivalda arheteti, 
Stockh., 1778). But count de Creutz 
(q. V.) and his friend Gyllenboig: deserve 
to be distinguished. The historical epic 
of the latter (he died in 1808)— TcMfd 
bfytr BaU (Stockh., 1800)--a8 well as his 
didactic poem — f^s6k tm Skaldecon- 
sten (Stockh., 1798) — ^will preserve his 
name in the history of Swedish literature 
{Skr^ter, Stockh., "1795, seq.). The con- 
temporaries of Gustavus III, who were 
also his literary confidants — Kellgr^n 
(died 1795), Oxenstiema, the translator 
of Milton (died 1818), and Leopold (sec- 
retary of state), followed the impulse given 
by Dalin. Gustavus himself took part in 
the endeavors of Swedish authors ; but the 
narrowness of his views, and his disposi- 
tion for show in language, tended rather 
to check than assist the developement of 
talents. Kellgr6n, however, did most 
to })repare the public for the change 
which was beginning, by deriding the 
mania for foreign literature, in his peri- 
odical, the Stockholm Post (1778, seq.). 
Still more independent, in his poems, 
was Bened. Lidner (died 1793), whose 
poems, full of feeling and elevated thought, 
were strongly contrasted with thejM»- 
sions wfai<^ put an end to his life. Tho- 
rlM also (1759—1808) aasitted in giving 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



81 



i 



a fiivorable direction to poetry (Saml. 
Skr^VpaaH, 1819, 2 vols.). But Charles 
Mich. BeUmaim (bom 1741, died 1795) is 
the first.Iyric poet of Sweden. His pic- 
tures of Swedish Ufe are so true ; their 
colors 8Q fresh ; they exhibit such fiilness 
of imagination and purity of feeling, — diat 
to him, before all others of his time and 
nation, is due the fame of an original and 
national bard (Baccki Tempdy 1783); 
Sums Hogtid (1787); lYedman EpisUar 
•ch Sinrer (1791); Fr. HandskrifUr 
(Upeal, 1813); SkMaiykhen (Stockh., 
1814, 2 vols.). Compered with his pro- 
ductions, Adlerbeth's works are intellect- 
ual, but cold (Potiiska ArheUny Stockh., 
1802), and Shenhammar^s verses mere 
studies. The change in Swedish belles- 
lettres, afler these prepiuratory attempts 
a|;Binst the literary despotism of the Swe- 
dish academy, was first brought about by 
that association of young literati, in 1803, 
at Upsal, who formed the Vitterhetens 
Fanner (Friends of Science J. The study 
of the German works of A. W. and F. 
Schlegel first excited the zeal for a 
thorough criticism; and Askelors Poly- 
^em gave the signal for the storm which 
iroke out against the obsolete prejudices 
of the Swedish academv. Atterbom 
(q. V.) labored with particular success, for 
instance, in his Phosphoros (1810 — 1813). 
Uammarskold* embraced the views of 
Atterbom, in his Lyceum, a periodical; 
and the Gothic Union, above mentioned, 
contributed to the furtherance of their 
views. Swedish poetiv, since these efforts, 
is more vigorous and elevated. Isaiah 
Tegn^r, bi^op of Wexio, in Sm&land, is 
a lyric and pastoral poet of genius^ He 
lately vrrote Fnihiofsaaga (three times 
tnuffilated into German). We should 
also mention the poems of Geijer and At- 
terbom, likewise Francen's lyric Idyls — 
Sand, Mi, (Stockh., 1819)— the writings 
of Stagnelius, who died in 1822 — lAljor i 
Saaron (Stockh., 1821 ; complete works, 
edited by Hammarskold, in 1824) — Dal- 
gr^n's successful imitation of Bellmann, 
particularly in his MoUbergs Epistlar 
(Stockh., 1819) ; Bcskow's Poetical Es- 
says, (collected Stockh., 1818— 1819j ; 
and the translations by Regn^r (died 1819), 
as well as Palmblad's works. These 
show that great progress has been made 
in the art of versification. The drama is 
leas cultivated. It remamed foreign to the 
people, and only served for the entertain- 
ment of the court The productions of 
Dalin, Gustavus III, Adlerbeth, Gyllen- 
* Hammarskold has been much used in (bis 
aiticle. 



borg, Leopold were insignificant, and 
mostly in a foreign manner ; Hallmann's 
humor was too coarse; Lindegr^n*8 at- 
tempts in Kotzebue's manner are no 
longer liked; and Ling alone seems to 
afford some hope for this branch of poetry. 
His Agnes (Lund, 1812) has some fine 
Ivrical pueages, though it is void of true 
dramatic life. The numerous class of 
female Swedish authors and poets is 
mostly confined to novels. Euphrosyne 
(Christ. Julia Nyberg) has written lyrical 
poems, full of tenderness (Dikier of £u- 
pArcMyiM, Upsal, 1822). Charlotte Ber- 
ger's productions betray their French mod- 
els (2>e /raiuca Kriega/ongamt, Stockh., 
1814); Troagrottan(m6); Rmnemavid 
Brahdnu (1816) ; Albert and Louisa 
(1817). Liviius has written the novels, 
the Knight St J6rm, the Pique-Dame, 
&c. Before them, Dalin*8 elegance and 
affectation were applauded at the expense 
of truth and accuracy. The novels of 
J. H. Mork (1714— 1763)— Adahdk and 
Gothilda (Stockh., 1742), and Thekla 
(1749) — ^were not popular, though they 
directed attention to domestic history. 
Gustavus III showed skill in the oratori- 
cal style, so that his anonymous Uoge on 
Torstensohn gained the prize of the 
academv; but his French education by 
count Tessin and Dalin (he hated nothing 
more than German and tobacco) had 
made him too fond of rhetorical phrase?, 
which easilv degenerate into empty dec- 
lamation. The great change of taste wad 
not without effect upon this branch of 
writing. Swedish pulpit eloquence is in 
great want of good models, and the print- 
ed sermons of bishop Lehnberg (died 
1808), which were published in Stockholm 
in 1809 — 1813, and his occasional dis- 
courses (1819), did not supply the want ; 
but we find subjects of general interest 
treated with considerable talent in Swe- 
dish newspapers. Boethius (died 1810) 
strove to diffuse Kant's principles. Schel- 
llug's works have been translated. Gei- 
jer^ Historv of the Swedish Realm (1824 
seq.) is an addition to the treasures of Euro- 
pean literature. Geijer and J. H. Schro- 
der, sub-librarian at Upsal, have united 
to edit the Scriptarea Rervm Suecicarvm 
Medii Mvu About fifty newspapers are 
published in Sweden, one literary gazette, 
and several magazines ; among the latter, 
since 1819, 5i7ca, at Stockholm— a peri- 
odical devoted to science and the arts. 
In Norway, there were published, in 1827, 
three scientific magazines and twelve 
newspapers, devoted to politics and gen- 
eral information, eight of them at Chnsti- 



83 



SW£D£N AND NORWAY—SWEDENBORG. 



ania. The collections of two literary 
Bocieties are important, particularly as 
respects ancient northern literature — those 
of the Scandinavian literary society, and 
those of the royal Norwegian society of 
science, in the nineteenth century. The 
natural sciences are particularly culti- 
vated m Christiania, by men like Lund, 
Hansten, Maschman, Schielderup, and 
others. Falsen, formerly attorney-gene- 
ral of the kicgdom of Norway, has pub- 
lished a History of Norway' under the 
Government of Harald Harfam* and his 
male Successors (Christiania, 1§24,4 vols.). 
The works printed in Sweden, during the 
year 1818, amounted to 362, of which 
91 were translations. The JVbtices sur 
la lAUiraiurt et les Beaux Arts en Su^de^ 
by Marianne de Ehrenstrom (Stockh., 
1826), are somewhat paneeyrical. 

SwEDEiTBORO, Emanuel, the most cel- 
ebrated mystic of the eighteenth century, 
was bom at Stockholm, in 1688. Edu- 
cated by his father, Jasper Swedbei^, 
bishop of West Gothland, in the severe 
doctrmes of Luthemnism, which prevailed 
in Sweden, his ardent and imnpnative 
mind soon took a religious turn. His stud- 
ies embraced theology, philosophy, math- 
ematics, and the natural sciences. His 
first poetical efforts appeared, in 1710, at 
Skara, under the title of Carmina Miscel- 
lanea. The period from 1710 to 1714 he 
spent in scientific travels through Eng- 
land, Holland, France and Germany, and 
visited the universities of these countries. 
He then returned to Upsal, and published 
his DtBdalua Hjfperboreua (six numbers, 
containing experiments and observations 
in mathematics and natural philosophy). 
He had several interviews with Charles 
Xn, who in 1716, appointed him assessor 
in the mining college, and formed an ac- 
quaintance with Ciiristoph Polhem, the 
Archimedes of Sweden, whose experi- 
ence was of great service to him. The 
invention of a roiling machine, by means 
• of which he conveyed a shallop, two gal- 
leys and four large boats (which Charles 
XII used, in 1718, to transport cannon to 
the siege of Frederickshall) five leagues, 
over mountains and valleys, fix>m Strom- 
stadt to Idefjal, and his treatises on al- 
gebra, the value of money, the revolu- 
tions of the planets, and on tides, gained 
for hiqi the favor of the government 
Queen Ulrica raised him to the rank of 
nobihty in 1719, upon which occasion his 
name was changed from Swedberg to 
Swedenbor^. In the discharge of the 
duties of his ofiice, he visited, in 1720, 
the Swedish mines, and, in 1721, the Sax- 



on, and wrote some valuaUe treatifles on 
them. He likewise made mmilar jour- 
neys to the mines of Austria and Hungary. 
A collection of his works' on phik)eophy 
and mineralogy (Opera PhUosophica k 
Mineralopea) was published in 1734 (in 3 
vols., folio), and attracted much attention 
among the scholars of Europe. He was 
chosen a member of the academies of 
Upsal and Petereburgh. The academy at 
Stockholm had already elected him an 
honorary member, in 1729. He increased 
his stock of knowledge by new travels te 
France and Italy, in 1738 — 40. The 
Gic<momia Regni Ammalis, which he pub- 
lished after his return, in 1740—41, con- 
tains the application of the system of na- 
ture, unfolded in his philosophical works, 
to the animal creation. The principle of 
a necessary emanation of all things from 
a central power, is the basis of this sys- 
tem, which is ingeniously unfolded, and 
illustrates the extent of the author's Foul- 
ing. It is explained particularly in the 
Prineipia Rerum •ATofuroZtiim. Sweden- 
borg was first introduced to an inter- 
course with the spiritual world, according 
to his own statement, in 1743, at London. 
The eyes of his inward man, he says, 
were opened to see heaven, hell, and the 
spiritual world, in which he conversed, 
not only with his deceased acquaintance, 
but with the most distinguished men of 
antiquity. That he miglit devote all liis 
life to this spiritual intercourse and his 
mediatorial connexion between the visible 
and invisible world, he resigned, in 1747, 
his office in the mining college, which he 
had hitherto discharged with punctilious 
exactness, hnd refused a higlier appoint- 
ment that was offered him. The king 
still paid him his fiill salary as a pension. 
With no occupation but to see and 
converse with spirits, or to record celes- 
tial revelations, he now resided alternate- 
ly in Sweden and England. The theolo- 
gical works which he wrote in this peri- 
od, he printed at his own expense. They 
found multitudes of readers ; and while 
he was an object of the deepest venera- 
tion and wonder to his followers, his 
statements were the more mysterious to 
the rest of the world, because he couM 
not be suspected of dishonesty, and ex- 
hibited, in other respects, no mental aber- 
ration. All respected him as a man of 
profound learning, an acute thinker, and a 
virtuous member of society. His moder- 
ation and his independent circumstances 
made it impossible to suppose him actu- 
ated by ambitious or interested views ; his 
unfeigned piety gave him tlie character of 



SWEDENBORG. 



83 



a saiDt, who lived more in the society of 
angels than of men. In those trances, 
during which, as he said, he conversed 
with spirits, received revelations, or had 
views of the invisible world, he seemed 
like one in a dreanf: his features were 
stamped with pain or rapture, according 
as heaven or hell was opened to him. In 
common life, he exhibited the refinement 
of polished society ; his conversation was 
instructive and pleasant ; his personal ap- 
pearance was dignified. Though he was 
nev^r married, he esteemed the company 
of intellectual women, and studiously 
avoided eccentricity. His pretended rev- 
elations, whicb he published at first freely, 
thoagfa not boastingly, but in later years 
with more reserve, and the mysterious 
doctrines contained in his writings, drew 
upon him the ill will of the clergy ; but 
the principal bishops favored his writings, 
and he enjoyed the protection of kms 
Adolphus Frederic. With uninterrupted 
health, he attained the affe of eighty-four 
years, and died of apoplexy, at London, 
March 29, 1772. To the day of his death, 
be was fully persuaded of the reality of 
his visions and divine inspirations. This 
iaith became, at length-, a fixed principle 
in his mind, which was every day more 
and more detached from sublunary things. 
When this illusion had once gained as- 
cendency over him, his own prolific mind, 
and the writings of earlier mystical theo- 
logians, fumi&ed him with materials 
enough to form such a spiritual world as he 
pleased. His descriptions of it, even in 
the minutest points, bear the stamp of the 
age in which he lived, and those views of 
the external world which he had gained 
as a namral philosopher ; his spirits con- 
verse with a distinct individuality, and the 
fiunily likeness of his interpretations of 
the Bible, with the explanations and alle- 
gories of the earlier mystics, is every 
where obvious. But whatever we may 
think of his revelations, his purposes were 
praiseworthy — to collect a church of re- 
ligious persons, and preserve them from 
the irreligious and demoralizing systems 
of the ace by the difiHision of his religious 
and edifying worft. In the moral parts 
of his writings, we meet with the purest 
doctrines, and with passages of peculiar 
religious elevation ; and, though he wrote 
in a bad style and in careless Latin, he 
deserves rather to be classed amon^ re- 
ligious poets than amon^ theologians. 
The stories of his prophecies and super- 
oatund ^knowledge ot events of actual 
occurrence — ^for instance, the information 
which he gave, in Gottenburg, of the con- 



flagration at Stockholm, the hour when it 
happened — are curious from the amount 
of testimony adduced in their support. 
The doctrines of the sect which bears his 
name, are founded on the Bible and tlie 
following books, written by Swedenborg, 
in Latin, net ween the years 1747 and 1771 : 
Jhrcana CcduHa ; De Odo tt Inferno ; De 
TkUunbus ; De UUimo JiuUcio ; De Equo 
jUbo ; De Mn>a lEer^solyma et mis Doc- 
trina CaUsti ; De Domino ; De Sciiptura 
Sacra; De Vita; De Fide; De Dwino 
Amore et Divina ProviderUia; De Amore 
Coryugiali ; De Commercio AninuB et Cor- 
poris ; Sumnutria ExposiUo Sensus Pro- 
phetici; Apocalypsis Explieata; Apoca- 
twsis Revelata ; De Vera Theohgia 
ChrisHana, Of the Bible, they consider 
canonical only the Pentateuch, the book 
of Joshua, the book of Judges, the books 
of Samuel and of Kings, the Psalms; the 
prophets, the Gospels, and the Apocal^se. 
The members of^ this sect are not distin- 
guished by dress, or by any outward sign, 
from the rest of the world. In Sweden, 
where they are estimated at 2000 persons, 
they are obliged to keep their opinions 
private. In England, where, since 1783, 
they have had chapels in London and in 
many of the large cities, they are openly 
tolerated, like the other dissenters; and 
this has contributed to increase their num- 
bers. The members are mosUy people 
of the middle and higher ranks. Charles 
XIII, king of Sweden, when duke of Su- 
dermania, was, for a time, attached to 
them. In France, Germany and Poland, 
the adherents of this sect arc few ; in the 
East Indies, North America and South 
Africa, there are many churches. With- 
out acknowledging any general govern- 
ment, the churches all administer tiieir 
own affeirs. The famous travellers Sparr- 
mann and Nordenskiold are among their 
disciples ; and the latter, with AfzeTius of 
Sweden, founded a church at Sierra Le- 
one, in Africa. For this and other Afri- 
can colonies, and for the abolition of the 
slave-trade, the Swedenborgians have 
done much. In the African society at 
London, their influence is very ^eat. 
They are const^dy laborins to diffuse 
theu" doctrines by editions of the worics 
of Swedenborg, and by several periodical 
works in England, and one in Boston, in 
this country. 

We shall now give a short statement 
of the doctrines of Swedenborg, in the 
language of his followers : — ^The principal 
* tenets of Swedenborg are these: He 
teaches that there is one God, the Lord 
Jesus Christ, in whom is a divine Trinilyi 



84 



SWEDENBORG. 



which 18 not a Trimty of penons, but is 
analogous to that which exists in man, the 
image and likeness of God* In man is a 
soul or essential princifrfe of life, a form 
or body, natural in this world and spiritual 
in the spiritual world, in which tne soul 
exists, and by which it manifests itself in 
operation : these three, soul, form and op- 
eration, are as the Father, Son, and Holy 
Spirit, And as some affection is within 
all thought, and causes it, and forms it, 
and as ail action is the effect of volition, 
or affection operating by and through 
thought, so the Father is the divine love, 
the Son the divine wisdom, and the Holy 
Spirit the divine operation. So, too, as ev- 
ery effect must be produced by some 
cause, and for some end, end, cause and 
effect consist in all things, as a Trinity. 
This Trinity S wedenborg does not consid- 
er as arbitrary and figurative, but as most 
real, grounded in the divine nature, and 
existing from the divine nature in all 
things. With regard to regeneration, 
Sw^enborg teaches, that, as the Lord glo- 
rified his humanity by resisting and over- 
coming the infernal influences which as- 
sailed it, so man, by following the Lord 
in his regeneration, through his divine 
grace, may gradually become regenerate ; 
that is, receptive of good affection and 
wisdom from the Lord through the heav- 
ens ; and in proportion as his sins are re- 
sisted and put away, he becomes thus re- 
ceptive more and more perpetually. Swe- 
denboi^ teaches that the Lord foredooms 
none to hell, condemns none, and punish- 
es none ; that his divine grace is constant- 
ly with ail, aiding those on earth who 
strive to cooperate with him, sustaining 
and leading forward angels in heaven, 
and endeavoring to preserve the devils 
from the evils which they love and seek ; 
but that he always perfectly regards and 
preserves the firee will of every one, giv- 
ing to every one the utmost aid that will 
leave him at liberty to turn himself ei- 
ther to heaven or to hell, and to no one 
more. Salvation, according to Swedenbor^, 
is not salvation from punishment, but saJ- 
vation from sinfulness. They who coop- 
erate with the Lord, find confirm in them- 
selves a principle of good| in the other 
Jife become an^ls, and associate with 
angels; and then- association constitutes 
heaven. They who resist the divine 
grace, and confirm in themselves a prin- 
ciple of self-love, which is the root of all 
evil, become devils ; and their assoetatioD 
constitutes hell. Both in heaven and in 
hell there are many societies, each influ- 
enced by some nimig principle of good or 



of evil, like seeking like, both in general 
and in particular. None go into the other 
life entirely food or evil : while here, the 
good and evil are pennitted to endure the 
conflicts of opposing influences' within 
them, that the good may thereby be made 
better, and the evil good ; but idfter death, 
when no fiirther radical change can take 
place, the ruling principle of eveiy one 'm 
made manifest, and the whole character 
conformed to it. This final chan^ is ac- 
complished by desrees ; and while it ia 
going on, deceased men are neither aii- 

Sels nor devils, but are spoken of by Swe- 
enborg as not in heaven nor hell, but in 
** the world of spirits ;" and, in the writ- 
ings of Swedenborg, spurits are thus dis- 
tinguished from angels and devils. With 
regard to the resurrection, Swedenborg 
teaches that it is not a resurrection of the 
natural body, but of the spiritual body 
from the natural ; and that this occui^ 
generally about the third day after appai-- 
ent death, when the flesh becomes rigid, 
and all vital warmth and motion cease. 
According to him, the spiritual body forms 
the natural body, and, while within it, 
uses it as an instrumenL Thus the natu- 
ral eye sees only* because the ^iritual 
eye sees natural thin^ throu^ it, the 
sense strictly residing in the spirituaJ or- 
gan ; and so of the other sensea Hence, 
when the spiritual body rises, it finds it- 
self in perfect possession of the senses 
and organs, and the man is still perfectly 
a man. So the spiritual world forms the 
natural world, and all things which exist 
naturally in this natural world are spiritu- 
ally in the spiritual world. There, spiritual 
things aflect the spiritual organs and 
senses of men, as natural things affect 
their natural organs and senses here. 
Hence, says Swedenborg, many who die 
do not know, upon their awaking, that they 
are in another world. They who, in thui 
life, have their spiritual senses opened, 
as Swedenborg says was the case with 
himself^ see plainly spiritual persons and 
things, as did the prophets in their visions. 
From this circumstance, say the Sweden- 
borgians, connected with their belief in 
the active and constanAnfluence of dts- 
embodied spirits upon men in the body, 
has arisen the common notion of tlie'ir 
believing in a perpetual intercourse be- 
tween the living and the dead. Spiritual 
things have not, however, a similar per- 
manence and independent existence with 
natural things. Swedenborg nther rep- 
resents them as appearances changing 
with the states of those about whom ttiey 
are— existing fix>m their relation to them. 



SWEDENBOR€^-SWEET WILLIAM. 



as 



md exactly reflecting and manifeeting 
their affections and thoughts. From the 
priaciple that natural things correspond 
to spirirual things, and represent them, 
comes the doctrine of correspondences, 
according to which Swedenborff explains 
the spiritual senses of the Word ; that is, 
tlie senses in which the Bible is read by 
thoee in the spiritual world. He teaches 
that this spiritual sense is within the liter- 
al, as the spiritual body within the natu- 
ral, or as the soul within the body ; that it 
a in every word and letter of the literal 
sense, which every where exists from it, 
and on account of it, and derives from it 
all its power and use. Swedenborg con- 
siders the New Jerusalem, foretold in the 
Apocalypse, to be a church now about to 
he established, in which will be known 
the true Aure of God and of man, of 
the Word, of heaven and of hell — con- 
cerning all which subjects error and ig- 
norance now prevail — and in which 
church this knowledge will bear its proper 
fruits — ^love to the Lord and to one's neigh- 
bor, and purity of life. 

SwEnisH Turnip, or Ruta Baga. 
(See Tumw.) 

Sweet Bay. (See Laurd,) 

Sweet Fi.ag lacorus calamu9y This 
plant is widely ditrused; it is found in 
roarsby places throughout the northern 
hemisphere. In the more northern cli- 
mates, it is the only native aromatic plant 
The leaves are all radical, long and nar- 
row, sword-shaped, and somewhat resem- 
ble those of the iris ; the stem does not 
diflr^ much in appearance from the leaves, 
and bears a lateral, dense, greenish spike 
of flowers, two or three inches in length ; 
the root is long, cylindrical, and knotted. 
This plant is referred to the natural fam- 
ily ar&idtai, although it presents some 
anomalies in its structure. The root has 
a strong, aromatic odor, aacl a warm, pun- 
^nt, bitterish taste : the flavor is greatly 
improved by drying. It has been em- 
ployed in medicine since the time of Hip- 
pocrates ; it has sometimes been success- 
flilly administered in intermittent fever, 
even after bark has failed, and certainly 
is a very useful addition to cinchona; 
powdered, and infused in old wine, 
it b an excellent stomachic, tonic, 
and cordiaL Although so common, 
what is used by druggists is imported 
from the Levant. No cattle whatever eat 
this plant 

SwBET Gvu. (See Liquidambcar,) 

8w£BT Leap (gymplocoa tindoria) ; a 
mall troe, found in the southern parts of 
tlie U. States. The leaves are three 

VOL. XII. 8 



or fbiur inches long, oval, smooth and 
shining, and, in sheltered situations, re- 
main for two or three years ; otherwise 
they turn yellow at the first frost : die 
flowers are small, yellowish, and sweet- 
scented, springing from the base of the 
leaves, ana appearing early in the season : 
tliey are succeeded by small cylindrical 
drupes, of a deep blue color when ripe. 
The tree sometimes attains the height of 
twenty-five or thirty feet, with a trunk 
seven or eight inches in diameter ; but 
usually it does not exceed half these di- 
mensioiis. The name which is univer- 
sally applied to it, is derived from the 
sugar}' taste of tlie leaves. The wood is 
of no value : but tlie dried leaves afford, 
by decoction, a beautiful yellow color, 
which is rendered permanent by^he ad- 
dition of a little alum, and is used fi>r 
dyeing wool and cotton. 

Sweet Potato {convolvulus haliiaa). 
This plant is a native of the East Indies, 
but is now cultivated in all the warmer 
pans of the globe, and has produced nu- 
merous variedes. Formerly the roots 
were imported into England from the 
West Indies by the way of Spain, and 
sold as a delicacy. It is the potato -of 
Shakspeare and contemporary writers, 
the common potato being then scarcely 
known in Europe. The roots are fleshy 
and spindle-shaped, giving rise to herba- 
ceous vines, which take root at intervals ; 
the leaves are smooth, varying in form, 
but usually hastate, or three lobed ; the 
flowers are white externally, and purplish 
within, dis(M)sed in clusters upon axillary 
foot-stalks. In warm climates, the culture 
is very easy, and they are obtained almost 
throughout the year, by planting at diffbr- 
ent periods. In northern climates, the 
culture becomes more difficult ; but one 
variety succeeds even in the vicinity of 
Paris. Considered as an aliment, the 
sweet potato is very nutritious, whole- 
some, and easy of digestion. The con- 
sumption is very considerable, especially 
in the warmer parts of America, where 
even several savage tribes have introduc- 
ed it, on account of its easy culture. In 
the U. States, it is very little culti- 
vated north or New Jersey, and even 
there is inferior in quality to those which 
grow in Carolina. 

Sweet William (dianthus harbatus). 
This species of pink is an old inhabitant 
of the flower garden, and has produced 
numerous varieties; but they nave not 
been named or improved, as the plant 
has never been treated by florists as a 
leading flower. 



8a 



SWEYN— SWIFT. 



SwETW, or SwBNO, properly Svera. 
(See Denmark, and Ethdredll.) 

SwiETEif, Gerald van, a celebrated 
phyaician, bom at Leyden, in 1700. 
After studying at Louvain, his parents 
being Catholics, he returned to Leyden, 
and became the pupil of Boerhaave. In 
1725, he took his doctor's degree, and 
published an inaugural thesis On the 
Structure and Use of the Arteries. He 
afterwards employed himself in illustrat- 
ing the doctrmes of his master, in his 
Commeniaria in Boerhaavii Aphorismis dt 
a^noscendis el eurandis Morbis (1741 — 
1772). Soon after, he was appointed to a 
medical professorship at Leyden ; but ob- 
jections arising on the score of his reli- 
irjop, he was obliged to resign his office. 
The eniprep Maria Theresa indemnified 
him for the injury he had sustained from 
the Uliberality of his enemies, by invitmg 
him to Vienna, where, in 1745, he was 
made a professor in the university, and 
afterwaros first physician to the empress, 
and a baron of the empire. He was also 
imperial hbrarian, and director-general of 
the study of medicine in Austria — an office 
which affi>rded him opportunities for in- 
troducing many important improvements 
in the healincr art His Commentaries 
were reprinted at Paris and Turin, and 
they have been translated into French 
and English. He enjoyed the highest 
reputation till his dea&i, in 1772. His 
other works are, Treatises on the Diseases 
of tlie Army, and on Epidemics. 

Swift, Jonathan, an eminent English 
writer, was the posthumous son of an 
Englishman, who settled in Ireland, and 
was bom at Cashel, in the county of Tip- 
perary, November 30, 1667. He was 
placed at a school in Kilkenny when six 
years old, and in his fifteenth year was 
removed to Trinity college, Dublin, 
where, applying himself to history and 
poetry, to the neglect of academical pur- 
suits, especially mathematics, he was, at 
the end of four years, refused the degree 
of B. A. for insufficiency, and, even at 
the end of seven years, was only admitted 
spedali gratia — a species of favor which 
was deemed highly discreditable. To 
this mortification is attributed the con- 
tempt with which he treats mathematical 
learning in his various writings ; but an- 
other and a better effect of it was evinced 
in a resolution to <M[>ply to his studies with 
more diligence. Tnis determination he 
steadily adtiered to for the following seven 
years, three of which he spent at the uni- 
versiiy of Dublin, during which last men- 
tioned period he is said to have composed 



his celebrated Tale of a Tub In bia 
twenty-first year, the death of his uncle 
rendered it necessary for him to pay a 
visit to Leicester, for the purpose of con- 
sult'mg his mother, then resident in that 
neighborhood. By her advice he was in- 
duced to commumcate his situation to sir 
William Temple, who had married one 
of her relatives, and who at that time 
lived in retirement at Moor park, Surrey. 
He was received by the latter virith great 
kindness ; and he rendered himself so ac- 
ceptable to the aged statesman, that he 
resided with him at Moor park and 
Sheene (or nearly two years. At the lat- 
ter place he was introduced to king 
William, who often visited Temple pri- 
vately; and the king, whose feelings 
were all military, offered him a captaincy 
of horse, which, having alr^y decided 
for the chiurch, he declined. Being at- 
tacked by the disorder which occasioned 
those fits of verti^ that afflicted him 
more or less all his life, and fiinally de- 
stroyed his reason, he was induced to re- 
visit Ireland, but soon returned, and re- 
sided with sir William Temple as before. 
Some time after, he determined upon 
graduating M. A. at Oxford ; and, having 
entered at Hart hall, in May, 1692, he re- 
ceived the desired honor in the July fol- 
lowing. He was probably indebted to 
his known connexion with Temple for 
this mark of respect ; but it has also been 
suspected that the words gpeeioH p'oHi^ 
in his Dublin testimonials, were mistaken 
for a compliment at Oxford. He had 
certainly not disdnguished himself at thia 
time by any public specimen of talent, al- 
though he made some attempts at poetry 
in the form of odes to his paa*on and king 
William. This species of composition 
bein^ wholly unfitted to his genius, his 
relation Dryden is said honestly to have 
told him that he would never be a poet ; 
to which .is attributed the extraordmary 
rancor with which he always alluded to 
that eminent writer. After residing two 
years longer with his patron, conceiving 
the latter to be neglecttul of his interest, 
he parted from him, in 1694, with some 
tokens of displeasure, and went to Ire- 
land, where he took orders. But be soon 
returned to sir William Temple, whow 
sinking under age and infinnities, requir- 
ed his company more than ever. During 
the few remaining years of that states- 
man's life, ^ey therefore remained to- 
gether; and, on his death, Swift found 
himself benefited by a pecuniary legacy 
and the bequest of his papers. He then 
accepted an invitation fixMO the eari of 



SWIFT. 



87 



Bericeley, one of the lords jugtices in Ire- 
Mnd, to accompany him as chaplain and 
aecietaiy. liVnile in the fiimily of the 
eail of Berkeley, he began to make him- 
self known by his talent for humorous 
Tenee, as may be seen by the petition of 
Frances Harris, and other specimens. On 
the return of that nobleman to England, 
he went to reside at his living of Lanicor ; 
and, during his residence there, be in- 
Tited to Ireland Miss Johnson, the lady 
whom he has rendered celebrated by the 
name of Stella, daughter of the steward 
to sir William Temple. She was accom- 
panied by Mrs. Dingley ; and the iwo la- 
dies resided in the neighborhood when 
Swifl was at home, and at the parsonage 
house during his absence : this connexion 
lasted till her death. In 1701, he took his 
doctor's degree, and, the same year, first 
entered on the stage as a political writer, 
hy a pamphlet in l^half of the ministers, 
entitled. Contests and Dissensions be- 
tween the Nobles and Commons of Ath- 
ens and Rome — a work of no great force. 
In 1704, he published, anonymously, his 
ftmous Tale of a Tub, of which, although 
he would never own it, he is the mdoubted 
author. This piece of humoi, while it 
advanced his reputation as a wit, did him 
no small injury as a divine, being deemed 
laAt and indecorous, by the functionaries 
m the church. The Battle of the Books, 
appended to the Tale of a Tub, is a bur- 
lesque comparison between ancient and 
modem authore, in which he exercises 
his satire against Dr^den and Bendey. 
In 1706 appeared his Sentiments of a 
Church of England Man, in respect to 
Religion and uovemment; Letter con- 
oernmff the Sacnunental Test; Argu- 
zh^t for the Abolition of Christlanitv; 
and Predictions for the year 1708, by 
Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq. Of these pieces, 
the first two set the seal to his adnesion 
to the tories, while the others exhibit that 
inimitable talent for irony and ^ve hu- 
mor which forms his principal distinction. 
In 1710, being en^ag^ed by the Irish prel- 
acy to obtain a remission of the first-miits 
and twentieths, payable by the Irish cler- 
fr[ to the crown, he was introduced to 
fibrley, afterwards eari of Oxford, and to 
secretary St John, subsequently lord Bo- 
Ihigbroke. He sained the confidence of 
these l^Mlers, and took a 1eading*share in 
the fkmous tory periodical, entitled the 
Examiner. Although immersed in poli- 
tics, he did not neglect literature, and, in 
1711, published a Proposal for correctins, 
improving and ascertaining the Enriisn 
Tongue, m a letter to the earl of O^rd, 



the object of which was to establish an 
institution to secure the purity of the lan- 
guage. Several ooliticiu tracts appeared 
about this time trom his pen. A bish- 
opric in England was the object of his 
ambition ; but archbishop Sharpe, on the 
ground, h is said, of his Tale of a Tul^ 
having infused into the mind of queen 
Anne suspicions of his orthodoxy, the 
only preferment his ministerial niends 
could give him, was the Irish deaneiy of 
St. Patrick's, to which he was presented 
in 1713. The dissensions between Ox- 
ford and Bolingbmke, whom he in vain 
attempted to I'econcile, and the death of 
the queen, which soon followed, put an 
end to his prospects, and condemned him 
to unwilling residence for life in a country 
which he disliked. He accordingly re- 
turned to Dublin, and introduced a meri- 
torious refonn into the chapter of St. 
Patrick's, over which he obtained an 
authority never before possessed in his 
station. In 1716, he was privately mar- 
ried to Miss Johnson ; but the ceremony 
was attended with no acknowledgment 
which could gratify the feelings of the vic- 
tim of his pride and cruelty. The ascend- 
ency which he acquired over Miss Hester 
Vanhonirigh, another accomplished fe- 
male, was attended with circumstances still 
more censurable. He became acquainted 
witli xYna lady in London, in 1712 ; and as 
she possessed, with a large fortune, a taste 
for bterature. Swift took pleasure in afford- 
ing her instruction. Tne pupil became 
enamored of her tutor, and even pro- 
posed marria^ to him ; but being proba- 
bly at that time engaged to Stella, he 
avoided a decisive answer. That he, 
however, felt her attractions, seems ob- 
vious from his Cadenus and Vanessa, the 
longest and most finished of his poems of 
fancy. This affair terminated fatally; 
for, discovering his secret union with 
Stella, the unfortunate lady never recov- 
ered the shock, but died fourteen months 
after, in 1723. She previously cancelled 
a will she had made in his fkvor, and left 
it in charge to her executors (one of whom 
was bishop Berkeley) to publish all the 
correspondence between her and Swift, 
which, however, never appeared. Afler 
residing some time in Ireland without 
attending to public affairs, in 1720 he was 
roused, by the illiberal manner in which 
Ireland was governed, to publish a Pro- 
posal for the universal Use of Irish Man- 
uftictures, which rendered him verv popu- 
lar. His celebrated Letters followed, 
under the name of M. B. Drapier, in 
which he ably exposed the job of Wood^s 



SWIFT— SWIMMING. 



patent for a supply of copper coinage. A 
large reward was offered for the discov- 
ery of the author ; but none took place, 
and the dean became the public idol of 
the Irish people. It was about this time 
that he composed his famous Gulliver's 
Travels, which appeared in 1726, exhibit- 
ing a singular union of misanthropy, satire, 
irony, ingenuity, and humor. In the 
»Bime year he joined Pope in three vol- 
umes of miscellanies, leaving the profit 
to the poet. On the death of George I, 
be paid his court to the new king and 
queen. But he was disappointed; and 
the death of Stella, about this time, who 
bad been long languishing in a state of 
decline, completed his chagrin. When 
her health was ruined, he oflerod to ac- 
knowledge her as his wife ;but she replied, 
•* It is too late." He allowed her to make 
a will in her maiden name, in which she 
consigned her property to charitable uses. 
From the death of this injured female, 
his life became much retired, and the 
austerity of his temper increased. He 
continued, however, for some years, to 
exercise both his patriotic and his sple- 
netic feelings, in various effusions of prose 
and verse, and was earnest in his exertions 
to better the condition of the wretched 
poor of Ireland ; in addition to which en- 
deavors he dedicated a third of his income 
to charity. Some of his most striking 
poems were written about this time, in- 
cluding his celebrated Verses on his own 
Death, formed on one of the maxims of 
Rochefoucault. He kept little compa- 
ny at this advanced period, but with infe- 
riors, whom he could treat as he pleased, 
and especially a knot of females, who 
were always ready to administer the most 
obsequious flattery. In 17*%, he had an 
attack of deafness and giddiness. The 
fiite, which, owing to his constitutional 
infirmities, he had always feared, at length 
reached him ; the faculties of his mind 
decayed before his body, and a gradual 
decay of reason settled into absolute idi- 
ocy early in 1742. He died in 1745, in 
his seventy-eighth vear. He bequeathed 
the greatest part x^i his fortune to an hos- 
pitalfor lunatics and idiots. Pride, mis- 
anthropy, and stem inflexibility of tem- 
per, formed the basis of ^is character, 
which was strangely compounded of sin- 
cerity, arrogance, implacability, careless- 
ness of giving pain, and a total want of 
candor as a politician or partisan. Of 
his obdurate and unfeeling nature, besides 
his treatment of his wife and Miss Van- 
homrigh (for which various reasons, in- 
cluding secret constitutional infirmities, 



have been conjectured), his utter aXian- 
donment of an only sister, simply for 
marrying a tradesman, and many other 
instances, might be adduced. £ven his 
whim and humor was indulged with a 
most callous indifference to the pain 
which he might inflict, or the sensibilities 
he might wound. As a writer, he was 
original, and has, perhaps, never been ex- 
ceeded in grave irony, which he veils 
with an air of serious simplicity, admira- 
bly calculated to set it oflf. He also 
abounds in ludicrous ideas, which often 
deviate, both in his poetry and prose, 
into very unpardonable grossness. His 
style forms the most per^ct example of 
easy familiarity that the language anbrds ; 
but, although admirable for its pureness, 
clearness, and simplicity, it exhioits none 
of the ^low of genius, its highest mer- 
its consisting in its extreme acciumcy 
and precision. His works have been 
often printed, and in various forms: 
the latest and best edition is that of 
sir W. Scott, in 19 vols., 8vo. (E^n- 
burgh, 182R 

Swift, Zephaniah, LL. D., chiefjus- 
tjce of Connecticut, graduated at Yale 
college, in 1758. He then studied law» 
and established himself at Windham, 
Connecticut Early in life, he was chosen 
a member of congress, and, in 1800, ac- 
companied Ellsworth, Davie and Murray 
in their mission to France, as secretary. 
Soon after his return, he was placed on 
the bench of the superior court He re- 
tained the seat for eighteen years, during 
the last Ave of which, he flUed the station 
of chief-justice with distinguished ability 
and probity. He was afterwards a mem- 
ber of the state legislature, and was one 
of the committee appointed to revise The 
statute laws of the state. His death oc- 
curred at Warren, Ohio, October 27, 
1823, in the sixty-flfth year of his age. 
He published a Digest of the Laws of Con- 
necticut, in two volumes, on the model 
of Btackstone. - 

Swimming is one of the most important 
branches of gymnastics, both in a physi- 
cal and moral respect Its effects in de- 
veloping, invigorating and giving health 
to the Iwdy are so great, and it is so easily 
learned, that it is of the highest conse- 
quence, particularly in climates where 
the heat of the summer prevents active 
exercise on the land. To all the advan- 
tages of cold bathing, it adds many others ; 
it enables the bather to remain much 
longer in the water, on account of the ex- 
ercise which it affords, and thus — ^in salt 
water at least — ogives more opportunity to 



SWIMMING. 



m 



ioTigKHBte the akin— one of the flieatest 
benefits of fi^quent salt-water bathing, as 
a lai^ number of diseases spring from a 
debibtated state of the skin, which is very 
frequent in changeable climates, pro- 
ducing colds, inflammations, rheumatism, 
&c. The exercise greatly strengthens 
the lower extremities, the abdominal 
muscles, the muscles of the chest, and the 
organs of respiration, the spine, neck and 
arras. It increases courage, and furnishes 
an agreeable excitement — ^the usual attend- 
ant of manly and brisk exercise, but pe- 
culiarly so of swimming— on account of 
the mastery which it gives us over an 
element for which the human structure is 
but partially fitted. The means which it 
afibrds of preserving our own lives, or 
those of others, in situadons of peculiar 
peril, is also a great recommendation of 
this exercise, which may be easily learned 
wherever there is water of five feet depth. 
No danger whatever is connected with it. 
Of the many methods of teaching swim- 
ming, we shall give that introduced, 
origmally, by ^neral Pfuel, into the 
Prussian swimmmg schools, having found 
it, by experience, much superior to other 
systems. By this method, a person may 
become a perfect swimmer (able, we 
mean, to swim at least half an hour in 
succession) in a very short time. We 
have known many individuals, who could 
not swim a single stroke, enabled, by 
taking daily one, and sometimes two 
lessons, for three weeks, to swim half an 
hour: some have even acquired this 
proficiency within a fortnight. The ap- 
paratus for teaching consists of a hemp- 
en girdle of a hand's breadth, of a rope 
from five to six fathoms in length, of^ a 
pole eiffht feet long, and a horizontal 
rail fixed about three and a half feet above 
the platfi>rm on which the teacher stands, 
to rest the pole on. The depth of the 
water, in the place chosen for swimming, 
should, if possible, be not less than eight 
feet,and the clearest and calmest water pos- 
sible should be selected. The pupil wears 
drawers, fiustened by a string above the 
hips, and covering about half the thighs. 
They must be mme loose, so as to allow 
the freest action of the legs. The pupil is 
now placed near the horizontal rail, his 
bands resting upon it, whilst the teacher 
i^hows him the modon which he will have 
to make with his legs in the water. This 
he does by guiding the motion of one le^, 
while the'pupil rests on the other. This 
motion will be explained inmiediately. 
The swimming girdle, about five inches 
wide, is placed round the pupil's breast, 
8 * 



so that its upper edge touches the paps, 
vrithout sitting tijB^ht The teacher takes 
the rope, which is fastened to a ring of 
the ffurdle, in his hand, and directs the 
pupil to leap into the water, keeping the 
le^ straight and dose together, and the 
arms close to the body; and — ^wbat is 
very important — to breathe out through 
the nose, as soon as his head rises above 
the water, instead of breathing in first, 
which every man naturally does afler a 
suspension of breath. The object of this 
is to iMievent the water from getting into 
the throat, which produces an unpleasant 
feeling of choking and head-ache. The 
expiration soon becomes perfectly natural 
to a swimmer. The pupil ia then invited 
to leap— never pushed. He is drawn up 
immMiately by the rope, pulled to the 
ladder, and allowed to gain confidence 
gradually. The rope is now fastened by 
a noose to the end of the pole, the end of 
it beine kept in the hand of the teacher ; 
the pofe is rested on the horizontal rail, 
and the pupil stretches himself horizon- 
tally in the water, where he remains 
supported by the pole. The aims are 
extended stiffly forward, the hands clasp- 
ed ; the chin touches the water ; the legs 
are also stiffly stretched out, the heels 
being together, the feet turned out, the 
toes drawn up. This horizontal position 
is important, and must be executed cor- 
i^ectlv. No limb is permitted to be re- 
laxed. The motion of the legs is taught 
first : it is divided into three parts, llie 
teacher first says, loudly and slowly, 
" One ;** when the legs are slowly drawn 
under the body, and, at the same time, the 
knees are separated to the greatest possi- 
ble distance; the spine is bent downwards, 
and the toe kept outwards. The teacher 
then says, briskly, " Two ;" upon which 
the legs are stiffly stretched out with a 
moderate degree of quickness, while the 
heels are separated, and the legs describe 
the widest possible angle, the toes being 
contracted and kept outwards. The 
teacher then says, quickly, " Three ;" upon 
which the legs, vrith the knees held stiff- 
Iv, are (juickly brought together; and thus 
the ori|pnal position is again obtained. 
The pNomt at which the motions two and 
three join, is the most important, because 
it is the o^ect to receive as large and com- 
pact a wedge of water between the legs as 
possible, so tliat, when the le^ are brought 
together, their action upon this wedge may 
urjp the body forward. In ordinary easy 
swimming, the hands are not used to 
propel, but merely to asast in keeping on 
the surface. By degrees, therefore, two 



M> 



SWIMMING. 



and three are counted in quick successioD, 
and the pupil is taught to extend the legs 
as widely as possible. After some time, 
what was done under the heads two and 
three, is done when two is called out. 
When the teacher sees that the pupil is 
able to propel himself considerably, which 
he frequently acquires the power of doing 
in the first lesson, and that he performs 
the motions already mentioned with reg- 
ularity, he teaches the motion of the 
hands, which must not be allowed to sink, 
as they are much disposed to do, while 
the motion of the legs is practised. The 
motion of the hands consists of two parts : 
when the teacher says " One," the hands, 
which were held with the palms together, 
are opened, laid horizontally an inch or 
two under the water, and the arms are 
extended, until they form an angle of 90^; 
then the elbow is bent, and the nands are 
brought up to the chin, having described 
an arch downward and upwai*d ; the low- 
er part of the tliumb touches the chin, the 
palms being together. When the teacher 
says ** Two," the anns are quickly stretch- 
ed forward, and thus the original horizon- 
tal position is regained. The legs remain 
sdmy extended during the motion of the 
hands. If the motion of tlie hands is cor- 
recdy performed, the legs and arms are 
moved together ; so that, while the teach- 
er says "One," the pupil performs the 
first motion of the hands and legs; when 
he says ** Two," the second and third mo- 
tions of the feet, and the second of the 
hands. As soon as the teacher perceives 
that the pupil begins to support himself, 
he slackens the rope a little, and instantly 
straightens it, if the pupil is about to sink. 
When the pupil can swim about ten 
strokes in succession, he is released from 
the pole, but not from the rope. When 
he can swim about fifty strokes, he is re- 
leased from the rope too ; but the teacher 
remains near him with a long pole, until 
he can swim 150 strokes in succession, so 
that, should he sink, the pole is immedi- 
ately held out to him. After this, he may 
swim in the area of the school under the 
superintendence of the teacher, until he 
proves tliat he can swim half an hour in 
succession, when he is considered fit to 
be left to himself^ and, in some swimming 
schools, receives a particular mark on the 
drawers, that the proficient may be distin- 
guished from the unskilfiil. Before this 
degree of progress is reached, pupils are 
not allowed to take part in long excur- 
sions. Swimming on the back is easily 
taught. The swimmer places his hands 
over his hips, the thumbs turned towards 



the back, and, letting himself sink perpen- 
dicularly in the water, bends wb head 
backward, and makes the common mo- 
tion with the feet, when he will swim on 
the back ; or, after having made a stroke 
when swimming on his belly, he may 
leave one arm extended, and turn tho 
palm of the hand upward ; in which case 
the whole body will follow, and the swinc- 
mer thus be placed on his back. To ex- 
pedite the motion in swimming on the 
back, the arms may be used as paddles. 
To swim quickly on the belly, the hands 
are turned with the palms outward, so as 
to press sideways against the water, instead 
of being allowed to rest flat on it This 
makes the efibrts of swimming greater, 
and, of course, exhausts sooner. The 
teacher may early begin to let the pupil 
make running lea])s into the water. In 
many cases, the pupils have sufiicient 
confidence to leap from a considerable 
height the very first time. Every swim- 
mine school ought to have a leaping tow- 
er, m>m which the swimmers may leap 
at different heights. The tower should 
not be less than thirty feet high. Diving 
is one of the ^atest amusements con- 
nected with swimming. There are many 
kinds : the two most common, easiest and 
necessary modes of plun^ng below the 
surface, are, 1. by a simple jump, feet fore- 
most, the legs, arms and head being kept 
stifill The pupil must not allow fear, or 
the strange sensation felt in the abdomi- 
nal region, in leaping from considerable 
heights, to induce him to spread the arms 
or legs, or to bend his bodv. 2. The other 
mode is to plunge head foremost, which 
is the safest mode for many per^ns who 
are heavily built about the chest and 
shoulders, if they have to enter the water 
€rom great heights. It must be learned 
by degrees. Tttie head is drawn down 
upon the chest, the anns stretched for- 
ward, and, as soon as the swimmer be- 
gins to feel that he has lost his bidance, 
he Btiflfens his knees, which, till then, 
were bent. The diver must avoid striking 
on his belly — ^the general consequence of 
fear — and mrning over so as to come 
down on his back or side — the conse- 
quence of pushinff with the feet When 
he has gone as deep as he wishes, the 
anns are to be raised, and pressed down- 
wards. In saving a person finom drown- 
ing, which can l^ done most effectually 
if he has already lost consciousness, pull 
him by the hair, or push him before you, 
if &r from shore; otnerwise take him by 
the arm. If the person in danger is an 
exhausted swimmeri call to him to hm 



SWIMMING-SWITZERLAND. 



n 



quiet; rapport him by one shoulder; or, 
tthe still retains his presence of mind, let 
both his bands rest on your shoulder, or 
under your arm-pits, and let him work 
slowly with his legs. If the person in 
danger is not a swimmer, and is strugffling, 
take care not to approach him in front ; 
his convulsive ^rasp may be fatal to both ; 
but approach hun from behind, and, if he 
sinks, pull him up by the hair, and sup- 
port him with the utmost caution. If he 
grasps you, so that you are unable to 
move, struggle with him under the water. 
The drowmng person, in this situation, 
will often let go his hold, striving instinc- 
tively to reach the surface ; but, if the 
struggle becomes one for Ufe, the onlv 
mode of making your antagonist relax his 
hold is said to 1^9 to grasp his throat and 
render him senseless, as we have known 
done in a case where a person was thus 
seized, and both parties were floatuig 
swifily towards the wheels of a mill. — 
Swimming may be .begun very early, at 
five or six years of age ; and, at the same 
time, there are many instances of persons 
past forty learning to swim well. It is 
unfortunate that prejudice has excluded 
females from an exercise so healthful to 
body and mind, so useful in times of dan- 
ger, aud so easily acquired, |)articularly 
as they would learn it more easily than 
males, and as the exercise of swinmiing 
would be peculiarly useful to certain 
functions peculiar to females. A covered 
place, female teachers, and a loose dress 
fix»m the neck to the ankles, would satisfy 
all the claims of propriety. It is time that 
a beginning should be made. — ^The hu- 
man body, with air in the lungs, is a little 
lighter than fresh and considerably light- 
er than salt water ; hence it does not sink 
entirely in water; but the entrances to 
the organs of respiration are so placed 
that they would be under water in a body 
floating naturally. With a little manage- 
ment, however, and perfect confidence 
(which, it is true, can only be expected 
from a swimmer), any person can float on 
his back, especially in salt water. Ani- 
mals, in swimming, do not vary much 
from their motion in walking; but man is 
obliged to change his motion entirely. 
All the Sclavonic tribes — Russians, Poles, 
&c — swim in a way somewhat resem- 
bling the motion of dogs in the lyater, 
inakmg a separate eflbrt witli each of the 
fi>ur extremities. Every teacher should 
remember that swimming is half learned 
when the pupil has gained confidence ; 
and it is generally very easy to inspire it 
The beat treatise on swimming with 



which we are acquainted, is a thin pam- 
phlet, published by genera) von Pfuel, in 
Berlin, 1817. There are now swimming 
schools in Paris, Vienna, Munich, Berlin, 
Brcslau, and many other places in Eu- 
rope. In the U. Suites, we know of none, 
as yet, except in Boston. 

SwiNDEif, John Henry van, a Dutch 
philosopher, bom at the Ilafrue, in 1746, 
was educated at Leyden, and became pro* 
fessor of philosophy, logic and metaphya- 
ics at Franeker, in 1767. Nineteen years 
afler, he was called to the chair of phys- 
ics, mathematics and astronomy at the 
Athenseum at Amsterdam. In 1770, he 
became a member of the academv of sci- 
ences at Paris ; and he gained the prize 
ofiered by that learned tK>dy for the best 
memoir Sur Its ,^tig%tilUs aimanUes ei 
Uurs Variations f and, in 1780, obtained a 
prize fix>m the academy of Mfinich, for a 
memoir in answer to the question, ^ What 
analogy is there between electricity and 
magnetism ?^ which was aflerwards print- 
ed (2 vols., 8vo.). In 1798, he appeared 
at Paris, at the national institute, to assist 
in the establishment of a new system of 
weights and measures, when he was ap- 
pointed to draw up the reports on those 
subjects. In 1803, he was nominated a 
correspondent of tlie French institute; 
and he belonged to the principal learned 
societies in Europe. lie also occupied 
the office of member of the executive 
directory, under the Batavian renublic, 
and tliat of counsellor of state in the ser- 
vice of the king of the Netherlands. He 
died March 9, 1823. Van Swinden was 
tlie autlior of several works besides those 
already mentioned, of which notices may 
be found in the annexed authorities. Bx- 
og, Abiir. des Conicmp, Biog, Univ, 

Swine. (See Svoincmiindc.) 

SwiNEMUNDE (that is, mou/A oftht river 
Swine) ; a town in Pomerania, on the isle 
of Usedom, on the Swine, one of the 
branches by which the Oder empties into 
the Baltic. It is the harbor of Stettin. 

iq. V.) Long and expensive moles have 
ately been built, to render the harbor 
safe, and prevent the river from being 
choked with sand. The beacon is in lat, 
53° IS' N., and Ion. 14° IS' 15'' E. Depth 
* of water from Swine miinde to Stettin, 
twelve Prussian feet ; inhabitonw, 3800. 

Switzerland (Gennan, Schtpeiiz ; 
French, Suisse); Uie Swiss or Helvetic 
confederacy. The northern and south- 
em nations of Europe have been suigu- 
larly intermingled in the ancient Helvetia, 
whose Alpine walls seem like a barrier, 
separating them from each other. Th« 



SWITZERLAND. 



Roman legions, indeed, conquered the 
Gauls, Rhfletians and Alemanni in their 
fbreatB and marshes ; but they could not 
destroy the northern spirit of freedom. 
The traces of its ancient subjusation ft> 
Rome are still visible, in the Romanic 
Ianp[uage of a part of Switzerland. Hel- 
vetia (q. v.), under the Romans, had a 
flourishing trade, which covered the land 
with cities and villages ; and Switzerland 
still forms the connectinff link between 
Northern. Germany, the Netherlands and 
France on the one side, and Italy on 
the other. Before the fall of the Roman 
empire in the West, the northern and 
largest part of Switzerland, occuoied by 
the Alemanni, had been conquerea by the 
Franks. (See Clovis.) On the Jura dwelt 
the Burgundians, and Rhietia was under 
the Ostrogoths. Three German nations, 
therefore, freed the country, about A. D. 
450, from the dominion of Kome. Chns- 
tianity had already been introduced into 
Helvetia from Italy, and as eariy as the 
fourth century tnere were Christian 
churches at Geneva, Coire, and other 
places. The Alemanni and Burffundi- 
ans cave their laws and their habits to 
the Helvetians ; and the Alemanni occu- 
pied the greater part of the countiy. 
£ach soldier received a farm; a judge, 
or centgrave, vras set over one hundred of 
these farms (forminff a cent, or hundred) ; 
and the place of judgment, where he set- 
tled all questions between the free citizens, 
was called MaUus, Several cents formed 
a Crou (hence Thuigau, Aargau, &c), 
the judge of which was styled count 
igrqf)', and the counts were under a 
duke. The great irruption of barbarians 
swept through the peaceful valleys of the 
Alps, and Roman civilization disappeared. 
Osiroffoths, Lombards, and even Huns, 
setded in different parts of the country. 
At last, the Franks, who had taken pos- 
session of the lands of the conquered Ale- 
manni, drove the Ostrogoths over the 
Rhfetian mountains. In 534, they tike- 
wise subjected the Burgundians, and all 
Switzerland became a portion of the 
Frankish empire. The country, howev- 
er, retained its ancient constitution ; the 
Romans and the old inhabitants were 
governed by Roman, the Alemanni by 
Alemannic, laws ; and each of the other 
nations by its peculiar code. The Chris- 
tian religion was restored anew, and the 
desolMed fields were again brought under 
cultivation. On the partition of the em- 
pire of the Franks amonff the Merovin^- 
ans, Switzerland was divided between 
two sovereigns: one reigned over Ale- 



mannian, and the other over Burgundian 
Switzerland, or Little Burgundy. fSee 
JVimce.) Pepin re-united the wnole 
country, and Charlemacne encouraged 
the arts and sciences in Helvetia. Under 
his feeble successors, the counts became 
more and more independent of the royal 
authority, and finally made the possessioH 
of their Gaus hereditanr. One of them 
(Rodotph) established (888) the new king- 
dom of^Burffundy, between the Reuas and 
the Jura. Nine vears previously, Boso had 
establii^ed the kingdom of Aries, in the 
territory between the Jura and the Rhone. 
Thirty veors afterwards, the two Burgun- 
dian kmgdoms were united. (See Bur- 
gundians.) The counts in the other parts 
of Switzerkmd were still nominally sub- 
ject to the German kings ; but they con- 
ducted themselves 'as princes, assumed 
the name of their casties, and compelled 
the free inhabitants of their Ganu to ac- 
knowledge them as their lords. Hence 
arose a multitude of independent and 
complicated governments, whose chiefs 
were engaged in continual feuds with 
each other. War was the business of the 
nobles, and misery the fate of the people 
in die distracted land. The emperor 
Conrad, therefore, set a duke over the 
counts in Alemannia in 911. But the em- 
perors of the Saxon house (919 — 1024) 
were the first who compelled the dukes, 
counts and bishops, in Switzerland, to 
respect their authoritv. After the deatli 
of Rodolph III, the fOfUi and last king of 
Burgundy (1082), the emperor Conrad II 
re-united Burgundian Switzerland with 
Alemaimic, which belonsed to the Ger- 
man empire. But under Henry IV, grand- 
son of Conrad II, the royal authority in 
Switzerland was again overthrown. Hen- 
ry (see Henry /For Germany), persecuted 
l^ the ifope, sought adherents. He gave 
to the duke of Z&hringen tlie Alemannic 
part of Switzerland, to which, in 1125, 
after the conquest of the count of Hoch- 
burg and of Raynold of Chalons, Con 
rad of Z&hringen added the Bui^undian 

S)rtion. The dukes of Z&hringeu burn- 
ed the proud and quarrelsome nobility, 
but favored Zurich and the other impe- 
rial cities ; and built several new cities, 
among which were Friburg, in Uchtland, 
in 1 178, and Berne in 1 191. The country 
people became more secure; the feuds 
among the nobility less frequent; manu- 
factures and industry flourished ; Grenevn 
and Lausanne, among tlie Romanic, and 
Zfirich and Basle among the German 
cities, became thriving towns. The fami- 
lies of Savov, Kyburg and Haosbnrg were 



SWITZERLAND. 



93 



the most powerful among the noble fiimi- 
lies. Many nobles went, about this time, 
to Palestine ; and tiiiw the country was 
delivered from their oppression. After 
the death of Berthold V, last duke 
of Zahringen, in 1218, Alemannia again 
came into the possession of the emperors. 
His hereditary esuites in Uchtland and in 
Little Burgundy passed, by his sister Ag- 
nes, to the house of Kyburff. From this 
time, the Uapsburgs (q. v.) in northern 
Hetvetia, and the counts of Savoy (q. v.), 
in the south-west, grew more and more 
powerfuL The emperor appointed some 
nobleman as governor of each city, or 
community, which was not under a count, 
to collect the public revenue and to punish 
violations of the public peace ; still, how- 
ever, private feuds continued. The Ger- 
man kings were no longer able to afford 
protection ; might gave right, and the bold- 
est became the mistiest Several inferior 
lords, and several places, therefore, sought • 
the protection of Hapsburg or Savoy. 
Z(irich, Berne, Basle and Soleure, the 
districts of Uri, Schweitz and Underwal- 
den, gradually acquired the seigneurial 
lights finom the emperors, by purchase or 
by pant, and assumed the name of im- 
perial cities or imperial districts. They 
were more prosperous and powerful than 
the nobility, who lived in their solitary 
castles, at enmity with each other. Even 
the crusades, by promoting commerce, 
improved the already flourishing condi- 
tion of the cides, as a part of the troops, 
arms, provisions, &C., were transmitted 
to Italy, through the passes of the Alps. 
The crusaders brought back new hiven- 
tMUDS in the arts, new kinds of fruits, 
&c. The gold and silk manufiictures of 
the Italians and Eastern nations were imi- 
tated in Switzerland ; refinement took the 
pkice of rudeness, and poetry became the 
&vorite amusement of the nobles. The 
cities now formed alliances for their mu- 
tual protection against the rapacity of the 
nobles, and demolished many casdes, 
from wluch they exercised their oppres- 
sion upon the peaceful merchants. At 
the end of the thirteenth century, Ro- 
dolph of Hapsburg (q. v.), who, in 1264, 
had inherited the estates of his uncle, 
Hartmann, count of Kyburg, became 
more powerful than tlie old lords of the 
soil. As kin^ and emperor of Germany 
(12731 he held a court in Helvetia ; but 
be dia not abuse his power to reduce the 
freemen to vassalage. His ambitious sons, 
however, Rodolph and Albert, encroached 
upon the rights of the Swiss. Albert, in 
particular, who succeeded to the imperial 



dignity in 1296, by his manny and ob- 
stinacy, gave rise to the first confederacy 
of the Swiss cantons. (See TeiL) On the 
night of November 7, 1307, thirty-three 
brave countrymen met at Rfitii (Grutlin), 
a solitary spot on the lake of Lucerne, 
fq. V.) Ffirst of Uri, Stauflacher of 
Schweitz, and Melchthal (q. v.)of Under- 
walden, were the leaders on this occasion. 
All swore to maintain their ancient inde- 
pendence. The three WaidstAdte, or For- 
est-Towns (as these eantons were called), 
rose, therefore, January 1, 1308, deposed 
the Austrian governors, and destroyed 
the castles built to overawe the country. 
(See ,^lbert L) Henry VII, tlie successor 
of Albert on the German throne, con- 
firmed to the Forest-Towns the rights of 
which Albert had endeavored to rob them. 
But the house of Austria still contended 
obstinately for its lost privileges. The 
victory of Morgarten (q. v.), gained by 
the Forest-Towns (1315) over lipoid of 
Austria, gave rise to the perpetual league 
of Rrunnen, on December 9 of the same 
year, to which, previous to 1353, Lucerne, 
Zurich, Glarus, Zug and Berne had ac- 
ceded. The victories of Semnach (Juljr 
9, 1386), where Arnold Winkelried sacri- 
ficed his life, and of N&fels (April 9, 13^9), 
gave them an uncertain peace. But the 
warlike spirit of the people fostered a 
love of conquest and plund^^r; mutual 
hatred kindled civil wara between neigh- 
boring cantons; foreign powers sought 
the aid of the confederates in their con- 
tests. In 1424, the ]ieople of the Grey 
League established their independence, 
and were soon after joined by those' of 
the other two leagues. fSee Grisims,) The 
emjieror Frederic III tnen called a I* rench 
army into Switzerland to protect his fam- 
ily estates. The Swiss made a second 
Thermopylee of the church-yard of St 
Jacob at fiasle, where 1600of ihem with- 
stood 20,000 French under the dauphin 
Louis, August 26, 1444. They next jjro- 
voked Charles the Bold of Burgundy 
(q, v.), who marched into their country, 
but was defeated at Granson, Murten, or 
Morat (q. v.), and Nancy (1477). The 
confederates themselves aspired to con- 
quest, the people being fired by the desire 
of plunder, and the nobles by ambition 
of glory. In 1460, they wrested Thurgau 
from Austria ; and from 1436 to 1450, Zu- 
rich, Schweitz and Glarus contended for 
Toggenburg, till Berne decided the dis- 
pute in favor of Schweitz. The confed- 
erated cantons from this time bore the 
name of the Swiss confederacy in foreign 
coimtries. In 1481, Friburg and Soleura 



M 



SWITZERLAND. 



entered the iconfederacjr. The emperor 
MaximUian I now determined to force 
the Swias to join the Suabian lea^e, and 
to submit to the court of the imperial 
chamber. But they suspected Grermany 
on account of Austria, and joined the Gri- 
sons. Hence arose the Suabian war, 
which was concluded, after the Swiss had 
gained six victories over the Germans, by 
Sie peace of Basle, in 1499. Basle and 
Schaifhausen (1501), and Appenzell 
(1513), were afterwards admitted into the 
confederacy. But the country and peo- 
ple were disturbed by domesac and for- 
eign wars. In the Milanese war of 1512, 
the Swiss conquered the Valteline and 
Ohiavenna, and obtained fit>m Milan the 
Italian bailliages, which form at present 
the canton of Tessin. They fought on a 
foreign soil, now for, now against, Milan ; at 
one time for France, and at another time 
acainst her, till after the great battle of 
Marignano,ffained by Francis I, in 1515, 
they concluded a perpetual peace with 
France, at Friburg, m 1516, which was fol- 
lowed, Id 1521, by the first formal alliance 
with that kingdom.* About this time the 
work of reformation began in Switzerland. 
Zuinglius (q. v.), in 1518, preached against 
indulgences, as Luther had done in 1517. 
£veu as early as 1516» he had attacked 
pilgrimages, and the invocation of the 
virgin Mary ; and in 1517, with the knovd- 
edce of his patron, the abbot of Einsie- 
deln, several nuns abandoned the monas- 
tic life. His removal fiiom Einsiedeln to 
Zfirich, in 1518, gave him courage to 
speak more openly, as Luther had, mean- 
while, appeared in the cause of reform. 
But when the principles of the reforma- 
tion were diftiiised through Ziirich, Berne, 
Schaffhausen, Basle (by the labors of 
OScoIampadius), St Gall, MCihlhausen 
and Bienne, religious jealousy separated 
the reformed and the Catholic cantons. 
(See Reformed Church.) In Glarus, Ap- 
penzell and the Grisons, the people were 
divided between the two confessions. 
Luzerne, Uri, Schweitz, Underwalden, 
Zug, Friburg and Soleure adhered to the 
ancient faith ; as did likewise the Valais 
and the Italian bailiwicks. Fanaticism 
kindled a civil war. The Schweitzers 
burnt a Protestant preacher of Zimch. 
Two Swiss armies, nearly 30,000 strong, 
awaited the signal fi>r civil war, when 
the word concord was pronounced, and 
the first religious peace was concluded in 

* From Loaifl XI to Louis XV, the Swiss fur- 
nished for the French service 1,110.798 men, for 
which France paid 1,146,868,623 francs. (See 
Ouards,) 



1529. It was agreed that the majority of 
votes in the communities should decide 
all questions relating to changes of fiiitfa. 
But the rapid progress of the reformation 
again provoked the Catholic cantons to 
war ; and the troops of Ziirich were routed 
at Cappel (1531), where Zuinglius fell, 
and at the mountain of Zug. After the 
second public peace, the Catholic religion 
was restored in Soleure and the common 
provinces. In the mean time. Savoy, 
which had long possessed episcopal and 
seignieurial rights in Geneva, reduced the 
city to entire submiasioni But the op- 
pressive manner in which the ducal au- 
thoritv was exercised, led Geneva (q v.), 
in 1525, to join Benie and Friburg. The 
du ke was forced to yield. Berne ami Gene- 
va ccncluded the perpetual league of 1531, 
and Berne gained possession of the Pays 
de Vaud. (q. v.^ At the same time, the 
reformed doctnnes were propagated from 
Geneva by Calvin, (q. v.) By the peace 
of Lausanne, in 1564, Savoy firet re- 
nounced her claims upon the Pays de 
Vaud, and was thus driven from Helveda, 
•as Hapsburg had been before. About 
this time (1555), Benie and Friburg di- 
vided between themselves the territories 
of the counts of Gniyere, so that, in all 
Helvetia, no great fiimiiy of the ancient 
nobles retained its patrimonial estates, 
except that of Neuburg. The Swiss, 
however, were distracted by religious and 
political controversies. Aristocracy and 
democracy struggled for the superioritv, 
and the intrigues of Spain filled the people 
of the ValteUne (1617—21) with a ^irit 
of fanaticism. In foreign, and especially 
in the French service, uie Svriss adopted 
foreign manners : he sold his blood to 
foreign masters ; and the ancient Swiss 
purity and simplicity retired to the re- 
mote valleys of the higher Alps. At the 
same time, the connexion of the confed- 
eracy with the German empire became 
less and less close, while the cantons ob- 
tained the confirmation of their ri^ts 
from the emperor Maximilian 11. But 
the influence of France soon liecame 
predominant, and Rome swayed the 
minds of its adherents by means of Jesu- 
it colleges at Lucerne and Friburg ; and 
particularly through the papal nuncio at 
Lucerne (smce 1580). In the thirty yeara' 
vrar, the confederates maintained a pni- 
dent neutrality; and, by the peace of 
Westphbiia (1648), the complete separa- 
tion of Switzerland from the German em- 
pire was at lei^h solemnly acknowledg- 
ed. In 1663, France renewed her alG- 
ance vrith the Swiss^ and asserted that 



SWITZERLAND. 



99 



they had no light to form aUiances with 
otho- powers. The conquest of the 
Fnnche Comt^ m 1674, and the degeof 
Rheinfeld, in 1678, by the French, to- 
cether iviUi the erection of the fortreaB of 
Huningen (q. v.), in 1679, excited the ap- 
prehensions of the Swiss. They, how- 
ever, happily maintained their neutrality, 
even in tne war of the Spanish succes- 
sion (1701 — 14). Durmg the persecution 
of the Protestants in France (from 1685), 
to whom they readily gave an asylum 
and pecuniary aid, they paid as little re- 
gard to the remonstrances of Louis, who 
viewed the refbnners as rebels, as he did 
to the intercession of the Protestant Swiss 
cantons in favor of their brethren in the 
fidth. The Swiss had little influence in 
foreign politics dunng the eighteenth 
century ; and, until towards its close, they 
sufiered little from foreign interference. 
This tranquillity, which, however, was 
often interrupted by internal dissensions, 
was alike fitvorable to the progress of 
commerce, agriculture and manumctures, 
and to the aits and sciences. In almost 
evOT department of human knowledge, 
the SwisB of the eighteenth centuiy, both 
at home and abroea, acquired distinguish- 
ed reputation, as the names of Halier, 
Bonnet, Bernoulli, J. J. Rousseau, Lava- 
ter, Bodmer, Breitinger, Gessner, Sulzer, 
Hirzel, Fuseli, Hotting^, John von Mil- 
ler, Pestalozzi, and many others, bear wit- 
nesBL The people of the democratic can- 
tons enjoyed an almost unlimited free- 
dom, ai^ took a large share in the affidrs 
of government. Those places which 
were under the general protection of the 
whole confederacy, were not burdened 
by excesnve taxes ; they enjoyed a high 
degree of civil freedom, and numerous 
municipal ridits. The larger cantons, as 
Berne and Zurich, in which the ^vem- 
ment was administered by the capitals, or 
by a body of the citizens, who enjoyed 
many peculiar privileges, were also m a 
flounshing condition. There were no 
oppressive taxes ; but almost every where 
the government was conscientiously con- 
ducted ; the administration of justice was 
cheap and simple, and benevolent insti- 
mtions were numerous. Notwithstanding 
all these &vorabIe circumstances, inter- 
nal dissensions still continued, and new 
troubles arose in 1790, which shook the 
political fabric ; blood was often spilt, and 
punishment rendered necessaiy. Although 
Che Swiss had at first firmly mahitained 
their neutrality in the vrais of the French 
revolution, French power and intrigue 
gradually deprived them of their former 



constitution; and, after incorporating sev- 
eral portions of Switzeriand with the 
French and Cisalpine republics, the 
French converted the Swiss confederacy 
into the Helvetic republic, one and indi- 
visible, imder an executive directory of 
five nersons. The legislative power was 
divided between a senate and a great 
council, to which each of the fourteen 
cantons elected tvirelve members. It was 
in vain that some of the democratic can- 
tons attempted to prevent this revolution. 
They were speedily overpowered. But 
the oppressions of the French ; the arbi- 
trary manner in which they disposed of 
the highest offices ; the great number of 
weak and corrupt men who were raised 
to power,— soon made the new officers 
contemptible. Aloys Reding, a roan of 
enterpnsinff spirit, whose family was cel- 
ebrated in me annals of his country, form- 
ed the plan of overthrowing the central 
government Underwalden, Schweitz, 
Zfiricfa, Glarus, Appenzell and the Gri- 
sons voshed to restore the federal consti- 
tution ; and Reding imagined that Bona- 
parte himself, who hao just vrithdrawn 
the French troops firom Switzerland, 
would favor his plan. The smaller can- 
tons, in their diet at Schweitz (August 0, 
1802), declared that they would not ac- 
cept the constitution which had been forced 
upon them, and that they preferred a fed- 
eral ^vemment. The consequence was 
a civil war. Zfirich was besieged to no 
purpose by the troops of the Helvetic re- 
public, against whom its gates were shut. 
Kodolph von Eriach and general Auf der 
Maur, at the head of the insurgents, oc- 
cupied Berne and Friburg. The Helvetic 
government retired to Lausanne. Aloys 
Keding now summoned a general assem- 
bly,' which was held at Schweitz, Sept. 
2f . Three days afler, the first consul of 
France ofiered to the cantons his media- 
tion ; but the small cantons, guided by 
Aloys Reding and Hirzel of Zdrich, per- 
severed in their opposition. Twelve 
thousand French troops entered Switzer- 
land, under Ney, and the diet separated. 
Reding and Hirzel wen^ imprisoned. In 
December, both parties sent deputies of 
the eighteen cantons to Paris, to whom 
Bonaparte transmitted, by Barth^]6my, 
Foudi^ and Roderer, the act of media- 
tion of Feb. 19, 1803, restoring the can- 
tonal system, but grantuig freedom to the 
former subjects of the cantons. The 
cantons were now nineteen in number — 
Aarg^u, Appenzell, Basle, Berne, Fri- 
burg, Glarus, Grisons, Lucerne, St. Gal), 
Schaflfhausen, Schweitz, Soleure, Tessio, 



96 



SWITZERtiAND. 



Thurgau, Underwalden, Uri, Pays de 
Vaud, Zug, and Z£uTch. The republic 
of Valaia was cbaiiged, by a decree of Na- 
poleon, in 1810, into a French depart- 
ment ; and as early as 1806, he granted 
Neufchatel (which bad been ceded to 
him by Prussia, but which waa under the 
protection of Switzerland) to general Ber- 
thier, as a sovereign principality. Napo* 
leon assumed the title of ^ mediator of 
Switzerland f and the military service re- 
quired of the Swiss became more and 
more oppressive. It was only by great 
firmness and the sacrifice of immense 
sums of money, that most of the cantonal 
governments could avert greater oppres- 
sion : they were obliged to adopt the con- 
tinental system ; and the canton of Tes- 
sin was long garrisoned by French troops. 
In 1813, when the theatre of war ap- 
proached Switzerland, France permitted 
the Swiss to maintain their neutrality; 
but the allies expressed themselves am- 
biguously, and large armies were soon 
marched through the country in various 
directions to France. Their arrival ex- 
cited a fermentation in many quarters. 
The act of mediation was annulled, Dec. 
29, 181:1, at Zurich, and several cantons, 
of which Berne (1814) was the first, la- 
bored to revive their old coustitiitious. 
Through the influence of the allied mon- 
archs, the cantons were finally prevailed 
on to assemble a general council ; but 
revolutions and counter-revolutions agi- 
tated several of the cantons. Some of 
them were in arms against each other ; 
others enjoyed a happy tranquillity, and 
the respect of the foreigti powers. All, 
meanwiiile, were engaged in settling dieir 
constitutions. The old cantons adhered 
more or less closely to their former fitimes 
of government, and the new cantons en- 
deavored to give to those which they 
adopted more stability. A diet was at 
length assembled at Zurich, and new 
articles of confederation were agree<] upon 
by nineteen cantons, Sept. 18, 1814. They 
resembled the ol^d federal pact in many 
respects. This confederacy was acknowl- 
edged by the congrf^ss of Vienna. Tlie 
bishopric of Basle, with Bienne, was given 
to the canton of Berne, excepting the 
district of Birseck, which fell to Basle, 
and a small portion, which fell to Neuf- 
cliatel. The former relations of the latter 
place to Pnissia were resrored, and, with 
Geneva and the Valais, it joined the con- 
federacy of the Swiss cajitous, making 
their number twenty-two. Aug. 7, 181^ 
the compact of Zurich was publicly and 
solemnly adopted, after the deputies of 



the confederacy at Vienna had given in 
their accession to the acts of the congress 
of Vienna, so iar as they related to Switz- 
erland (74—84, and 91—95). Nov. 20, 
1815, the eight powers, Austria, Russia, 
. France, England, Prussia, Spain, Portu- 
gal and Sweden, proclaimed, by a sepa- 
rate act, the perpetual neutrality of Switz- 
erland, and the inviolability of its soiL 
Soon after, Switzerland became a mem- 
ber of the holy alliance. But the political 
state of the Swiss cantons, as settled bj 
the congress of Vienna, and jealously 
watched by the holy alliance, gave rise to 
much disaffection in the great body of the 
people. Though republics in name, 
notlnng could be less republican than ma- 
ny of their laws and customs: privileges 
of orders, of corporations, of locsilities^ and 
of family, interfered with the equal rights 
of the majority of the citizens. The fed- 
eral diet was overawed by the holy alli- 
ance, and oppressed, in tuni, the cantons ; 
the chief towns t}Taimised over the coun- 
try districts, and a few trades or families 
tyraimised over the towns. Refugees for 
political offences from the neighboring 
states were refused an asylum, and the 
press was shackled by the diet, in opposi- 
tion to the voice of the nation, and in 
com{)liance with the requests of the great 
powers. In the democratic cantons, in 
which the people were not oppressed by 
their cantonal authorities, they were 
often disgusted with these servile com- 
pliances of the diet ; but in the aristocrat- 
ical cantons, in which almost all the au- 
tliority was in the hands of some i>atrician 
families, or the corrK>rations of the trades, 
it was often abused to oppress the mass 
of the people. This was particularly the 
case in Berne, Basle, Friburg, Lucerne, 
Zurich, Schafi'liausen and Soleure. Still 
a third class of cantons was composed of 
the new members of tlie contedenicy, 
professedly organized on jwpular repre- 
sentative principles, but in which, in 1815, 
the elections were so arrangC4^1, that the 
whole power, in fact, was poijSL'ssed by a 
small executive council. In this state of 
things, the general demand for reform, in 
the electoral assenihlies of Tessin (one of 
the new cantons), compelled the council 
(June, 18:30 1 to yield to the public voice, 
and establish a system of direct elections 
and of publicity of proceedings in the 
great council, atid to giiarantce the liberty 
of the press, and the inviolability of per- 
sons, as parts of the constitution. This 
event, and the French revolution of July, 
1830, set the example for general risings 
in various parts of the coimtry. In the 



SWITZERLAND. 



97 



new cantono, the popular demands were 
goieraUy eo readily complied with ae to 
prevent any serious disturbances, and the 
democratic cantons took hardly any part 
in the trouUes ; but in the old aristo- 
cratic cantons, the opposition was stronger 
and more syttematic. Still, as many of 
the towns people were feyorable to more 
popular institutions, the governments, even 
in these cantons, generally yielded, with 
little opposition, to the wishes of the citi- 
zens; and in Fhlmrg, Berne, Lucerne, 
Soleure, Schaffhausen, the revision of 
the constitution, the abolition of privilep^es, 
the extension of the rijrht or election, 
abolition of censorship of the press, &c^ 
were amone the concessions to popu- 
lar rights. In Basle alone, where the 
peasantiy are more ignorant and rude 
than in the other cantons, the insursents 
were not satisfied with the concessions ; 
and a second insurrecdon, in the summer 
of 1831, was not put down without blood- 
shed. The ordinary session of the diet 
took place at Lucerne, July 4, 1831, and 
the common concerns of the confederacy, 
both in its foreign and domestic relations, 
were found to be in a sutis&ctory condi- 
tion. But towards the close of 1831, the 
canton of Neufchatet (c^. v.) was disturbed 
by risings of some portions of the popula- 
Qon, who renounced the authority of 
Prussia, and demanded a new constitu- 
tion. The insiuvents were put down; 
and the country has since been tranquil. 
Switzerland, the most elevated country 
in Europe, cooeists chiefly of mountains, 
hing near together, or piled one upon 
anomer, widi narrow valleys between 
them. Xbe highest mountains (amonff 
which are St. Gothard, in the canton of 
Uri, and the Finsteraarhom,in the canton 
of Berne, 14,100 feet above the level of 
the sea) are found in Uri, Berne, Un- 
derwalden and Grisons. Of about sixty 
Svriss mountains which have been meas- 
ured, the highest is Monte Rosa (q. v.), 
15,535 feet high; the lowest, Cholet, is 
3000 feet high. (See Alps.) The lowest 
region of the productive mountains is 
covered with thick forests and rich mead- 
ows; the middle consists of hills and 
narrow passes, containinff pastures; the 
third region is composed of sharp and 
almost inaccessible rocks, either wholly 
bare, vntliout earth or grass, or covered 
with perpetual ice and snow. The mid- 
dle regions are inhabited in summer by 
botismen, who find |pood pasturage for 
their catde, and obtain excellent water 
from tlie mountain springs and streams. 
Hie herdsmen give an account of the 
VOL. xii. 9 



milk, butter and cheeee, to the owners of 
the cattle, or nay them a stipalaied portion 
of the proceeas. (Seefibm.) Thegiaciers 
(q. v.l more than 400 in number, are either 
the barren parts of the mountains, or 
heights which consist only of snow and 
ice. These icy mountains begin in the 
canton of Glarus, and extend to the Ori- 
sons, thence to the canton of Uri, and, 
finally, down to Berne. The glaciers are 
produced by rocky valleys, whose de- 
clivities are too sinaU to admit of the 
ready descent of the water of the melted 
snow and ice, so that they are gradually 
filled up by vast masses of snow and ice, 
which accumulate in them. The con- 
tinual alternation of hill and valley af- 
fords the most striking natural scenes in 
every part of Switzeriand. In some 
places, within a short distance, one may 
see at the same time all the seasons of 
the year ; and it is often possible to stand 
between spring and summer, so as to col- 
lect snow with one hand, and to pluck 
flowers fix>m the soil with the other. 
Every mountain has its waterfiUls ; and, 
as their sources are sometimes lost in the 
clouds, the cataracts seem to descend 
fix>m the skies. Switzerland abounds in 
lakes and rivers, the fisheries of which 
are valuable, and which serve to embellish 
the landscape. But none of the streams 
are navigable. The lake of Ziirich, one 
of the largest in Switzeriand, is twenty- 
five miles in length by three in breadth. 
The kke of Geneva is about fifty miles 
long and eight to ten wide. The lake of 
Neufchatel, twenty-eight by six, and the 
lake of Lucerne or the Viei'waldtst&dter- 
see, twenty-five miles long, and, where 
widest, as many broad, are celebrated ft>r 
their beautiftif environs. The larcest 
rivers are the Rhine, the Reuss or Russ, 
the Rhone, and the Tessino or Ticino. 
The Rhine is remarkable for its fidls, and 
the Reuss for a bridge, called the Devil's 
bridge, which leads over it in the canton 
of IJri. It connects two mountains, be- 
tween which the water rolls at the depth 
of seventy-five feet below it There are 
springs of excellent vmter amonethe hills, 
vridi warm and cold baths, ana mineral 
springs. In Thurgau, a part of Ziirich, 
Basle, Schaflliausen, Berne, Soleure and 
Friburg, every thing is diflferent; for, al- 
though there are some mountains, yet 
this part of Switzerland is more level ; 
there are here no Alps, no cataracts, few 
trees, .and, in summer, neither ice nor 
snow. In general, the foot of the moun- 
tains almost every where is covered with 
fiums, meadows, vineyards and trees ; and 



96 



SWITZERLAND. 



even anudst the roeks, there are nutne- 
roiu cultivated patches. Switzerland is 
rich in minerals, especially lime and clays, 
slate, black, gray and dark-red marble, 
porphyry and alabaster (especially in Va- 
lais) ; also quartz, crystals (weighing some- 
times 7 — 8 cwL^ peat, coal, £c Silver, 
copper and iron ore likewise occur. Gold 
dust is found in the rivers. The flora 
of Switzerland is peculiariy rich. The 
cultivation of the vine is carried to a great 
extent, and a considerable trade is carried 
on with France, Holland, England and 
Suabia. Fruits are abundant, but com is 
not produced in great quantities, owing 
partiy to the great numbers of catde 
which are raised here. The breeding of 
catde is the chief employment of the in- 
habitants, for which tne rich pastures of 
the valleys and hills afford great advan- 
tages. The Swiss cheeses are imported 
in great numbers into Germany, France 
and Italy. Of the wild animals, the most 
important is the chamois (q. v.| ; the ibex, 
the marmot, and the lammar^nar, or vul- 
ture of the Alps, are also found. As to 
manufactures, those of linen, cotton, and, 
of late years, silk, are the most important 
The Swiss confederacy, according to the 
terms of the federal compact between the 
twenty-two cantons (Ziirich, Aug.7, 1815), 
is a federative state of twenty-two repul>- 
lics, who conduct their domestic concerns 
wholly independently of one another. 
Appenzell and Underwalden, however, 
consist of two distinct parts ; and, in 1832, 
Basle was also divided into two Rhodes. 
The confederacy, as its limits were deter- 
> mined by the congress of Vienna (art 
74 — 84), contains an area of 18/190 square 
miles, or, according to some, of 14,7^, 
with a population, in 1827, of 2,037,030 
persons. Among them are 1,217,310 Prot- 
estants fmostiy Calvinists), 817,110 Cath- 
olics, 900 Anabaptists, 1810 Jews, in 92 
cities, 100 market towns, 7400 villages 
and hamlets. The size and populauon 
of the cfuitons are as follows : — 

CantoM. Sq. miles. Population. 

Ziirich, 953 224,150 

Berne, 3665 356,710 

Lucerne, 762 105,600 

Uri, 508 13,930 

Schweitz, 466 36,040 

Underwalden, 258 23,150 

Glarus, 460 28,000 

Zug, 116 14,710 

Fnburg, 487 67,814 

Soleure, 487 54,380 

Basle, 275 55,330 

Schaffhausen, .... 169 28,050 

Appenzell, 222 57^510 



St Gall, 847 ]57,f00 

Grisons, 2966 98,090 

Aargau, 762 152,900 

Thurgau, 349 89,845 

Tessin, 1133 103,950 

Pays de Vaud, 1483 178,880 

Vjaia, 1949 77,570 

Neufchatel, 296 56,640 

Geneva, 95 53^60 

Ck>nsequentiy Geneva is the most popu- 
lous; next comes AppenzeU; the least 
populous cantons are the Grisons, Uri and 
Valais. The German language is com- 
mon to nearly the whole country, Mrith 
the exceotion of the Pays de ^^ud, Ge- 
neva and Neufchatel, and a part of the 
cantons of Valais and Fnburg, where the 
French prevails. Italian is spoken only 
in a part of the Grisons and in Tessin ; 
Romanish at the sources of the Rhine 
and Ladin, on the Inn. The Germans 
are 1,428,671 ; French, 438,489 ; Italians, 
119,970, and those who speak the Ladin 
and Romanish languages, 48,090. The 
prevailing religion is, in some of the can- 
tons. Catholic ; in others, Calvinism ; and 
in others, mixed. There are 120 monas- 
teries, of which Tessin has the most (18) ; 
59 for monks, and 61 for nuns ; among 
them are seven Capuchin houses. In 
1815, Switzerland contained all that had 
previously belonged to it, with the excep- 
tion of MGhlhausen and the Valteline. 
Frickthal, with the cities of Lauffenhur^ 
and Rheinfelden, which belonged to Aus- 
tria, were annexed to the canton of Aargau. 
Gersau (for 500 years a free state, and the 
smallest in Europe, with 1294 citizens, 
mostlv engaged in the manufacture of 
silk), by an act of the conffress of Vienna 
.and the decision of the diet, was again 
made a part of the canton of Schweitz. 
In 1815, France ceded some places in 
Gex, and the king of Sardinia the city of^ 
Carrouge, with some villages on the lefl 
shore of the lake and or. the Rhone, to 
Geneva. The fortress of Huningen, in 
AJsace, opposite to Basle, has been de- 
molished. The castie and lordship of 
Rh&zins, above Coire, on the Rliine, in 
the Grey League, which formerly belong- 
ed to Austria, were ceded to the Grisons 
by an act of the congress of Vienna, Jan. 
19, 1819. The diet, which is composed 
of the representatives of the cantons, and 
which manages such affiurs of the con- 
federacy as are committed to it by the 
sovereign cantons (such as the declaring 
of war and makinj[ of peace, the con- 
cluding of commercial and other treaties 
with foreign states the regulation of the 



SWITZERLAND. 



» 



ftdend amy, &cA is held every two years, 
ahemately at Zfinch^ Berne and Lucerne, 
which are caUed the directing cantons 
{vonrUy The SckuUKeUB, or governor of 
the directing canton in which the session 
is held, then takes the name of Landam- 
numn of Switzerland. Each canton has one 
vote in the diet Military capitulations, and 
treaties on subjects of police and eco- 
nomical regulation, may oe entered into 
by the separate cantons with foreign 
states; but not without the knowledge 
of the diet The revenue of the confed- 
eracy, ariflinff from the contingents of the 
cantons, is about 2,000,000 dollars. The 
pubhc debt, fixed by the consress of Vi- 
enna, in 1814, at 3,118,330 Swiss francs, 
has been cancelled by the interest accru- 
ing, from 1798 to 1814, on the capital 
( j^00,000 steriing, and £100,000 sterling) 
invested by the cantons of Berne and 
Zfirich in the bank of England. The 
property of this sum is, however, reserved 
to the two cantons, and also the interest 
accruing since 1815. The federal army 
was fixed (Auff. 5, 1816) at 67,516 men, 
of which half is a reserve. In 1819, an 
artifleiy school, or scientific and practical 
miiitaiy academy, was established at 
Thun, by the confederacy ; and, in 1820, 
the first camp for military practice vrm 
held at Wohlen. Elach canton is govern- 
ed by its own laws, and the government 
is administered b^ a great council, which 
holds the l^psiative power, and the small 
cooncil, which holds the executive, or hy 
the Lande9gememde (or general assembly 
of dtizensl and the Lemdrath (an execu- 
tive council). In Uri, SchvFeitz, Under- 
waJden, Zug, 61anis,*Schafirhausen, Ap- 
penzell (Inner and Outer Rhodes), St 
Gall, Grisons, Aaraau, Thurgau, Ticmo, 
Pays de Vaud, Valais and Geneva, the 
constitutions are democrat^ ; in the re- 
maining cantons, they are of a mixed 
aristocratic and democratic character. 
Neufchatel has a monarchical govern- 
ment, with estates. The literature of 
Switzeriand is a branch of the German ; 
that of Geneva, the Pays de Vaud and 
Neufchatel, of the French. There is a 
university at Basle, and the academies 
of Berne and Z<irich have scientific col- 
lectioDB. At Lucerne, Winterthur, Zop- 
fingen, and other cities, there are libraries, 
and cabinets of natural and artificial cu- 
riosities. Several learned societies, par- 
ticttlariv those fin* natural history, are dis- 
tinguished for activity and zeal. The 
echook of Pestalozzi (q. v.) at Yverdun, 
and the agricultural institute of Fellen- 
berg fq. v.) at HoAry^l, are celebrated. 



In 1834 appeared at Zfirich KrUUehe An- 
2eigtn dtr Schwevxrischtn LUeratw (Criti- 
calNotices of Swiss Literature), containmg 
a notice of the best woiks pnnted in and 
concerning Switzerland, and of the la- 
bors of Swiss literati abroad. The histo- 
ry of Switzerland by John von Mfilknr 
(q. V.) is a classical work : it has been con- 
tinued by Glutz-Blotzheim to the per- 
petual peace with France in 1516. His 
valuable labore were interrupted by an 
early death. Baltha8ar^i Mdottia^ oder 
DefikwHrdigkeitm fir die 23 F\reuiaaim 
dtr Schweizerischm EidreitoueMchefi 
I Helvetia, or Memoirs of me 22 Repub 
lies of the Swiss Confederacy, 1st vol., 
Zflrich, 1823]^ may be joined with it 
Zschokke's History of the Swiss Nation 

el German, Aarau, 1822; French bv 
onnier) is a masterly work. Lardner% 
Cabinet Cyclopiedia contains a short his- 
tory of Switzerland. Raoul-Rochette^ 
Hutoirt de la RhduHon HelvHique de 
1798-^1803 (Paris, 1823) is less accurate 
and impartial than Zschokke's Historical 
Memoirs of the Helvetic Revolution. On 
the ancient history of the country, see 
Haller's Historical and Topographical Ac- 
count of Helvetia under rhe Romans (2 
vols., 3d edit, Berne, 18181 On Swiss 
public law, Usteri's Manual is valuable 
(2d edit., Aarau, 1821); also the Hel- 
vetic Almanac, and Picot's Skctistupte de 
la Suiase (Geneva, 1819). Lutz's Com- 
plete Description of Switzerland (in Ger- 
man, dphabeiically arranged, 2d edit, Aa- 
rau, 1827, 3 vols.), is a vaJuable woik. 
(See the separate articles, Bade^ Beme^ 
Oenevoy Lujcemt^ JVeif/cAotel, Ckaux de 
IhndBj Zurich, &c) 

Traoela in Smbxriand, This beau- 
tiful country is so much visited, that it 
may, nerhaps, be acceptable to our read- 
era to have a few of the best guide-books 
pointed out, and a few directions given 
for the traveller. Ebel's Guide to the 
most useful and pleasant Way of Travel- 
ling in Switzerland (3d ed., Ziirich, 1810, 
4 vols., in German) is the best companion. 
It embraces all Switzerland. The abridg- 
ments which have appeared in Geneva 
and Paris are not satisfactonr. Reichard's 
Guide des Vouageure en Raiie et en Suiue 
(Weimar, 1819) ; also Giutz-Blotzheim's 
Manual for Travellere in Switzerland (in 
German, 5th ed., Ztirich, 1823) ; the JV'ou^ 
veau Chdde des Veyoftevre done Us XXII 
CanUms Suisses, traduiU <f tin Manuscrit 
Menumd du Prqfesseur H. par R, W.; 
and SJmond's Tour in Switzerland (Bos- 
ton, 1822), deserve to be mentioned. 
Coxe's Travels describes the state of 



100 



SWITZERLAND. 



tbe coujttfy befiwe the Fieach reTolutioD. 
Tlie late numben of the Helvetic Akna- 
nac affoid an accurate view of the atatis- 
tica of the different caotona. 0£ works 
relating to particular parta of S witzeriand, 
the beat aie Ebel's Deacription of the 
Mountaineem of Switzerland (T(ib^ 
1798—1808, 2 Yob.), and, above aU, 
Travela in the Beraeae Oberland, by J. 
R. Wyas (Beine, 1816, 2 vols.), with ex- 
cellent mapa. The aame region ia de- 
acribad in Vavage piUorttqw (POheriandj 
aeeampofni it ^TaHces hiiUniqtus et Uh 
pogrt^ltkiqius (Paria and Straaburg, 1812). 
Or the mapa of all Switzerland, that pub- 
lished by Keller and Scheuermann (Zu- 
rich, 1615 and 1819) is particularly worthy 
c^ attention. The great atlas of Weiss 
embracea only a part of Switzerland. For 
the use of naturuista, we mention Mrnm- 
d <PHeHfori$er en Suitae et en VakuSy ri- 
dkgi $don U l^sthne de LmrU (Winter- 
tbur, 1811 1 ; andPr^cu cTun Voyage bo- 
tanique /aU en 1811 par VUlar9j iMuth el 
J^esOer (Paiis, 1812).---For travelling in 
Switzerland, the months of July, August 
and S^itember afford the moat settled 
weather. The most delightful season is 
in September, and often even in October, 
when the shores of the lakes of Geneva, 
Neufehateland Bienne,and the chamiing 
aoenea in the Pays de Vaud, enchant the 
visitor. The bejpnning of summer, and 
even the close ofspring, are often equally 
favorable. The Alpine meadows, which 
are then decked with the most beautiftil 
and rarest flowers, delight the eye, and 
afibrd rich stores to the botanist. The 
curious atmospheric phenomena, which 
are frequentiy aeen, and on elevated 
mountains, even below the spectator, af- 
ft»rd a new and aublime apectacle. The 
mild warmth, and the long days, render 
travelling, at this period, peculiariy pleas- 
ant. May, however, is commonly more 
beautiful than June, which is often rainv. 
Most travelien devote only six oreignt 
weeks to visiting Switzeriand, and limit 
themaelves to the most interesting parts. 
With a proper and aystematic plan, one 
can travel through all the cantons in 
three and a half months, if he proceeds 
mostly on foot, and remains in every place 
only as long aa is necessary to view all its 
cunoaitiee; but, owing to the freauent 
changea of weather, it is impossible to 
reckon upon three weeks in succession 
dry and warm : as much as fourteen days, 
therefore, ought to be allowed out of the 
thrse and a ludf months for obstructions 
firom rain or storms. There are no proper 
extra posts in Switzerland, though persons 



travelUng in their own coaches may pro- 
cure a change of horses. There axe 
good regular coaches, however. Most 
travellers who airive at the frontier 
places in the ooat-coaches, or in their 
own carriages, hire the horaes and car- 
riages which are always in readinaas in 
the towns. The prices at which hones 
and mules are let, are high. The hoiaea 
and mules are so used to the steep and 
rocky mountain roads, that, even on the 
brink of a deep precmice, the traveller 
feels himself pmectly safe. Those 
ahould be chosen, however, which have 
been used to carry, and not to draw. Roads 
lead over the Cenis, the Siraplon (q. v.), 
and, since 1818, over the Splugen. The 
road over the Stmpk>n may well be com 
pared with the proudest vixyrks of the an- 
cient Romans. (See Alps, Boadt aoor,) 
Over the other summits, no one can trav- 
el, except on foot, or, perhapa, part of the 
way on horseback. In the valley of 
Chamouni, and in Grindelwald, there are 
very low and small four-wheeled car- 
riages, which are extremely inconvenient 
It IS possible to travel in these a part of 
the way, also, over the great mountain of 
St Bernard. On account of the sud- 
den changes of weather and the cold air 
on the mountams, it is necessary to be 
provided with warm clothing, liie trav- 
eller, on excursions, should wear a light 
and easy dress, with half-boots, or, what 
is still better, shoes with gaiters, ftstoned 
tight about the feet to prevent gravel from 

O' : in. A traveller should provide 
f with two pairs of shoes, very 
strong, with thick heels and large-headed 
nails, to be worn over stony passes, in wet 
weather, and on glacieis ; and widi light 
ones for the aoaooth plaina Experienced 
travellers disapprove of the common irons 
fastened to the shoes. The Alpine shoes, 
invented by Pictet, are very good. The 
soles are at least six lines in thickneaa, 
with a strong but pliable upper leather, 
covering the whole foot, and with a cov- 
ering of leather rising about one and a 
half inches above the sole, to secure the 
foot from any blow. Large steel nails, or 
rather screws, with heads somewhat more 
than four lines wide, which resemble a 
truncated four-sided pyramid, are insert- 
ed in the soles and heels, about aeven in 
the former and five in the latter. In the 
intervals between the steel nails, common 
nails are driven in so that the heads touch 
one another. With this durable and not 
heavy shoe, one may walk safely over the 
naked granite, over ice and smooth grass. 
A staff, pointed with iron, is indiHpenwahls, 



SWITZERLAND. 



101 



In warm breather, a straw hat is prefera* 
b2e to a fek one. A cloak, of oiled taffeta 
or oiled linen, to keep off the rain, is veiy 
convenient and wann, and, for this reason, 
a good protection on the high mountains 
or in apiercing wind. The traveUer should 
abo take a flannel shirt, the best protection 
&|ninst sudden colds, light woollen pan- 
ttdoons, and a great coat of liffht cloth ; 
also a covered flask for cherry brandy to 
bathe die tired limbs. The best comes 
from Grindehrald. To the mineralogist, 
the apron of thin leather, invented by 
Pictet, deserves to be recommended. It is 
never well for one to travel on the moun- 
tains alone, nor, on the other hand, in com- 
pany with more than three or four persona, 
because of the scanty accommodations or 
the inns in the small places. A guide 
should always be procured ; and veiy in- 
telligent ones are easily to be met with. 
If a person is not used to walking, he 
should begin with short journeys every 
day ; but walking in Switzerland, even 
for females, is not so difficult as is com- 
monly supposed. The mountains should 
be ascended, where- it is possible, on the 
western side. The best descent is on the 
eastern declivides. It is unsafe to travel 
on the high moimtains in spring until 
after the avalanches have roU^ down the 
sides. After a long and violent rain, a 
person shoukl wait two days before trav- 
eishig the hi^ vAlleys among the rocks, 
where pieces are liable to fS\ from the 
ades at such seasons. In snowy vales 
and amon^ the ^aciers, it is weQ to cover 
the face with a green or daiic gauze. Vol- 
atiie alkali, diluted with water, mitigates 
the bnming nains in the face, caused by 
the bright renection of the sun's rays from 
the fields of snow and the glaciers. One 
should never travel over the elaciers afler 
a fresh &11 of snow (which sometimes 
happens even in the summer months), 
particularly at mid-day; for a travel- 
ler mij^t then very easily break through 
the son mass. To these rules the travel- 
ler win easily add such as his own expe- 
rience may su ggest Many cirenmstances 
combine to inuie travelling in Switzer- 
land more expensive than in the adjacent 
countries. But few of the cantons pro- 
duce the necessaries of life in sufficient 
quantities for the inhabitants. In many 
places, the people are obliged to procure 
them frwn a distance ; and then the ex- 
pense of conveyance augments the price. 
Inn-keepers on the mountains and m re- 
tired valleys are especially subjected to 
this advanced price, and are, tnerefore, 
obliged to charge higher than those in 



cities and frequented roads. The hotels, 
in towns and in large villages, often even 
in the rudest Alpine vales, as in Lauter- 
brunnen and the valley of Chamouni, are 
very good. In Italian Switzerland, and 
generally beyond the southern chain, it is 
common to agree upon the price to be 
paid to inn-keepers, guides, servants, and 
the like, beforehand ; for otherwise a per- 
son is very liable to be imposed on. The 
expenses for one who makes only a short 
stay at the various pkices, are, of course, 
greater than for one who remains longer. 
If a person devotes five or six months to 
travelling through Switzerland, in a car- 
riage or on horseback, his daily expendi- 
ture will amount to twelve or sixteen 
Swiss francs ;* but if he Mmits himself 
to six, four or two weeks, his expenses 
will be at least eighteen francs a day. If 
he travels on foot, and has a guide who 
carries his luggage, twelve francs a day 
will be sufficient The diflerence in the 
standard of money in the different Swiss 
cantons is inconvenient, particulariy since 
some cantons have begun to refijse to ad- 
mit the money of others. The Manual 
of Glutz-Blotzheim, before mentioned, 
presents a useful view of the worth of 
the different coins. The old louis-d'or 
(twenty-four livres toumois^ the French 
twenty franc piece, the Brabant, Bavari- 
an and Wfirtemberg dollar, and French 
five franc piece, are in most ffeneral cir- 
culation. The reckoning by Swiss finncs 
(sixteen to a louis-d'or) is pretty ffeneral. 
In the hotels they reckon much by French 
francs. Any one who intends to visit all 
the cantons can proceed in the follow- 
ing order-'Cither through Constance, 
Schaffhausen, Eglisau and Winterthur, 
or dirouffh Ltndau, the lake of Constance, 
Roschach and St Gall, to Ziirich fsee 
Voyagt de Zurie h Zwrie^ 1818); tnen 
over mount Albis to Zug, over lake Zuir 
to Arth, at the foot of the Righi (q. v.), of 
which Fuessly and Keller have pub&h- 
ed beautifiil sketches, with a description 
by J. H. Meyer (Views of Mount Kighi, 
drawn from nature, ZCbrich, 1809) ; over 
the lake to Lucerne (q. v.), wliich Busin- 
ger describes in his guide— -Lucerne and 
Its Environs, with a good Map of the 
Lake of the four Forest-Towns (Lucerne, 
1811). The traveller now enters on the 
toutB over the mountains. The way leads 
through Stanzstadt, Stanz, the abbey of 
EngelDui^, and over the Surenian Alps ; 
or m)ra Stanz through Buochs, over the 
lake of the four Forest-Towns, Rfttli, 

* A Swim franc is about tweniy-seven or twtn « 
ty-eigfat cents. 



]0» 



SWITZERLAND. 



TeU'8 Chapel to Altorf. Thence you 
pass oo the great road from German 
Switzerland to Italy, in three days, to Bel- 
linzona. Through Umem, the road leada 
from Altorf to Diasentia, and the adjacent 
apriogsof the Rhine ; and further tmrouffh 
Trons to Coire, where a traveller who 
wishes to visit Qraubjindten (the Orisons, 
q. T.| stops. Among the principal cu- 
riosities of the Gnsons are the Tallewof 
omlesch, the bridge of Solis, which 
is the highest in Europe, the Via Mala, 
the glaciers of the Rhine, the vallev of 
Misocco, the glacier of Bemina. From 
Coire, the traveller pursues his journey 
throuffh Sennwald to Appenzell and Gais, 
and then through Utznach and Einsied- 
eln ; or, if he does not intend to visit first 
the bath at Pfefiers (q. v.), through Panyx, 
Elm and Matt, to Glarus, and thence to 
Einsiedeln, from which he returns, over 
Schweitz and the ruins of €k)ldau, to Lu- 
cenie. Then he goes through the charm- 
ing Entlibuch, or over the batde-iield of 
Sempach, through Zopfingeu, Morgenthal, 
Hindelbank, Hofwyl (q. v.^ to Berne, (q. v.) 
From Berne, the traveller proceeds over 
Thur, in four to six days (including the 
time occupied in returning through In- 
terlaken and Brientz), to the Ix^utiful 
Oberiand, to Lauterbrunnen, to Staubbach, 
over the little Scheideckto Grindciwald^at 
the foot of the Jungfrau (first ascended by 
the two Meyers in Aarau, 1811 and 1812 ; 
see Travds over the Glaciers of Bemtj 
Aarau, 1813), and of the Schreckhorn, 
and over the great Scheideckto Haslithal. 
From Merzringen, the chief place in the 
valley, those who have not travelled from 
Altorf to the hospice of St. Gothard 
can go by the new road through the Sus- 
ten valley. The hospice on the Grimsel, 
5887 feet high, is particularly worthy to 
be visited. Thence the traveller pro- 
ceeds to the glaciers of the Klione. From 
Berne he goes through Murten and Aven- 
ches, or Friburg, Murten, Avenches, 
Payeme, Lausanne, Aubonne, to Geneva. 
Thence he proceeds to the icy heights 
and glaciers of the valley of Chamouni, 
either through Tbonou, Evion. Simoens 
and Sixte, or through Bonneville and Sa- 
lenche, id Servoz ; thence on to Chamou- 
ni, at the foot of Mont Blanc (a. v.), 
which requires three dav!^ The glacier 
of Montanvert and La Flechi^re, opposite 
to it, are commonly the limit in this di- 
rection. The best guides are Saussure's 
and Bourrit's works, Pictet's Uintrairt^ 
and Gottschalk's description (the Valley 
of Chamouni, Halle, 1811), with a map. 
In 1812, Lori pubhshed some beautiful 



views of the valley of ChamounL If the 
traveUer does not return fixMn Chamouni 
to Geneva, he either takes a difficult path 
through the vaUey of Valoi]^e, and over 
the viUage of Trent, or the Cd de Balme, 
to Mardgny, at the foot of the Great Ber- 
nard. From this place, one may go over 
the Simplon road to the Borromean 
islands (to go and return, six or seven days 
are necessary), or over St Branchier to 
the Val de Baenes (where, in 1818» owing 
to the fidl of the glacier Getroz, lake 
Mauvoiein broke tlm>ugh its banks, and 
spread fearful devastation) ; then to the 
hospice on St. Bernard, and back to Mar- 
tigny, which requires three days. A good 
map of the mountain was published by 
Lapie (Paris, 1803J. A full description 
of It 19 given by Wibel of Berne in his 
Voyage Pittonsque depuii Lausanne Jus- 
qu*au Mont £emard,omamented with four- 
teen colored plates. From Martigny, the 
traveller goes through St. Maurice, by the 
Pissevache,or, by a circuitous way, which 
well rewards him for his trouble, through 
Sitten, and aJon^ the new road, so calira, 
over mount Azemdaz, to Bex (where the 
remarkable salt mines may be seen), and 
then through Ai^e andClarens to Vevay, 
whence the traveller may proceed by wa- 
ter to Geneva, if he does not wish to go 
by land through Lausanne. On the op- 
posite shore of the lake, the road passes 
through Meillerie and Evian to G^eva ; 
then through Orbe, adjacent to the beau- 
tiful valley of the Lac du Joux and the 
valley of Romainmotier,to Yverdun (q. v.), 
and along the lake to Neufchatel (q. v.), 
whence a visit may be paid to the manu- 
facturing villages Uhaux de Fonds (q. v.) 
and Lode (in the neighborhood of^ the 
latter is the Saut de Doubs] ; from Neuf- 
chatel through Bienne, or Aarherg, to So- 
leure (q. vA near which rises the Weis- 
senstein, affording from its summit a fine 
view of the wide valley that divides the 
Jura (q. v.) from the Alps. It is one of 
the most splendid prospects in Switzer- 
land. If a person wishes to go through 
the Miinster valley to Basle (q. v.), he must 
return to Bienne ; and, following the direc- 
tions in Bridel's text to Birrmann'a Voyage 
PUtorrsque de Bdle h Bienne, two days 
are requisite to pass over the road leading 
tlirough Pien'e Pertuis,an ancient Roman 
gate of rock, forty feet high. If one de- 
sires to visit the principal curiosities in 
Switzerland in six or eight weeks, it is 
best to pursue the foUowmg coune: — 
Schaffhausen, Zurich, Zug, Righi, Lu- 
cerne, Schweitz, Altorf (perhaps to the 
hospice on mount Gothani), Beme, Ober- 



SWITZERLANP-SWORIX 



103 



land, to Meiringen ; from Berne to Lau- 
mme, Geneva ; thence to the valley of 
Chamouni, to Chamouni or Maitimy 
(perhaps along the Simplon road to Do- 
mo d'UBBola, or to the hoepice on mount 
Bemard), and, in the way before mention- 
ed, through Bex, Vevay, Yverdun, &c^ to 
Bade. In two w three weeks, the follow- 
ing journey may be made : through Basle, 
Mnnsterthal, Bienne, Soleure, Beme,Ober- 
land, Hofwyl, Lucerne, RJghi, Schweitz, 
Zug, Albis, Z&rich, Scbafmausen, Con- 
stance. If a traveller wishes to "visit par- 
ticulBrlv French Switzerland and the Sa- 
voy Ajpe, he can perform the following 
journey in about twenty-five days : Schaf^ 
hausen, Baden, Aarau, Berne, Friburg, 
Vevay, Bex, St Maurice, Martigny, Val 
de IJagnes, Col de BaJme, Chamouni, 
Geneva, Lausanpe, Bienne, Mfinsterthal, 
Basle. Since Aberly, the following ar- 
tists have distinguished themselves by 
views of scenes in Switzerland : Rieter, 
Konig, Hegi, Fuessly, Keller, Birrmann, 
Wocher, and the two Loris. — See, also, 
WetzePs Voyagt PiUonsque aux Lact 
t^wdssea (Zfirich, 1834, containing eighty- 
five plates). 

Swivel ; a small piece of artillery, car- 
rying a shot of half a pound, and fixed in 
a' socket on ^e top of a ship's side, stem 
or bow, and also in the tops. The trun- 
nions of this piece are contained in a sort 
of iron crotcn, whose lower end termi- 
nates in a cylindrical pivot resting in the 
socket, so as to support the weight of the 
cannon. By means of this swivel (which 
gives name to the piece of artillery) and 
an iron handle on its cascabel, the gun 
may be directed by hand to any object. — 
Suitvel is also a strong link of iron used in 
mooring-chains, &c., which permits the 
bridles or cables to be turned as occasion 
requires. 

Sword. This weapon, probably be- 
cause it is more constantly carried about 
the person than other weapons, such as 
the arrow, spear, &c., has acquired a pe- 
culiar connexion vrith the circumstances 
of the wearer. To this dav, the surren- 
der of the sword denotes submission, and 
the breaking of it degradation. In many 
countries, it has becomd the emblem of 
power. In Germany, the sword was one 
of the imperial insignia. In Turkey, the 
Buhan is girded with the sword of Osman 
on ascending the throne. In En^and, 
the swerd of state is one of the r^e^alia, 
and the ** ofiering of the sword" one of 
the ceremonies of coronation. In France, 
the sword is also one of the royal insignia. 
In the middle ages, knights gave names 



to their swords ; thus Charlemagne's 
sword was called Jbyeuae, and Orlando's 
Durindana, The efficacy of no other 
weapon depends so much upon the cour- 
age and skill of the individual. It ia the 
poetical representative of all aims ; and, in 
the middle age8,the word degm (sword) was 
used in German to denote a worthy man ; 
later, a servant, but a servant of a dignified 
character, and a finee man. In this sense, 
Otfiried, in his translation of the Goeiwls, 
calls John the Baptist ChrisH Th^mu 
In a German poem of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, the apostle Peter is called Gates De- 
gen, and the ^«te and aetutf of all apos- 
tles. Hume, which is derived from the 
same word, is also an Anglo-Saxon title 
of honor familiar to the readers of Shak- 
speare. Under the emperors of Rome, no 
one was allowed to wear a sword except 
soldiers ; hence the custom of presenting 
the sword on investing with a militery 
dignity. Trajan, when he made Sura 
Licinius commander of his guards, put a 
naked sword into his hands, with the 
words, ** Take this, and use it for me if 
I rule well, against me if I rule ill." The 
secular infeofiment of crown vassals, in 
the middle ages, was performed by pre- 
senting the vasral a naked sword. To 
this day, decapitation with the swerd is 
considered more honorable than hanging, 
in those countries where both modes of 
execution are in use, as in many on the 
continent of Europe. In England, the 
axe is used, and only in cases of high 
treason. As soon as the art of forging 
metals was invented, arms of metal were 
probably made ; and the sword must have 
been one of the first, as the club, and sim- 
ilar weapons, would naturally lead to it. 
Wooden swords are found at present 
among many savage tribes. Some histo- 
rians mention Belus, king of Assyria, as 
the inventor of the swoid. The Greeks 
ascribed the invention, according to Dlo- 
dorus, to the Cretans. From the Scrip- 
tures we learn that swords were used in 
the earliest times m Asia. Abraham 
drew his sword to sacrifice his son Isaac. ' 
The knife probably originated from the 
sword by degrees. The knife, in many 
countries, as in Spain, is still a formidable 
weapon. Swords were probably made at 
first, like other weapons, of copper, as 
men acquired the art of forging this metal 
sooner than any other. The heroes of 
antiquity never appear \^thout the sword. 
Whether the Greeks wore it on the left or 
right side is not determined ; but the Ro- 
mans, as long as they used short swords, 
wore them Mgh on the right side, as ap 



104 



SWORD-SYDENHAM. 



pears fit)m the baas-relieft of the columns 
of Trajan and Antoninus at Rome ; and 
Polybiua explicidy states this fact in his 
history (vi,21). The kinds of swords 
are too numerous to be giyen here. The 
straight, lonff sword was used by the 
Christians or th^ West in the middle 
ages, while the Poles, and all the tribes of 
Slavonic origin, employed, and still pre- 
fer, the crooked sword. The Saracens 
also had the crooked swordf at that time ; 
and it is still the common one in Asia. 
At present, light cavalry in Europe, as 
hussars, lancers, &c., wear the crooked 
sword, while the straight, long sword is 
the weapon of the heavy cavdry. The 
latter is, generally speaking, a better and 
more trustworthy weapon. In the mid- 
dle ages, double-handed swords also were 
worn ; and in books on the art of fencing, 
this branch is treated, as is also the art of 
fighting with the dagger. It was an un- 
wieldy weapon, and probably originated 
from the wearing of plate armor. The 
sword of the executioners is, to this day, 
a double-handed one ; but, as it requires 
considerable skill and coolness, it has been 
exchanged, in most countries, for the 
heavy axe. The Highland claymore, a 
broadsword with a badcet hilt, has been 
introduced into the Highkmd regiments 
in the British service. The blade of a 
sword is divided into the upper, middle 
and lower part, or the forU^ middle and 
/(Me. Fencing with the small sword 
and the broad sword are quite different 
arts. The former is of a much nobler 
character. (See Gymnastics,) Some 
places, as Toledo, Saragossa, Damascus, 
are particularly celebrat^ for fine sword 
blades. 

SwoRD-FisH (xipkias); a senus of 
fishes, remarkable for having the upper 
jaw prolonged, somewhat in the form of 
a sword, and constituting at least one third 
of the total length. It is placed by Cu- 
vier in the same family with the mack- 
erel. The body is elongated, almost des- 
titute of scales, and is carinate on each 
side at the base of the tail. There are no 
proper teeth. — ^The common sword-fish 
(X. gladius) is sometimes more than twen- 
ty feet long, the beak included. It swims 
with greater swiftness than almost any 
inhabitant of the deep, and is possessed of 
vast muscular strength. It attacks, and 
generally puts to flight, the smaller ceta- 
ceous animals, notwithstanding its food is 
usually vegetable. Its flesh is good ; and, 
in some countries, the fishery is an object 
of importance. It is taken with the har- 
poon, and usually tears the net, if enclos- 



ed. The female approaches die shores 
in the latterpart of ^wine or beginning of 
summer. The swoni-fiui is found in al- 
most all seas. 

Stbams ; an ancient Greek city of 
Lower Italy, in Lucania, on the gulf of 
Tarentum. It is supposed to have been 
built by a colony of Acheans and Troe- 
zenians, about 720 B. C. The Sybarites 
were celebrated for their luxury and vo- 
luptuousness, and had become enervated 
by the mildness of the climate, the rich- 
ness of the soil, and their great wealth. 
Becoming involved in a war with Croto- 
na, ihe city of Sybaris brought into the 
field 300,000 men, while the forces of the 
former amounted to but 100,000. The 
Crotonians, however, were victorious, and 
totally destroyed Sybaris* — Sybarite is still 
used to signi]^ an effeminate voluptuaxy. 

Sycamore. This term vras given by 
the ancients to a species of fig {ficus sy- 
comorus). By the modems, it is iq>plied to 
a European species of maple (acer pseudo- 
platanus); and, in the western parts of 
the U. States, to the Occidental plane, or 
button-wood. (See Fig, MapU^ and 
Plane.) 

Stcophaitt, with the Athenians; a 
man who denounced others on account 
of violations of law, or kept watch on 
their doings in order to misrepresent 
them, and to make them the basis of an 
accusation. The name is derived fix>m 
cvicpv, a fig, and if^aiwy 1 discover, and was 
originally applied to certain persons who 
gave information of such as, contrary to 
the Athenian laws, exported figs. Sub- 
sequently, every false accuser, cheat, or 
other vnretch, who strove to injure men, 
whether by legal process or in the course 
of ordinary dealing, was caUed Iw this 
name. It was in Athens a term of great 
reproach. 

Stoeicham, Thomas, a celebrated Eng- 
lish physician, was bom in Dorsetshire, 
in 16SM, and, in 1648, took the degree of 
bachelor of medicine at Oxford. He 
subsequently commenced practice as a 
physician at Westminster, and speedily 
attained great reputation. From 1660 to 
1670 he held the first place in his profes- 
sion, though it WM not till the latter part 
of his career that he became a licentiate 
of the college. Being a great sufferer 
from the gout, he was unable, in the lat- 
ter part of his life, to go much from 
home ; but he continued to benefit society 
by his writings and advice till near the 
time of his decease, in 1689. Doctor Sy- 
denham's improvements form an era la 
the history of^medicine. He first applied 



SYDENHAM— SYLLABLE. 



105 



himadf to an attentiTe observation of the 
phenomena of dieeasee, founding hia 
pnctice on the obvious indications of na- 
ture, lather than on prevalent theories, 
drawn fiom the principles of chemistry 
or mathematics. . Febrile disorders at- 
tracted his especial notice, and, in 1666» he 
communicated to the public the result of 
his obaervations, in a work entitled Mt- 
UuhIum cunmdi Febres mropriis Ohstrvor 
Hoimlnu tuDertiruetOj which was re-print- 
ed, vntfa additions, under the title of 06- 
MMMiliofict Mediem area Morbortan aeu- 
iorum ERstmiam it Curationem (1675). 
Among his principal worics are EpittoUz 
ReMponMoriat daa, 1. Dt Morbis epide^ 
micU a 1675 ad 1680; 2. De ImU veM- 
Tttt Hutaria d CuraHone (1680); Dt Po- 
dagra ef Hydnpe (1683, 8vo^; and Pro- 
cewtts itU^ri m Mwiis /ere omnibus 
curaadi$y published posthumously. 

Stdsiet ; capital of the British colony 
of New South Wales, in Australia ; lat 
33^15^8.; Ion. 15P W E.; population, 
about 12,000. Sydney is situated on a 
oove, on the south side of Port Jackson, 
about seven miles from its mouth. The 
water is of sufficient depth to allow shins 
of the largest size to come close up to the 
■bore. Port Jackson is one of the finest 
natural basins in the world, stretching 15 
miles into the country, witli numerous 
creeks and bays. The anchorage is eve- 
ry where excellent, and ships are protect- 
ed fiom eveiy wind. The streets of Syd- 
ney are built without any reeular plan, 
and the town covers a considerable ex- 
tent of grcnmd. There are several banks, 
a savings institution, schools for the poor, 
and several higher seminaries. Several 
newspapers, and other periodicals, are 
also published at Sydney. The value of 
the imports, in 1828, was £570,000 ; that 
of exports about half as much, but rapid- 
fy increasmg. In 1825, there belonged to 
Sydney thli^-four vessels of the burthen 
of 4V& tons. The whale and sea fishe- 
ries are carried on from here with suc- 
cess. (See JVh0 SotOh Wales.) 

SmmcT ; a free port in the eastern port 
of the island of Cape Breton, on a bay, 
which is sometimes caUed ^anish River, 
and sometimes Dartnundk narbor. The 
entrance of the harix>r is about two miles 
wide. The harbor itself is very large and 
well protected. The town stands at the 
head of the harbor, in a very pleasant sit- 
uation, and seems to enjoy great local ad- 
vantaf^ as a commereiaJ place. There 
are mines of ffood coal on the western 
side of the haroor, and the place is ad- 
mirably situated for trade in lumber and 



fish. StOl, it is neglected ; and the popu- 
lation is only 450 or 500. It is the seat 
of justice for the whole island. The pub- 
lic buildings are the barracks, g6veniment 
store, commandant's house, court house, 
three houses of worship, and a market 
house. The town is well built, and has a 
pleasant surrounding country. Sydney isi 
unponant, at present, in a commereial 
view, principally on account of its exten- 
sive coal mines. A great porti<Hi of the 
coal exported from this island has been 
derived from these mines; and the quan- 
tity exported fixmi the island in 1828 was 
10,000 chaldrons. 

Sydncy. (See Sidney^ 

Stenk, or AsscAH, or Essouah ; a town 
of Upper E(;ypt9 on the east side of the 
Nile, six miles below the first cataract; 
Ion. d2° 55" E.; lat. 24'' d' N. It is the 
most southeriy town of Egypt, forming 
its frontier towards Nubia. It is cele- 
brated in the annals of ancient astron- 
omy, for the attempt made, about 276 
B. C., by Eratosthenes (q. v.), to measure 
the height of the sun, accoromg to which 
Syene was said to lie directly under the 
tropic. A well was formed, which was 
supposed to mark the precise moment of 
the summer solstice, by the image of the 
sun reflected in it But according to 
modern observations, Syene is found to lie 
37' 23^' north of the tropic. In the Nile, 
opposite to the town, is the island of Ele- 
phantina, remarkable for its ancient ruins 
and quarries of stone. There are, also, 
some ruins at Syene. (See Burokhardt*s 
AVifrto.) 

SrcinTE. (See SienUe,) 

Syoambrians, or Sicam brians ; a Ger- 
man tribe, which occupied the country on 
the Rhine, finom Emmerich southwards, 
to the Sieg, and on the Lippe eastwardly, 
to the frontiers of the Bructeri. After 
the victories of Germanicus (q. v.) we 
hear nothing of them for some time; but 
when the Romans, by the command of 
Claudius, withdrew to the west bank of 
the Rhine, the Sygambri re-occupied 
their foimer seats, and, at a later period, 
formed one of the great confederacy of 
tribes who took the common name of 
Franks. (See Germany^ ISstary ^, aad 
Fhmks.) 

Stlla. (See SuUa.) 

Syllabic Alphabet. (See SyOable.) 

Syllable (from the Greek ««XAaj^^, lit- 
erally comprehensiofh or coUeeHon) is the 
least natural division of articulated speech , 
or, in other words, syllables are the nat- 
ural elements of speech. Men have gone 
farther, and, in most languages at loaaty 



106 



SYLLABLE-SYLLOGISM. 



haye divided syllables again into letters ; 
but the circumstance that the consonants 
cannot be pronounced without the aid of 
vowels (hence their name), or as syllables, 
shows the natural division of words into 
syllables. We may then say, with Ade- 
lung, a syllable is a sound produced by a 
sinele opening or closing of the mouth, 
an^ consequently, consists of one vowel 
or diphthong, or of either together with 
one or more consonants. This definition 
has some few exceptions, according to 
the artificial divisions of some lanfuagee: 
in general it is perfectly correct A vowel 
is iQways necessaiy for a syllable, thouffh 
it may, not always be written, nor even be 
supposed, by particular nations, to exist. 
It IS evident tnat it would be impossible 
to pronounce such a word as Srh^ the na- 
tive name for Servia, without supplying 
some vowel sound. Syllabic alphabets 
are such as have signs for all the syllables 
composing the language, and for the syl- 
lables only. Such is the Cherokee alpha- 
bet, which has eighty-five signs, or char- 
acters, for its elementary ^Uables, and 
which has been spoken of in the arti- 
cle Indian LanguagtB, appendix to vol- 
ume vi. 

Stllabub ; a kind of drink, ordinarily 
made of white wine and sugar, into 
which some new milk is thrown by a 
syringe. 

Syllogism (nXXovtcpft), in logic ; an ar- 
gument or form ot reasoning, consisting 
of three propositions, having this proper- 
tf, that the conclusion necessarily follows 
nom the two premises, so that if the first 
and second propositions be granted, the 
conclusion must be also granted. If the 
premises be only probable, or contingent, 
the syllogism is said to be diaieciiad; if 
they be certain, apodidkal ; if false, un- 
der an appearance of truth, wphx^al, or 
paralogimcaL As often as the mind ob- 
serves any two notions to agree with a third, 
which is done in two propositions, it im- 
mediately concludes that they agree with 
each other ; or, if it finds that one of them 
acrees, and the other disagrees, which is 
likewise done in two propositions, it imme- 
diately pronounces that they disagree with 
each other ; and such is a syllonsm. Of 
the three propositions of whicn a syllo- 
gism consists, the first ii^ by ^^y of emi- 
nence, called the proponlion, as being the 
basis of the argument ; the second, the 
assunmHonj as l^ing assumed to assist in 
inferrmg the third ; and both, the prem- 
ises^ as being antecedent to it. The nrst is 
called the rnc^'or, the second the minor, the 
third the conUusunu As the oondusion 



is the principal part, it hence arises that 
though the proposition and assumption 
have each its subject and attribute, yet 
the subject and attribute of aeyllogtsm 
are properly understood of the conclu- 
sion. In the constimtion of a sylloipsm 
we may consider the matter and the form 
of it The matter is three propositions 
made up of three ideas, or terms, vari- 
ously joined, and caUed the im^or, minar 
and middle. The following proposition, 
ibr instance, forms, a syllogism :-^Gvery 
animal lives ; man is an animal ; thereioK 
man lives. The predicate of the conclu- 
sion is called the mn^or term, because it is 
generally of larger extent than the nmior 
term, or 'subject The major and minor 
terms are called the extremes. The mid- 
dle term, or medium, is the third idea, so 
disposed in two propositions as to show 
the connexion between the major and the 
minor term in the conclusion ; whence the 
middle term is sometimes called the arfptr- 
ment. The proposition which contams 
the predicate of tne conclusion, connected 
with the middle term, is usually called th« 
me^crpropasition : that which connects the 
middle term with the subject of the c<mi- 
clusion is called the mtnor proposilion. In 
a regular svllogism,the major propontion 
is placed first, the minor second, and the 
conclusion last Syllogisms are distributed, 
with regard to the question to be proved, 
into universal afiSrmadve, univereu nega- 
tive, particular affirmative and particiuar 
nesative, and with respect to their nature 
ana composition, into single and com- 
pound. Single syllogisms may be divided 
mto simple, complex and conjunctiTe. 
Simple, or categorical syllogisms, are 
made up of three plain, single or categor- 
ical propositions, in which the middle 
term is evidently and regulariy joined 
with one part of the question in the ma- 
jor, and with the other in the minor, 
whence follows a plain, single conclu- 
sion. A conv>1ex syllogism is that in 
which the whole middle term is not con- 
nected with the whole subject, or the 
whole predicate, in two distinct proposi- 
tions, but is intermingled, and compared 
with them by parts, thus : — The sun is a 
senseless being; the Persians worshipped 
the sun; therefore the Persians wov- 
shipped a senseless being. Conjunctive 
syllo^ms are those in M^ich one of the 
premises — viz. the major — ^has distinct 
parts joined by a conjunction or some such 
particle of speech. Compound syllogisnis 
are made up of two or more mnfjie ooea, 
aiid may be resolved into them. The 
chief kinds are the epicfttrema, dOemmot 



SYLLOGISM--SYHBOL. 



107 



pnmfOogismuB and goriles* A syUogiBin 
Id vriiich ooe of the prenaiseB is sup- 
preaaed, but so as to be understood, is 
called an enthymeme, 

STI.V&8TE11 II, whose true name was 
Geiberty was bom of an obscure family 
in Auvo-gne, and at an early age entered 
the monastery of St Gerard, in Aurillac. 
After laying a foundation for all the sci- 
ences cultivated in that age, he travelled 
into Spain to hear the Arabian doctors, 
and, at length, became so distinguished, 
that he was appointed by Hugh Capet 
preceptor to his son Robert Otho III, 
emperor, who had also been his pupil, 
conferred upon him the archbishopric of 
Ravenna ; and on the death of Gregory 
V, in 999, procured his election to the 
papacy, when he took the name of Svl- 
vester. He acted with great vigor in this 
capacity, and maintain^ the power of 
ibe church with a high hand. He was 
also a great promoter of learning, and a 
proficient in various branches of science 
iiimsel£ He expended large sums in the 
collection of books ; composed a number 
of works, particularlv on arithmetic and 
geometry ; and with his own hands made 
a clock, a globe, and an astrolabe. A 
Bumber of his letters, on various subjects, 
were printed at Paris in 1611 ; but the 
most complete collection has been given' 
by Du Chesne. He died in lOOa 
Stlvius, iCneas. (See Piccciominu) 
Stmboi. (in Greek ovfi§oXo* ; Latin, sifmr 
holvm ; &oxn cvufiaXXuv, to suspect, divme, 
and compare) ; a word of various mean- 
ing even vrith the ancients, who used it 
to denote a sign, a mark, watchword, sig- 
nal, token, se^-ring, &c. Its meaning is 
BtiU more various in modem times, ^m- 
hd is generally used as synonymous with 
anUenu It is not confined, however, to 
viable figures, but embraces every repre- 
lentation of an idea by an image, whether 
the latter is presented immedmtek to the 
senses, or merely brought before the 
mind by words. Men, in the infancy of 
society, were incapable of abstract 
thought, and could convey truths only by 
means of sensible images. In &ct, man 
at all times has a strong propensity to 
clothe thoughts and feelings in images, to 
make them more striking and living ; and, 
in the eariy periods of our race, when 
man lived in intimate communion with 
nature, he readily found, in natural ob- 
jects, ^rms and images for the ezpressiou 
of moral truths; and even his conceptions 
of the Deity were derived directly from 
natural objects. Every thing in nature 
was an image and sign of the Deity; 



eveiy natural phenomenon was regarded 
as divine. The priests, who had advanced 
in intelligence beyond the great body of 
the people, when they attempted to com- 
municate such ideas of the Deity as tibe 
people did not find directly in nature, or 
to explain the laws of nature, were oblig- 
ed to use images to make themselves un- 
deifitood. These images were in part 
verbal, in part addressed unmediately to 
the senses. But, however strikingly a 
symbol may^ embody an idea, it is always 
attended with some uncertainty and lia- 
bihty to various interpretations. The at- 
tribute (q. V.) differs from the symbol in 
this circumstance, that the former is only 
a peculiar sign, added to an image for the 
sake of more perfect representation ; the 
latter is independent and intelligible of 
itself: all attributes are symbols, but all 
symbols are not attributes. Though at- 
tributes are used to express not only moral 
conceptions, but also actions and histori- 
cal &cts, they still remain a kind of sym- 
bols, expressive of the spirit and essen- 
tial character of the action or fact AUe- 
gory (q. v.) alwavs has an artificial, labor- 
ed character: the symbol ought to be a 
natural expression of an idea. It is not 
necessaiy that the symbol should comply 
with the rules of art, and be beautifui in 
itself; the chief thing required is, that 
it should actually designate ideas in a 
Uvely manner. Thus the forms in Indian 
and other mythologies, often strange, and 
sometimes even disgusting, are not less 
genuine symbols, than the harmonious 
and beautiful forms of the Greeks. In a 
narrower sense, however, the images and 
conceptions of Greek mvthology and art 
have been called, in modem times, 6ym- 
bolicalj and contradistinguished to the al- 
legorical. In this case, tvmhoUcal means 
chiefly the perfect embodying of the 
spiritual in a form entirely appropriate to 
the idea. The symbol relates particularly 
to the highest ideas — those of a religious 
character. The idea may be more or less 
perfectly apprehended, so thati» the same 
symbol may convey very different notions 
to different persons. Thus we find the 
same s]rmbols which were presented to 
the people in the rude forms of ancient 
heathenism, and which the people but 
imperfectly understood, preserved also in 
the most elevated systems of philosophi- 
cal religion, with their meaning fully un- 
veiled. The initiated fully underatood the 
symbol; the people, who had |)erhapB 
lost its original signification, required to 
have it exj^ained to them. The more a 
religion ia confined within the limits of 



106 



SYMBOLS, CHRISTIAN. 



the Tisible world, the more immedjately its 
doctrines are derived from the phenomena 
of nature ; the richer is it in symhois ; whilst 
a revealed religion, whose doctrines are 
addressed more directly to the intellect, 
and contain ideas beyond the circle of. 
the phenomena of nature, will become 
necessarily poorer in symbols, and richer 
in distinct notions. Paganism, therefore, 
abounds so much more in ^mbols than 
Judaism and Christianity. Symbols are 
also the signs through which the Deity 
is believed to reveal his will, or unveil 
futurity, or manifest his power. Such 
signs may be particular displays of the 
powers of nature, or voices, prophetic 
words, and oracles. The word symM 
further received a particular application 
in the Greek mvsteries, which clothed 
their mysterious doctrines in symbols and 
maxims, not only in ordjsr to veil them 
flt>m the uninitiated, but also to present 
them to the initiated in the most expres- 
sive images. And, as the initiated recog- 
nised e£ch other by signs and words, 
which were peculiar to the mysteries, and 
presupposed the knowledge of theirmean- 
ing, such signs were called also symbols. 
But as the use of such signs recalled also 
the sacred obligation entered into at the 
time of initiation, particularly that of si- 
lence, and of living in a manner corre- 
sponding to the doctrines of the mysteries, 
therefore a sacred obligation a vow, made 
to God, a feUow man, or a society, was 
called vofi^^ov, which term is also applied 
to the oath of soldiers, and to the watch- 
word or sign bv which those on the same 
side recognised each other, or communi- 
cated something to one another in a way 
unintelligible to the enemy. Symbol 
also signified a token, by which those 
who had given and received hospitable 
entertainment recomised each other at a 
future time, or which was siven as a pledge 
of any contract or obliflntion. 

Christian Symbols. The various mean- 
ings of the word symbol, all originating 
from one r^ot, existed ahready, as we have 
seen, before the Christian era, and natu- 
rally found their application in the Chris- 
tian church. There was already a sacred 
meaninff connected with the word ; and 
opposed to paganism as the first Chris- 
tians were, and avene to receive any 
thinff of it into their church, yet a word 
of this character would not appear ob- 
jectionable to them. Besides, the anxious 
fear of eveiT thing which savored of pa- 
ganism, had already considerably dimin- 
ished when the word symbol became 
general among ChrittianB. ChristiBn 



teachers may even have felt themselves 
called upon to show that they also had 
their symbols, when the persons initiated 
into the heathen mystenes often boldly 
opposed their doctrines to those of the 
Cfhristians, and pointed to their mysteri- 
ous spobols as means of distinction and 
sanctification. The Christians also treat- 
ed their symbolic doctrines and rites as 
sanctifying rites, constituting signs of rec- 
ognition and means of union amonr 
the members of their community, and 
separating them from the whole of pagan- 
ism and Judaism. They therefore called 
the sacraments symbols, as visible signs 
of an invisible salvation ; and not only 
si^ns, but, properly speaking, pledges of 
this salvation, and of the divine promises 
and grace. In this sense, baptism and 
the Lord's supper, as the proper sacra- 
ments, are caUed symbols, yet always with 
a sanctifying epithet ; so also are the water 
of the fount, and the bread and wine. 
Symbols, further, are all Christian rites, 
all exercises of worship, as fiir as they 
are considered necessary expressions oY 
the ideas designated by them. The sacra- 
ments and rites are also eymbols in the 
sense of signs of distinction; because 
every one who partakes in them, showns 
thereby that he belongs to the Christian 
community ; and even the mere sight of 
the sacraments was originally pro^bited 
to the unbaptized. These symbols must 
be distinguished firom the types, so called, 
viz. the persons, rites, &C., of the Old 
Testament, which prefi^red what is told 
in the New. Certain signs of the Chris- 
tian church are ssrmboS in the proper 
sense of the word ; as the ngn of the 
cross, and the Virgin with the Child. 
Besides these, there are the symbolic attri- 
butes, by which artists distinguish the va- 
rious evangelists, saints, apostles, &c., in 
their representations; e. g. to Matthew is 
always added the man, to Mark the lion, 
to Luke the ox, to John the eagle — the 
four creatures which appeared in the 
vision of Ezekiel. The name of sym- 
bols is also given, in the Christian church, 
to those doctrines, expressed in short fbr- 
roule, which are acknowledged by all 
Christians ; therefore to the confes- 
sions, so called, which contain the essen- 
tial points of the belief of the various 
sects. The Holy Scriptures remain the 
true foundation of fiuth and the rale of 
the ftuthfiil ; but the symbolic conlbenons 
are intended to give a short sketch of the 
opmions of all me members 6f each re- 
li^ous sect respecting the truths to be ac- 
knowledged as the essential doctrines cfthe 



SYMBOLS, CHRISTIAN-^SYMPHONY. 



109 



Bilile, and to prevent arbitnirv mter|»etar 
Cioos of it. Symbols, in this sense, are 
not put upon an equal footing with the 
Bible ; but because, according to die opin- 
ions of the sect, they contain the sense of 
the Bible, every one must profess his be- 
lief in them, who wishes to be acknowl- 
edged as a member of the particular de- 
nomination. (For the symbolic bodks, 
see Creeds,) 
Stmbolical Books. (See Oeeds.) 
Symbolics ; the science which treats 
of the symbols of the various religions, 
particularly of the ancient religions, found- 
ed on the maiiifestadous of the Deity in 
the phenomena of nature, or whose doc- 
trines are given in symbols taken from 
natural objects. (See the articles Symboly 
and Creutzer, George Frederic.) 

Sympathetic Cures ; pretended or 
real cures, not by means of physic^ but 
of the secret powers of bodies, which do 
not necessarily come into direct contact 
with the patient, but have a mysterious 
influence on htscondidon. The operation 
is attributed to a certain sympathy of the 
sufferer with other individuals, or with apii^ 
its, stars, animals, plants, stones, &c. FuU 
belief in the power of such means of 
cure has a very great effect in such dis- 
eases as are chiefly seated in the soul, or 
in the nervous system, e. g. diseases of 
the mind, epilepsies, &c. 
Sympathetic Inks. (See Ink,} 
Sympathy (from aw, together, and naOij, 
I su^r), in physiolo^, is that qual- 
ity of the animal organization, by which, 
through the increased or diminished ac- 
tivity of one organ, that of others is also 
increased or diminislied. The idea of an 
organized system — tho union of many 
parts in one whole, in which all these 
parts correspond to each other — includes 
the idea of a mutual operation, of which 
sympathy is a part. The medium be- 
tween the organ from which the action 
proceeds and that to which it extends, 
has been somedmcs supposed to be the 
nervous system, somedmes the vasculaf 
or the cellular system, or the juices ; and 
it cannot be denied, that, in some sym- 
pathetic phenomena, the nerves and the 
vessels appear to be the media ; but there 
are objections to considering them as the 
cause of sympathy in general, for experi- 
ence teaches, that sympathy takes piece 
also between such organs as have no dis- 
coverable connexion by nerves or ves- 
sels. The phenomenon of sympathy ap- 
pears even in the healthy body ; e. g. a 
strong light, thrown upon the eye, some- 
times produces sneezing (q. v.) ; dckling 

VOL. XII. 10 



causes lau^ng ; and some physiologists 
have even called the change of voice at 
the age of puberty, and the increased se- 
creuons of the liver, the salivary glands, 
the {Muicreas, and the coats of the stom- 
ach at the time of digesrion, a sympa- 
thetic acdon. But the eflect of sympathy 
is much more oflen observed in diseases. 
There is hardly one in which some phe- 
nomena are not to be explained by sym- 
pathy. Sympathy is further used to ex- 
press the mnuence of the state of one in- 
dividual upon another, e. g. the tickling 
in the throat, caused by the cough of an- 
other person ; or the yawning produced 
by seeing another yawn ; or the sor- 
row produced by wimcssing his grief 
The effects of animal maffnedsm (q. v.) 
are also ascribed to sympathy, and those 
which the sight of some animals is said 
to have upon some men. 

Symphony (from the Greek aw/i^ww'a ; 
in Italian, tiiifonia). The word aymfkony, 
in the ancient music, signifies the union of 
souuds which forms a concert When 
the whole concert was in unison^ it was 
called a symphony ; but when one half 
of the peribrmers were in the octave, or 
double octave, of the other half^ it was 
called anHphotnf. At present tho word 
symphony is often applied by the French 
and English to overtures, and other in- 
strumental compositions, consisting of a 
variety of movements, and designed for 
a full band. The introductory, intermedi- 
ary, and coucluding instrumental pas- 
sages in vocal compositions are also called 
symphonies. But the Gcnnans use sym- 
pnony as contradistinguished to overture, 
wliicli, accoiding to its true meaning, 
ought to be dependent ujjon the piece to 
wliich it forms the introducdon. It 
should contam the chief ideas of the 
piece, or at least indicate the fundamental 
disposition of the whole, on account of 
which, most composers write theu* over- 
tures after they have finished the pieces 
for which they are intended. The sym- 
phony, on the other hand, is an indepen- 
dent piece, and is therefore capable of a 
fuller developement of musical ideas. 
Formeriy the overture was used for the 
symphony. Sulzer, in his General The- 
ory of the Fine Arts, says, «* The diffi- 
culty of executjnff an overture well, and 
the still greater difficulty of composing a 
good one, has given rise to the easier 
lorm of the symphony, which consisted 
originally of one or more fugue pieces, 
alternating with dancing music of vari- 
ous kinds, and was generally called par- 
tie. The overture, indeed, maintamed 



no 



SYMPHONY— SYNCHRONISM. 



itself still at the beginniiiff of great pieces 
of church music and of operas, aud tke 
parties were used only in chamber music ; 
Dut people became tired of dancine mu- 
sic, unaccompanied by dancing, and were 
at 'last satisfied with two allegros, alter- 
nating with a slow passage. This spe- 
cies of composition was called symphony^ 
ar.d used both in chamber music and 
br;fore operas and pieces of church mu- 
se. The instruments necessary to a 
Fymphony are the violin, tenor violin, 
.'md oasB instruments— a number of each : 
flutes, horns, hautboys, may be added. 
Among the old composers of symphonies, 
fienda, Bocherini, Dittersdorf, Pleyl, 
&c., were famous, but are now mostly 
forgotten. The greatest modem mas- 
ters in this kind of composition ai*e 
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. 

SrHPLEaADES {'ZvftnXvY^ici, from ovfi- 

nXnTTia, to dash together); small rocky 
islands at the mouth of the Thracian Bos- 
phorus, which were fabled to strike to- 
gether, and destroy ships, as they passed.* 
Juno conducted the Argonauts safely 
through them, and Orpheus rendered 
them immovable by his lyre. They were 
also called Cyanean Uvavtos, azure) islands 
or rocks, from their blue apnearance. 

Symposia; the feasts or the ancient 
Greeks. (See Feasts of the indents.) 

Stmposiabch ; he who provided all 
things necessary for a wiiKoaiov. (See 
Feasts of the ,^ncients.) 

Sfmptoms, in medicine ; the phenome- 
na of diseases, from which we infer tlie 
existence and the nature of the disease. 
Symptoms have their seat in the func- 
tions which are affected by the disease so 
as to be raised above their usual activity, 
or depressed below it, or even to become 
changed in the nature of thebr action. 
The organs diemselves are oflen changed 
in their appearance, structure, size, &c. 
Symptoms may be perceptible by the pa- 
tient alone (e. f. pam, and aU change of 
sensations), or by the physician also (e. g. 
all diseased movements). The more a 
function or an organic system is extended 
through the body, the more frequently 
will it be the seat of morbid phenomena: 
the nervous, the vascular and the cuta- 
neous systems, for instance, are affected 
in most diseases ; hence also irritability, 
the power of nutrition, &lc^ which ex- 
tend through the whole organization, are 
so easily wected b^ diseases, and thus • 
afford symptoms. If the latter are in the 
or^ns originally affected, they are called 
idtopaMc; but if they are caused by 
sympathy (q. v.) in other and distant 



pansi they are called consensual or sym^ 
pathdic. The temperament, age, sex« 
mode of living, &c., of the patient, pro- 
duce a considerable variety in the symp- 
toms of every disease. They are sometimes 
further divided into symptoms of disease, 
symptoms of causes, and symptoms of 
symptoms. IThe first are the ^sential in* 
dications of the disease: thev may be 
idio|jathic or consensual. The symp- 
toms of the cause are such as are acci* 
dentally produced by the cause of the 
disease ; e. e, when a cold, which pro* 
duces an inflammation of the lungs, pro- 
duces at the same time rheumatic pains, 
coughs, &.C., the latter, beinff of second- 
ary importance, are considered mere 
symptoms of the cause, which has pro- 
duced the chief disease — the inflamma- 
tion. Symptoms oi ^mptoms may be 
illustrated b^ the case of vomiting, which, 
being occasioned by a disordered state of 
the stomach, may itself produce great' 
pain, spitting blood, &C., which would 
then be symptoms of a symptom. That 
symptom which contributes chiefly to 
indicate a disease, is called the paihog- 
nomic symptom. 

Syivaoogue (from the Greek (rvvaywynt 
an assembly); the place in which the 
Jews assemble on the Sabbath (Saturday^ 
to oflTer pravers, and listen to the reading 
of the Old t'estament and to religious in- 
struction. They vere first introduced 
after the Babylonish captivity, and were 
originally applied to purposes of instruc- 
tion ; but aftpi' the destruction of the tem- 
ple by the Romans, religious services 
were pe^-formed in them. Each syna- 
gogue has a rabbi or president, several 
elders, a reader, door-keeper, and a receiv- 
er of alms. The liturgy of the modem 
Jews, of which there are copies in He- 
brew and the modem languages, is not 
very diflerentfroro the Christian liturgies, 
which were formed in imitation of it. 
It comprises prayers for the Sabbath, and 
for the fast and festival days. The date of 
its composition is uncertain. The nine- 
teen daily prayers are reciled every day, 
either in public at the synagogue, or 
wherever the person may happen to be. 
In tlie time of our Savior, any person 
could conduct the services ; but this duty 
is now usually discharged by a robbi. 
The prayers are repeated aloud by the 
whole assembly. 

Synchronism (from mv, with, together, 
and XP'^S time) is the placing together 
the accounts of contemporaneous persons 
or events. To this method is opposed the 
eihnograpfdc (q. v.), which connects aU 



SYNCHR0NI8M--SYNDIC. 



Ill 



bdonginjr to the same nution. Synchro- 
nkdc tables are very useful. 

Stucops, in phyaioloey and medicine ; 
fainting; a considerabfe diminution or 
eomplete -inteiruiHion of the motion of 
the heart and of the function of respira- 
tion, accompanied by a suspension of ac- 
tien in the brain, and consequent tempo- 
rary loss of sensation, volition, and the 
other faculties, of which the brain is the 
organ. It takes place from a variety of 
causes, some of an exciting, others of a 
dexiressing nature. It is familiar to hyp- 
ochondriac and hysteric persons, and 
may be brought on iq all those who have 
much mobility of nerves by any sudden 
or violent emotion, or even strong sensa- 
tion. It is a very usual consecfoence of 
violent pain, such as that which accom- 
panies a surgical operation. Women are 
more prone .to fiunting than men, in con- 
sequence of flreater susceptibili^ to im- 
pressions made on the nervous system. 
But we find, even among men, frequent 
peculiarities of constitution, which, not- 
withstanding general strength of frame, 
dispose them to faint, from causes which 
appear slight, such as certain odors, the 
sight of blood, a wound or sore, the pres- 
ence of a cat, mouse or spider, or other 
objects for which a person has conceived 
an unaccountable aversion. Sometimes 
the cause is to ^ found in disturbed di- 
gestion, worms, and other irritations act- 
ing upon the nerves of the stomach or 
intestines. Other causes act more direct- 
ly on the circulation, as the sudden deple- 
tion of the blood-vessels by haemorrhage, 
or by large evacuations of any kind, such 
as purging, vomiting, or even sweating. 
The removal of fluids which have col- 
lected in any part of the body, such as 
the hvdropic water in ascites, or the mat- 
ter of a large abscess, is oflen followed 
hf fainting. Causes which suddenly 
diminisb the supply of blood to the head, 
tend peculiarly to produce it in those who 
are disposed to it This sometimes hap- 
pens from rising suddenly from the hori- 
zontal position, and stretching out the 
arms towards an object placed above the 
head, as in reaching .a book from a high 
shelf in a library. Fainting sometimes 
marks the invasion of acute diseases, and 
IS sometimes a symptom of some me- 
chanical obstruction to the ciroulation 
from oiganic afiections of the heart or 
of the large vessels in its vicinity. The 
recovery of the patient from the actual 
fit, is, in general, eamly efiected, by mere- 
hr placing him in a horizontal ooeition, 
flashing cold water on the race and 



hands, or chafing the temples with stim- 
ulant amniouiacal liquids; which may 
also be held to the nostrils when the 
breathing is not entirely suspended. If 
the fit is of long continuance, it is prop^ 
to employ the same means as are used 
for the recovery of drowned persons. 
Frequent fainting, especially if it be found 
to observe certain periods, or to occur 
more particularly upon waking in the 
morning, is a mode in which epijepsy 
very oflen commences ; and when this is 
suspected, no time should be lost in ap- 
plymg the proper remedies. 

Syncretism ; the attempt to reconcile 
discordant views, particularly religious 
views. There are various derivations of 
the word. Plutarch (De FraUmo Jhmrt) 
derives it from the name of the island of 
Crete ; the tribes of which, he says, en- 
deavored to protect themselves by com- 
pacts among themselves against internal 
feuds and attacks from without The 
Protestant parties were early called upon 
to unite, like the Cretans, against the Ro- 
man see ; for instance, by professor Dav. 
Parens, of Heidelberg, towards the end 
of the sixteenth and the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. At a later period, 
the word received another meaning, and 
was derived — ^probably more correctly — 
from the Greek 9vv and Ktpavwfn (to mixj. In 
the sixteenth century, when the stuay of 
ancient literature was revived in Italy, 
and Plato came in repute, in addition to 
the general favorite Aristotle, some schol- 
ars, as Job. Francis Pico (see ^Rrandola\ 
Bessarion and others, who honored Plato 
much, but were unwilling to give up Ar- 
istotle entirely, were called tyncrttisU, 
In the same way the term syncretism was 
applied to the union of the academicians 
and peripatetics. It was particulariy 
used of the Alexandrian school. This 
word came into general use in Ger- 
many after the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, when George Calixtus 
(q.y.), professor of theology at Helmst&dt, 
having acquired liberal opinions &r in 
advance of his age, attempted a union of 
the various religious parties. Syncretist 
then became a word of great odium. — See 
Walch's Introduction to the Controversies 
of the Lutheran Church (in German). 

Syndic, in government and commerce ; 
an otiicer, in various countries, intrusted 
with the affairs of a city, or other com- 
munity, company of art or trade, fee, 
who calls meetings, makes representations 
and solicitations to the magistracy, &ic — 
Syndic is also a person appointed to act in 
some particular affair, in which he has a 



112 



SYNDIC— SYNTAX. 



common interest with his constituents, as 
when he is one among several creditors 
of the same debtor. 

. Stnecpoche, in rhetoric ; a figure jn 
which the whole of a thing is put for a 
part of it only, or a part for a whole. 
This figure ia of very considerable lati- 
tude, and is used, 1. when the genus is 
put for the species ; 2. when the species 
is put for the genus ; 3. when the essen- 
tial whole is put for one of its parts ; 4. 
when the matter or form is put for the 
whole being ; 5. the whole for a part ; or, 
lastly, the part for the whole. 
Stneorium. (See Sanhedrin.) 
Stnocha, and Stnocrus. (See Ftver,) 
Stnop ; an ecclesiastical assembly con- 
vened to consuh on church affairs, f See 
CotmciZ.) A synod may be coraposea of 
a bisbop and the clergy of his diocese 
{modus diaceaalisy diocesan synod), or 
of an archbishop and the bishops of his 
province {synodua provincialis), or of the 
whole clergy of a state under a papal le- 
«ite liynochu universaliSj or natUmalia), 
Synoas, in the Presbyterian church, are 
composed of several adjacent presbyte- 
ries. (See Presbyterians, and Reformed 
ChureL) The convocations of the Eng- 
lish clergy are proviucial synods ; but they 
have virtually expired. (See Convoca^ 
lion, and England^ Church of.) The holy 
Bjrnod at Petersburg is the supreme eccle- 
siastical council of the Greek church in 
Russia. (See Qreek Church, and Russia.) 
The superintendents and inspectors, with 
their parochial clergy, also form sjmods 
in LuUieran countries, but rather for pur- 
poses of advice and mutual encourage- 
ment, than of exercising any controllmg 
authority. 

Stnortkes, or words havmg the same 
signification, stricdy speaking, do not ex- 
ist in any language. Dififerent dialects of 
the same language may indeed have dif- 
ferent words of the same meaning ; but 
as soon as these pass from the diidect into 
the literary or generally adopted language, 
diey either take the place of some other 
word of the same signification, or receive 
themselves a new shade of meaning, and 
are then added to the others. It is true 
that the similarity in the meaning of words 
is often so great that much discrimination 
is required to ascertain the different shade 
of each word ; and an abundance of such 
synonymes proves great acuteneas in a 
nation. The languages of the East, so 
rich in metaphors and imagery, manifest 
the vivid imagination of its inhabitants, 
while most of the languages of Western 
Europe, by their numerous synonymes, 



demonstrate the acuteness of those who 
speak them. The Arabian language, 
eaually distinguished for the copiousness 
or its imagery and the number of its 
synonymes, strikingly exhibits the wit, 
imagination and cuscrimination of this 
people. The more a nation advances m 
civilization, the more it ckiasifies ideas, 
unites the various species under the genua, 
and the more synonyn^ are required, 
as they are words whicn, with a general 
resemblance, have characteristic difler- 
ences, as cruelty and airocihf, riches and 
treasures. Synonvmes form an important 
subject of philok>gical study, and one 
which requires much knowledge of the 
etymology and history of the language 
investigated. The want of works in tlus 
branch of study was early felt Towards 
the end of the second century, JuL Pollux 
wrote his OnomasHcon — a work of some 
merit, on Greek synonymes. Vaugehs, 
Girard, Beauz^ and Roubaud have writ- 
ten on French svnouymes ; Blair, Dav. 
Booth and Crabb on English ; Stosch, 
Hevnatz, Eberhard (continued by Ma^» 
and Gruberj, on German; and doctor 
liamshom (Altenburg, 1828) has lately 
republished the Latin synonymes of Du- 
mestiil (Emesti's edition). 

Syntax (vwra^is, construction) ; that part 
of grammar which treats of the manner 
of connecting words into regular sen- 
tences. A word expresses a «ingie notion, 
but by itself is little more than an articu- 
late sound, which, like the cry of animals, 
intimates a wish or a feeling. AsuceessiDii 
of such sounds, property arranged and 
connected, becomes langua^ The art 
of constructing sentences is, therefiire, 
not less important than the power of 
speech ; it is, indeed, the intellectual part 
of language, and a characteristic of rea- 
son. One class of words — ^the particles, or 
the accessory parts of speech, as they are 
sometimes called — serve merely to indicate 
the relations in which the principal or 
necessary parts (noun and verb) stand to- 
wards each other, or rather, like the smews 
of the human body, to bind together what 
would otherwise be a heap of disconnect- 
ed and useless limbs. In every languase, 
there is some fundamental princi|;3e, 
which pervades and regulates its whole 
construction, although it may occasionally 
admit of particular variations. Passion, 
or the excited imagination, for instance, 
will often violate, as the grammaiiaoB 
call it, the general laws of construction. 
In some languages, the principle of jux- 
taposition prevails, and little diversity of 
arrangement is possible. The relations 



SYNTAX— SYPHIUa 



113 



of the Babject, the action and the object 
are indicated b^ their respective poaitions. 
In the transDOSitive lansuages, these rela- 
tions are inaicated by the changes in the 
forms of Uie words; and the modes of 
arrangement are various. StiD, in tlie 
structure and disposition of sentences 
and parts of sentences, the logical rela- 
tions of the thoughts must regulate the 
construction, even where it appears to 
be most arbitrary^ (See Language^ and 

Stiithesis (literally, cormexumj iintbn] is 
a term used generally as contradistm- 
guished to analysis. Combining and sep- 
arating are the chief operations by which 
we acquire knowledge : the former, how- 
ever, is first in time. When an object is 
presented to our vision, we form the idea 
of a whole out of its parts ; but the in- 
tellect, in forming general notions, sepa- 
rates the given subject (analysis), and then 
unites (synthesis) what is common to 
several things, excluding what is peculiar 
to each. A synthetic or progressive 
proof or demonstration is one which pro- 
ceeds from the reasons to the conse- 
quences, or from the general to the spe- 
cial : an analytical or regressive one as- 
cends from tiie consequences to the rea- 
sons. This also explains the meaning 
of the expression synthetic and analytic 
mediod: the former is that process in 
science, which begins with the principles, 
and from them deuces a particular con- 
clusion, as is strictly done in mathemat- 
ks ; yet mathematicians themselves give 
the name of synthesis to that part of 
their science which contains the proofs 
of the theorems already laid down ; anai- 
ysis (q. v.) they call that part which 
iseeks to form theorems. 
St^dsians. (See ApoUinarians.) 
Stphax, king of die Masseesylians in 
Africa, allied himself Mrith the Romans 
in the second- Punic war, but, being re- 
peatedly defeated by Masiuissa ((][. v.), 
was prevented from joining Scipio in 
Spain. But this state of things was soon 
changed. Masinissa was deprived of 
his crown by a usurper ; and Syphax was 
thus enabled not only to return into his 
dominions, buf^ deserting the alliance 
with the Romans, and joining the Cartha- 
ginians, to conquer the kingdom of his 
riral. Syphax, to whom Hasdrubal had 
given in marriage his daughter Sopho- 
■ Disba (q. vX who had been previously be- 
trothed to Masinissa, declared in favor of 
Carthage, on the appearance of Scipio 
tnd Masinissa with an army in Africa, 
and raised a large body of troops in her 
10* 



cause, but was defeated and made prison- 
er. Livy says that death spared him the 
disgrace of being carried into Rome in 
triumph by Scipio; but Polybius, the 
friencf of Scipio, states that he formed a 
part of the triumphal procession of the 
conqueror. 

Syphilis (from the Greek n^Xot, feeble) ; 
the name now most frequentlv used for 
the venereal disease, which is thus called 
in a very fine poem, written in Latin hex- 
ametera, by the Italian Fracastorio (first 
printed in Venice, 1590, 4to.). The his- 
tory of this disease is one of the most 
difficult parts of the histoiy of medicine. 
It is uncertain whether that violent and 
truly epidemic disorder of the skin, which 
appeared in the last ten yeara of the fif- 
teenth century, was really what we now 
call syphilis, or not rather a variety of the 
leprosy, which soon afler entirely disap- 
peared. Towards the end of the fifleentn, 
and at the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, a disease appeared in Europe, till 
then unknown, and which, by its rapid 
extension, its horrible consequences, its 

rt contagiousness, the inefncacy of all 
remedies employed against it, per- 
plexed the physicians, and excited a gen- 
eral horror. Respecting its orig-in, noth- 
ing certain is known. The physicians of 
that time were, generally speaking, too 
ignorant to investigate the origin of a dis- 
ease which they were but rarely able to 
cure. Until lately, it was pretty generally 
believed that this malady was carried by 
the vessels of Columbus from America to 
Europe ; but the most accurate examina- 
tion of this opinion shows its incorrect- 
ness. The first author who expresses 
this opinion was a physician of Nurem- 
berg (Germany), of the name of Leonhanl 
Schmaussf in 1518 : he founded his opin- 
ion upon the fiict that the Guaja wood, 
which had been introduced from America 
in the mean time, bad become known as n 
good remedy for the disease ; for, said he, 
nature always provides an antidote in the 
vicinity of a poison. The principal support 
which his opinion received was from the 
testimony of^the son of Columbus, and his 
successor Oviedo ; but the first speaks only 
of a disease like scald head, said to pre- 
dominate in St. Domingo ; and tlie oth- 
er, a tyrant, like most of the Spaniards 
in America at that period, delights in rep- 
resenting his nation as the favorite people 
of God, and the Americans as cursed. A 
careful inquinr shows only tliat the crew 
of Columbus brought a contagious disease 
with them, which destroyed the greater 
part of their number, and communicated 



114 



SYPHILI&-SYRACUSE. 



ittelf to those who had intereoune with 
them. This is easily explained by the 
imperfect care taken of the health of such 
a crew, and the uncommon hardships of 
such a voyage in those times. At all 
events, their complaint was not the vene- 
real disease, as this broke out almost at 
the same moment, in the summer of 1493, 
in the south of France, in Lombardy, and 
in the north of Oennanj'. Now, the ves- 
sels of Columbus did not arrive till April 
at Seville ; and the diseiise could not pos- 
sibly have spread so far from this place 
within two months. Others have sought 
for the origin of this disease in the exnul- 
Kiou of the Marranos (secret Jews) from 
Si)ain, between 1485 and 1493. Many 
thousands of these unhappy persons died 
of the plague on their passage by sea to 
Italv, Greece, &(*. Thousands of others 
su^red by the leprosy; and, without 
doubt, they carried misery and sickness 
with them" wherever they went But that 
this particular form of disease existed 
among them cannot be proved; and, 
moreover, though Grermany was not vis- 
ited by these emigrants, the syphilis 
showed itself simultaneously, in 1493, in 
Halle, Brunswick, Mecklenburg, &c. As 
to the opinion that the venereal disease 
had always existed in some form, it only 
amounts to a play \i\x>n words, as a mere 
iliseased' state of the genitals is far from 
amounting to syphilis, especially if we 
consider the horrid consequences which 
that disease produced at the time referred 
to. The most probable conclusion is, 
that the venereal disease was produced 
by an epidemic tendency existing at that 
time, wnich gave this new form to the 
leprosy theu so widely spread. The an- 
cient writers, for many years, described 
syphilis more as a terrible disease of the 
skm and bones in general than as a mere 
afiectiou of particular parts; more as a 
plague than as a disonler of particular 
individuals. A new form of disease could 
be develo|]ed the more readily, as the po- 
litical relations of that thue brought the 
nations very much into connexion with 
each other: Spaniards, Frencli, Germans, 
traversed Italy, luid all tlicKc, together 
with the Italians, spread through Germa- 
ny. The disease brought by tlie sailors 
. from America, akin to scurvy, may also 
have contributed its part. It is certain 
that tlie disease was then far more terri- 
ble than now. It made the i^atient an 
object of horror to his iriends, and abnost 
inevitably reduced him to despair, as no 
physician was able to aid him, and the 
remedies used were almost^ as shocking 



as the disease. Since contagion, at that 
period, took place much easier than now, 
and houses of ill fame, which contributed 
greatly to spread the disease, were found 
every where, the disorder had by no 
means the same character of disgrace 
connected with it as at present. On the 
contrary, Ulrich von Hutten, who suffered 
from it for years, and at length recovered 
his health by the use of guaiacum, and 
the strength of his constitution, always 
enjoyed public esteem, and even dedicated 
his work on the disease to the first spirit- 
ual prince of Germany, without inaeco- 
rum or offence. Like other diseases, it 
graduallv diminished in virulence, partic- 
ularly after Paracelsus had found in mer- 
cury, and Swediauer in acids, the most 
effective remedies against it; and great 
suffering does not arise from it at present 
except in consequence of neglect Yet it w 
still a formidaole disease, as it injures 
more or less the general health, and lays 
the foundation for otlier diseases of a very 
obstinate character — gout, rheumatism^ 
complaints in the bladder, &c. 

Syphon. (See Siphon.) 

Stracus£ (now Siragosa, with a popu- 
lation of 13,800 souls), anciently the chief 
city of Sicily, and one of the most mag- 
nificent cities in the world, with 300,0@[) 
inhabitants, is now greatly reduced* but 
still has an excellent harbor, capable of 
receiving vessels of the greatest burden, 
and of containing a numerous fleet. The 
ancient city was of a triangular fonii, 
twenty-two miles in circuit, and consisted 
of four parts, surrounded by distinct wall^ 
namely, Ortygia, between the two har- 
bors ; Acradina, extending along the sea- 
side ; Tyche, so called from its containing 
a temple of r%)rtune (Tu^n), an inland di- 
vision ; and Neapolis, forming the western 
part. At pi-esent, the only part inhabited 
IS the south-east comer, containing Or- 
tygia and a part of Acradina. Siragosu 
is insulated, walled, and entered bv draw- 
bridges. The streets are regular, bur 
naiTow, and the houses tolerably built. It 
contains an hospital, and a number of 
churches and convents. The cathedral is 
the ancient temple of Minerva. The pa- 
pyi-us (q. V.) is found in the neighborhood. 
Syracuse was founded by a colony of 
Corintliians, B. C. 73G. 'it became the 
largest and most wealthy city in Sicily, 
and, according to Thucydides, possees- 
ed a greater fiopulation than Athens, 
or any other Grecian city. It was at 
one time sovemed as a repubUc, at anotli- 
er bv Gelon, Hiero, Dionysius (see these 
articles, and TKmoleon), and other rulers. 



SYRACUSE-SYRIAN CHRISTIANS. 



115 



It WW beae|;ed, R C. 414, by the Atheni- 
am; and again, B. C. 215, by the Ro- 
208118^ under Marcellus and Appius. It 
was defended near three years by the 
fenins and enterprise of Archimedes 
(q. v.), but at last fell into the haiida of the 
Romans (B. C. 212), and continued in their 
possession till the downfidi of their em- 
pire. Here are remains of the ancient 
amphitheatre, of an oval form, 900 feet in 
length and 200 in breadth: die arena, 
seats, and passages of communication, 
were cut out of the rock. The catacombs 
(q. T.) still exist, and form a remarkable 
festure of Syracuse. They are only seven 
or eight feet high ; but their extent is such 
that they fonn a kind of subterranean 
city, with a number of narrow streets, 
5orae of which are said to be a mile long, 
and contain tombs and sepulchral cham- 
bers. The speaking grotto, or, as it was 
called by die ancients, tlie Ear ofDumys- 
Yi», is a cave 170 feet long, 60 high, and 
from 20 to 35 wide, with so strong an 
echo, that the slightest noise is overheard 
in the smal] chamber near the entrance, 
in which Dionysius is said to have listened 
to the conversation of his prisoners. The 
fetintain of Arethusa (q. v.), still a striking 
object, from its discharge of waters, now 
nerves merely as a resort for washerwo- 
men. Theocritus and Archimedes were 
natives of Syracuse; and the Romans 
found here an immense number of works 
«»f art, which they carried off to Italy. 
(See Sieiiy.) 

Streks. (See Sirens.^ 

Stria ; a country or Western Asia, 
bordering on the Mediterranean sea, and 
forming a part of the Ottoman empire, 
[q. V.) It is called by the Arabs JSt-Skham^ 
or Bar d Cham ; by the Turks and Per- 
sians, Sur, or SurisUm ; and in tlie Scrip- 
tures, Aram. It has Asia Minor, or Nato- 
Ita, to the north, the Euphrates and ttic 
sreal Arabian desert on die cast, Arabia 
Petraea to the south, and the Mediterra- 
nean on the west It is divided into four 
)>achalics, Aleppo, Tripoli, Damascus and 
Acre. Square miles, about 50,000 ; poj>- 
itlation, 2,400,000. The chief towns are 
Aleppo, Damascus, Hamah, Hems, Jeru- 
salem, Antioch ; the seaports, Alexun- 
flretta, Tripoli, Bairout, Saida (Sidon), 
Sur (Tyre), Acre and Jaffa. The leadini^ 
features in the physical a8{)ect of Syria 
consist of the i^reat mountainous chains of 
LelMuion, or Libanus, and Auti-Libanus, 
extending from north to south, and the 
great desert lying on the south-enst and 
k'zst. The valleys ai*e of great fertility, 
and yield abundance of grain, vines. 



mulberries, tobacco, olives, excellent 
fruits, as oranges, figa, pistachios, Sz>c. 
The climate, ui the inhabited parts, is ex- 
ceedingly fine. The coimnerce has never 
been so great in modem as in ancient 
times, and has of late diminiabed. An 
extensive land communication was for- 
merly carried on from Syria with Arabia, 
Persia, and the interior of Asia; but it 
has been interrupted by the disturbed 
state of the countnes. Syria is inhabited 
by various descriptions of people, but 
Turks and Greeks form the basis of the 
population in the cities. The only tribes 
that can be considered as peculiar to Syr- 
ia are the tenants of the heights of Leba- 
non. The most remarkable of these are 
the Druses and Maronites. (See the arti- 
cles.) The general language is Arabic: 
the soldiers and officers of government 
speak Turkish. Of the old Syriac no 
traces exist. No country was more cele- 
brated in antiquity than Syria. In the 
south-west was the land of nromise, the 
country of the Israelites, ana the cradle 
of Chrisdanity. (See PaltHme.) Ph<B- 
nicia (q. v.), particularly its cities of Tyre 
and Sidon, w v re famous for commerce. 
Damascus was long the capital of a pow- 
erful kingdom, and Antioch was once a 
royal residence, and accounted the third 
city in the world in wealth and popula- 
tion. Balbec and Palmyra still exhibit 
splendid mins of their ancient greatnesL-. 
(See the articles.) Here have the Assyr- 
ians, Je^^'s, Greeks, Parthtans, Romans, 
Saracens, the crusaders, and the Turks, 
struggled at different periods for pcs- 
seasion. Ninus, Semiramis, Sesostris, 
Alexander, Pompey, Antony, Ca?sar, Ti- 
tus, Aurelian, &C. ; at a later period, 
Godfrey of Bouillon, Richard Cceur de 
Lion, Saladin, &c. (see Crusades); and, 
still more recently. Napoleon and Moham- 
med Ali, have in turn acted a part on the 
plains of Syria. Ignorance, superstition 
and barl)arism now cover the land, and 
no traces of its civilization remain but ni- 
ins. (See TSirkey.) 

Syrian Language. {Boc Semitic Lan- 
giutfrts.) 

Syrian or CHALDiEAN Christians i.s 
the name which the Nestorians give to 
tliemselvcs, Ixjcausc they use the ancient 
Syrian in their religious service: Uiey 
also |)08aess the New Testament in this 
lancniage. Th is Christian sect was formed 
in tJie fiflh century, by the union of the 
adherents of Nestonus (sec Heretic^ who 
liad been excommunicated, in 431, by the 
synod of Ephesus, on account of refusing 
to call Mary the mother of God, and to 



116 



SYRIAN CHRISTIANS-SYSTEM, 



give up the doctrine of the existence of 
two niitures in ChrisL Though this doc- 
trine of two natures in Christ was soon 
after received into the creed of the ortho- 
dox church, and monophvsitism (see 
Monoohfsiies) was declared heretical, yet 
the Nestorians, who would only call the 
virgin Mary the mother of Christ, re- 
mained excommunicated, and, towards 
the end of the Mh century, established 
their ecclesiastical constitution under the 
protection of the king of Penria, to whom 
they had fled. The other Christians in 
Persia joined them in 499, and they 
gained many adherents in Eastern Asia, 
where the Christians of St. Thomas (q. v.) 
also joined them. In the eleventh cen- 
tury, they converted the Tartar tribe, 
whose- Christian ruler is known in history 
under the name of Prester John. His peo- 
ple remained attached to Christianity and 
the Nestorian fiiith, after having been re- 
duced, in 1202, by Gengis Khan, under 
the dominion of the Moneols. Until the 
wars of Timour, in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, there existed, also, in Central and 
North-eastern Asia, Nestorian communi- 
ties. The Nestorians are believed to have 
carried Christianity even to China, as has 
been concluded from a Christian docu- 
ment of the year 781, found in China ; 
and the connexion of Lamaism with 
Christianity has also been explained by 
the influence of Nestorian missions. The 

* chie& of the Syrian Christians are he- 
reditary patriarchs. The principal one 
amonff them resided, in the fiflh centur}', 
in Babylon ; at present, he resides at El- 
kesh, near Mosul, in Mesopotamia, and has 
the title CeUholicos. Under him are five 
bishoprics. He, and another Nestorian 
patriarch at Diarbeku*, in Syria, acknowl- 
edge, at present, the supremacy of the 
pope, and are, with their flocks, united 
Nestorians, who, like the united Greeks, 
have retained their old rites. They have 
only been obliged to renounce the mar- 
riage of the priests, and to adopt the 

% seven sacraments. The doctrine and 
worship of the Nestorians agree perfectly 
with those of the orthodox Greek church, 
except that they are hostile to pictures in 
the churches, where they allow no image 
but that of the cross to be seen. The 
Syrian patriarch at Giulamork, in the 
high mountains of Acaria, and the bish- 
ops and dioceses under him, do not be- 
long to the united Nestorians. The Syrian 
language is a Semitic dialect, and impor- 
tant for the study of Hebrew. The study 
of it was first scientificallv pursued by 
Michaelis, the father, then by his son, in 



1748, afterwards by the Swede Agrell, 
and, since that time, particularly by A. 
Theoph. Hoffioaann at Jena (GrammaHca 
Syriacoj Halle, 1827, 4to.). 

Strinx ; a Naiad, daughter of the river 
Ladon, in Arcadia. Flying from the pur- 
suit of Pan, she was arrested in her 
course by the waters of the Lad<Mi, and, 
calling upon her sisters for aid, was 
cban^ by them into a reed. The wind 
siffhing through it produced sweet sounds^ 
which charmed the god, who made him- 
self a pipe from the reed, and called it 
syrinx. The syrinx was composed of 
seven pieces of reed, of unequal length, 
joined together with wax, and was the 
favorite instrument of the Greek and 
Latin shepherds. 

Strtes ; two laree sand banks in the 
Mediterranean, on the coast of Africa, one 
of which was near Leptis, and the other 
near Carthage. The Syrtis Minor, or 
Lesser Syrtis, is in the south-east part of 
Tunis ; and the Syrtis Major (now Sidra) 
in the eastern part of Tripoli. 

Strups are viscous liquids, in the com- 
position of which are commonly put two 
parts of sugar to one of some 1 iquid. Gien - 
erally, water, charged with the remedial 
principles of plants, is used in the prep- 
aration of syrups. The process, varied 
according to the nature of the remedies 
employed, may be conducted with or with- 
out heat These preparations are like- 
wise simple or compound. 

System (Greek, owrfffta^ a putting to- 
gether); an assemblage of facts, or of 
principles and conclusions scientifically 
arranged, or disposed according to cer- 
tain mutual relations, so as to form a 
complete whole. The object of science 
is to collect the fragmentary knowledge 
which we possess, on any subject, into a 
sj'^stem, classifying natural objects into 
orders, genera and species, according tn 
their peculiar properties, or distributing 
them according to thebr powers and re- 
ciprocal relations, and arranging maxinvs 
rules, fiicts and theories into an organic, 
living body. (See Method,) Syatem ii^, 
therefore, sometimes nearly synonymous 
with daasificaUonf and sometimes with 
hypothesis, or theory. Thus we Sfieak 
of^a mythological system, or a ckrorudogi' 
col system, in the historical science:^ 
of a botanical system, or a mineralogicat 
system, in natural science, &c. So in 
astronomy the solar or jplanetarv systetn 
signifies that collection or heavenly tfodies 
whk^h revolve around the sun as a com- 
mon centre, and the Copemican, Ptok- 
mctic or T^chonie system, the hypothesis 



SYSTEM— SZIGETH. 



117 



by which each of those philoBophera re- 
spectively explained their position and 
iiiotioD& The purpose of a system is to 
classify the indiyidual subjects of our 
knowledge in such a way as to enable us 
readily to retain and employ them, and 
at the aame time to illustrate each by 
showing its connexion with all ; and al- 
though it may appear that a mere ar- 
rangement of &cts already possessed, im- 
plies no addition to our former knowl- 
edge, yet it is, nevertheless, true that a 
simple and judicious classification may 
suggest new views and point out new 
relations of things. The constituent parts 
of 8 system are a fundamental principle, 
which serves as a basis for the whole, and 
a large collection of fiicts, from which the 
various laws are to be deduced, which 
themselves all flow together into the com- 
mon principle. 
System, in music (See Tom.) 
System op the Universe; a certain 
anangement of the several parts of the 
universe, fixed stars, planets and comets, 
hf which their appearances and motions 
are explained. We know little of the 
nniverse by actual inspection : its infinity 
escapes the grasp of our limited vision ; 
bat reasoning leads us to conclusions be- 
yoid the reach of sense. (See Astronomy.) 
we first become acquainted vrithourown 
gfebe, and with the other planets revolving 
with it round the sun, by obsen-ation ; and 
fiom this little comer of the universe we 
draw our inferences as to the rest. In 
our own system, we see the sun forming 
a fixed centre, idwut which the earth and 
the other planets, with their moons, regu- 
lariy revolve. Our earth we know to be 
the residence of ors:anized, sensitive and 
thinking beings: observation teaches us 
that the other planets of tiie solar system 
resemble the earth in many respects ; and 
we therefore conclude that they are the 
residences of sensitive and rational being& 
Further observation makes it probable 
that the fixed stars are bodies like our 
sun, since they shine by their own light, 
and never change their relative po6ition& 
From this we are led to conjecture that 
each of them has its train of planets like 
our earth, and that there are as many 
solar systems as fixed stars. Then, as ob- 
servation proves to us, that all the bodies 
ef our system are mutually related to 
each other, we may conjecture that the , 
different solar systems are not entirely 
disconnected with each other. Wherever 
we turn our eyes, we see connexion, or- 
der and stability ; and we suppose these 
laws to emlntM^e the whole universe, 



which thus fonaa a harmoniooaly framed 
whole. New observations confirm our 
reasonings on this point: they teach us 
that the fixed stars, which were formerly 
considered absolutely stationary, have a 
common motion, which becximes percep- 
tible only in long periods ; and we are led 
to the hypothesis that the whole host of 
stars, with all their planetary trains, re- 
volve around some common centre, a 
central sun, which some astronomere sup- 
pose to be Sirius. The system of the uni- 
verse is therefore the. same, on a great 
scale, as the solar system is in miniature. 
This vast thought seems beyond our com- 
prehension ; and the imiumerable motions 
of these millions of worlos in infinite space 
elude our conception. Here are per- 
petual motion and perpetual order, pro- 
duced by the common principle of attrac- 
tion which binds the universe together. 
All things appear to be balanced against 
each other; out the Unsearchable holds 
the scales in his almighty hand. — ^Thers 
are three systems of the world, or expla- 
nations of the solar system, which have 
acquired most celebrity : 1. That of the 
Greek astronon>er Ptolemy (q. v.), who 
conceived the earth to lie immovable in 
the centre of the universe, while the 
heavenly bodies revolved about it in solid 
circles: this is called the Ptolemaic ^tem. 
2. The TSfchwdii gystem^ proposed by 
Tycho de Brahe (see l^cho), was an at- 
tempt to improve the former. It supposed 
the earth stationary in the centre of the 
universe, with the sun and nMX>n revolv- 
ing around it, while the other planets re- 
volved round the sun. 3. The Copemican 
ayaUm is that virhich is now received, and 
is demonstrated mathematically to be cor- 
rect (See CoptmicuBy Solar Sytlemf 
Fixed Stort, Planets, and Jbtnnomy.) 

Stzyot ; the conjunction or opposition of 
any two of the heavenly bodies. (QeeMoon,) 

SzEif T ; Hungarian for Mnffil ; found in 
many geographical names, as SxetU kmos 

S210ETH, var (properly Mx^ynifethy or 
lyonHer-Ssigeik, to distinguish it from 
two places of the same name in Hungary), 
is 01 historir4il importance on account of 
its heroic defence by count Nicholas 
Zrinyi. (q. v.) Sziseth is, at present, a 
market town, on a k>w island, formed by 
the Almas, and' belongs to the county of 
Sch(imeg. It is fortified. It contains 
one Greek and two Roman Catholic 
churches (of which one wnas erected for a 
mosque), one Franciscan monastenr, and 
the castle of count von Festetics. The ir^ 
habitants are partly Magyars, partiy Ger* 



118 



SZlGETil-T. 



maiui and Rasciiins. The place has some 
commerce. As eariy as in 1556, Szigetb 
was twice besieged without success by 
the Turics. In 1566, the noble defence 
of it by Zrinyi took place. When Zrinyi 
at last preferred death to a dishonoraable 



captivity, not cne of its defenders surviT- 
ed. (See Zrtriyt.) The Turks themselves 
admitted a loss of 7000 janizaries and 
20,000 men at the siege of Szigetb. In 
1689, the mai^rave of Baden took it again. 
Lon. 17° 56^ E. ; lat 46° 8^ N. 



T. 



T; the twentieth letter in the Eng- 
lish alphabet, representing the sound pro- 
duced by a quick and strong emission of 
the breath after the end of the tongue has 
been placed against the roof of tlie mouth 
near the roots of the upper teeth. The 
strength with which the breath is emitted 
in pronouncing t is all that distinguishes 
this sound firom that of <L T is, there- 
fore, a lingual ; it is also a mute. As d 
and t are so nearly related, it is natural 
that they should often take each other's 
places, as is the case also with i and «, on 
account of the similarity of their pronun- 
ciation. (See the article S.) One of the 
main differences between Lower and Up- 
per German (see Low German) is that 
the Lower German, almost invariably, 
puts a d where the Upper German has a 
I. On account of the hardness of this 
letter, it is used to separate liquids or 
vowels, as in the German words kenni' 
ntw, 6ffend%chj and the French fera't-Uy 
y-tt-t-iL The English th^ which, tnough a 
compound character, represents but a sin- 
gle sound, has two pronunciations, as in Uda 
and thing : the former is a seund between 
d and <, and the latter between t and • ; so 
that foreigners whose native language 
does not contain these sounds, often say 
diB and ging for this and thing, or nossing 
for nothing. The Greeks had a proper 
character to designate the consonant be- 
tween i and n viz. e or ^, which, howev- 
er, was accompanied by a lisp. The 
Latins, who had no such character, used 
the th instead, particularly in such words 
as were directly derived fh)m the Greek. 
The most ancient northern tribes of Eu- 
rope had also the sound of th ; and their 
runes (q. v.) had a proper character for it, 
which, however, Adelung thinks can be 
m>ved to be derived from the Greek e* 
The lanffuage of the Anglo-Saxons also 
contained a consonant sound between d 



and tj pronounced with a lisp, like the 
Greek o, and designated by a character re- 
sembling our p, tor which their descend- 
ants, when they exchanged the Anglo-Sax- 
on alphabet for the Latin, substituted th. 
The ancient Germans had no alphabet 
which can be called properly their own, 
but adopted the Latin characters after 
their conversion to Christianity. It is not 
known whether there existed a e in their 
ancient dialects, pronounced with a lisp, 
like our th; but it seems, nevertheless, 
that they were sensible of a sound be- 
tween t and df and made various attempts 
to express it. The unknown translator of 
a piece of Isidorus, considered the most 
ancient German writer, uses erdha for 
erde, earth; dhuo for da, there; dhaxmt 
for dann, then ; dher for dtr, the mascu- 
line article ; dhix for dits, this. Yet he 
does not add an A to eveiy d, and writes 
abgrunidiuj mUtungardes, herduuom, &c. 
The th appears more rarely in his worits; 
yet he writes anihlutte for (mtftCz, face. 
The next writer in the order of time, 
Kero, uses neither dh nor (h, and writes 
teU for thdlf part ; hum for {hun, to do ; 
tat for that, deed. Yet Otfried, who 
seems to have reflected more deeply on 
his language, revived the th. However 
this may be, it is certain that the ancient 
pronunciation of the German th is lost ; 
and there exists, at present, in that idiom, 
no middle sound between t and d, though 
the Crermans use the th in writing. T%tH, 
thau and ruthe do not differ at all m sound 
from teil, tau and ruit, T is used as an 
abbreviation on ancient monuments, &C., 
for Titus, TSHus, TSdlius. As a numeral, 
it signified 160, according to the verse : — 

T quoque ee^enos et texaginta temtii. 



T, with a dash over it, thus, «t, 
fied 160,000. Among the Greeks, 



over it, thus, f, agni- 
# d©. 



T— TABLES, TWELVE. 



119 



noted 300, and «; 300,000. The o of the 
Hebrews signified 9 ; and with two points 
phoed horizontally over it, thus, b, it denot- 
ed 9000. Sometimes the acute accent over 
this or any one of the first nine letters 
moltipfied its value a thousand times. T, 
on French coins, denotes the mint of 
Nantes. When the Roman tribunes ap- 
proved of senatorial decrees, they sub- 
scribed a T. In music, T signifies tenor, 
also tacey to mdicate silence ; and in con- 
certs it is likewise the sign of tuttiy a di- 
rection to the whole band to play after a 
selo. It also stands for triUo, a shake. 
The word T is used also to denote things 
of this form, as a T bandage, in surgery, 
ene consisting of two bands which cross 
each other ; or the T palace in Mantua, 
(q. V.)— For the use of^ T in modem ab- 
breviations, see Alhrtviaivms. 

Ta (greoi); a Chinese word, used in 
many geographical names, as Torchan 
i great mountain). 

Taadt. (See Hermes Trismegisha,) 

Tabard (now corrupted into Talbot) ; 
an inn in the borough of South wark ( Lon- 
don ),firom which Chaucer and his compan- 
ioDsset out on their pilgrimage to Canter- 
bury. Over the entrance is this inscription : 
" This is the inn where Geoffrey Chaucer, 
knight, and nine and twenty pilgrims, 
lodged, in their journey to Canterbury, in 
13^." In the yard is a picture repre- 
senting their entrance into Canterbury. 
The original house was, however, burnt 
down in 1676, when the present building 
was erected on its site. 

Tabbt, in commerce ; a kind of rich 
silk whic^ has undergone the operation 
of tabbying, or being passed through a 
calender, the rolls of which are made of 
iron or copper, variously engraven, which, 
bearing unequally on the stuff, renders 
the surface unequal, so as to reflect the 
rays of light differently, making the rep- 
resentation of waves thereon. 

Taberitacle (Latin, tabemacidumj a 
tent) is used in the Hebrew writings for 
the tent, or sanctuary, in which the sacred 
utensils were kept during the wanderings 
of the Israelites in the desert. It was 
always placed in the middle of the camp, 
and borne by Levttes. It was fixed at 
Shiloh. Afler the temple (q. v.) was erect- 
ed, the holy instruments were removed 
thither. The feast of tabernacles was a 
Jewish festival, desired to commemo- 
rate the nomadic period of the national 
history, when the people dwelt in tents. 
The feast continueid eight davs, during 
which booths were erected ana occupied 
by those engaged in celebrating the cere- 



monies. — Tabemade is also used to aigni- 
fv the box in which the host is kept on 
the altar in Roman churohes, and for the 
niche or cabinet in which the sacred rel- 
ics, images, &c., are preserved. The 
Methodists often call thhvr meeting-houses 
tabemades, 

Tablatdre ; a word formerly applied 
to the collection of signs used in a mu- 
sical composition ; so that to understand 
the notes, clefs, and other marks, in such 
a wav as to be able to sing at sight, was to 
be skilled in the tablature. The chief 
signs were letters, ciphers, and, at a later 
period, the lines indicating the octave in 
which a note was to be performed. Let- 
ters were used until the eleventh century, 
when the proper notes were introduced. 
(See Note,) As the latter are an Italian 
invention, they were called the UaLian 
tablature; which name, however, soon 
went out of use ; and the old signs alone 
are now understood by tabUtture. 

Table, in perspective, denotes a plane 
surface, supposed to be transparent, and 
perpendicular to the horizon. It is al- 
ways imagined to be placed at a certain 
distance between the eye and the objects, 
for the objects to be represented thereon, 
by means of the visual rays passing from 
every point thereof through the table to 
the eye ; whence it is called perspective 
plane. — Table, among the jewellers. A 
table-diamond, or other precious stone, is 
that whose upper surface is quite fiat, 
and the sides cut in angles; m which 
sense, a diamond cut tahlewise is used in - 
opposition to a rose-diamond. — Table, in 
mathematics ; systems of numbers, used 
for expediting astronomical, geometrical, 
and other operations ; thus we say tables of 
the stars ; taUes of sines, tangents, and 
secants; tables of logarithms, rhumbs, 
&.C. ; sexagenary tables. 

Table Mountain, in Pendleton dis- 
trict. South Carolina, is about 4000 feet 
above the sea, and 3138 above the valley 
at its base. It presents, on one side, a 
tremendous precipice of solid rock, about 
300 feet nearly perpendicular. Some have 
estimated its height to be even three times 
as great; and we have no measurement of 
it that can be relied on. At the bottom 
of the precipice, a dismal valley is sunk 
far below the surrounding countr}'. The 

Iirecipice, viewed from this valley, appears 
ike a mighty wall raised to the heavens. 
The summit of the mountain is often en- 
veloped in the clouds. 

Table, Round. (See Round Tablej^ 
Tables, Twelve. (See Twelve Ta- 
bles,) 



190 



TABLEAUX VIVANTS— TACITUS. 



Tabibaux Vivakts. (See Picturu^ 
Lhrmg.) 

Iamoo* This word, significant of a 
peculiar custom prevalent among the 
South sea islanders, is used, in general, to 
denote something consecrated, sacred, 
forbidden to be touched, or set aside for 
particular uses or persons. It is applied 
both to penons and things, and both to 
the object prohibited and to the persons 
against whom the prohibition extends. 
Thus a consecrated piece of ground is 
taboo ; the act of consecrating it is called 
taboo, and the persons who are excluded 
from entering are also said to be tabooed. 
A particular article of food is sometimes 
ti^oed ^ a certain season, in order to 
preserve it against a season of scarcilf , 
Slc The object of the institution seems 
to have been the imposition of certain 
restraints upon a rude and lawless people, 
like the establishment of the cities of 
refuse, sanctuaries, &C., in the rude ages 
of European socieQr. 

Tabor, the mount of transfiguration, 
is situated in Galilee, about dSv miles 
from Jerusalem. (See (joltUe, and JVanB- 
Jiguration.) 
Taborites. (See HuisUes.) ' 
Tabular Spar, or Table SPAR(jSbAaa/- 
fiein o£ Werner) ; a massive mineral, 
whose primary form is regarded as a 
doubly-oblique prism. The cleavage in 
the direction or two faces, intersecting 
each other at angles of 95^ 25^, is easily 
obtained, thoui^h in one direction it is 
more easily effected than in the other. 
The remaining cleavages are with diffi- 
culty distinguished; lustre vitreous, in- 
cliomg to pearlv, particularly upon the 
perfect foces of cleavage; color white, 
mclining to gray, yellow, red and brown ; 
streak white; semi-transparent to trans- 
lucent; mther brittle ; hardness about that 
of apatite ; specific gravity 2.8 ; composi- 
tion lamellar, generally longish, and 
strongly coherent It is composed of 

Silex, 51.60 

Lime, 46.41 

Mechanical admixtures, 1.11 

9ai2 
Before the blow-pipe, it melts on the edges 
into a semi-transparent colorless enamel. 
By fuang lime and silex in the requisite 
proportions, cleavable masses of the pres- 
ent species have been obtained. It was 
first found at Cziklowa, near Prawitza, in 
the Bannat of Temeswar, in several cop- 
per mines. In Finland, it occurs in lime- 
stone, at Edinburgh in sreenstone at 
Casde hill, and in Ceylon afong with gar- 



net. In the U. States, at WiUsborou^, 
New York, upon lake Chami^ain, a vein 
of it, mixed with garnet, several foet in 
vndth, appears to cross a nioontain of 
gneiss. It has been found abundantly 
near GrenviUe, in Canada, and at EaBUm, 
in Pennsylvania. A varietur of the pres- 
ent species, from Capo di Bove, near 
Rome, was first called WooUakonUe, 
but is now known to belong to tabular 
spar. 

TACHTGRAPHT,OrTACH£OeRAFHT. (^eo 

Stenognythy.) 

Tacitus, Caius Cornelius, was de- 
scended &om a plebeian branch of the 
celebrated Cornelian family, and was 
probably bom at the close of the reign of 
Claudius, or in the beginning of that of 
Nero. Of his education and early life we 
know little. He seems to have been first 
appointed to public office in the reign of 
Vespasian, when, according to a state- 
ment of the elder Pliny, he was named 
procurator of Belgic GauL On his return 
to Rome, he was treated with distinguish- 
ed favor by Titus, and was created ques- 
tor or edile. He himself alludes to this 
cireumstance, but in very general terms, 
in his works. In the reign of Oomitian, 
he became pretor (A. D. &), and one of 
the quindecemviral college, whose duty 
it W2IS to superintend the Sacrifices. Dis- 
gusted with the tyranny of Donutian, 
Tacitus left Rome on the death of his 
father-in-law Julius Agricola, but again 
returned, after the murder of that mon- 
ster, to live under the mild government 
of Nerva. The latter rewarded his ser- 
vices witli the consulship, A. D. 97. He 
lived in the ^closest intimacy with tlie 
younger Pliny, and had a very extensive 
practice in the profession of law, acquir- 
ing a high reputation as an orator. His 
domestic circumstances were no less fa- 
vorable : his wife, the daughter of Julius 
Agricola, was distmguished among the 
Roman ladies of the nme for her virtues ; 
and it seems probable that tlie emperor 
Tacitus was a descendant of the great 
historian. The time of his death is un- 
certain ; but it probably took place during 
the reign of Adrian. We have four his- 
torical works from his pen. His Annals 
contain an account of the principal eveniA 
from the death of Augustus to that of 
Nero, a period of fifty -(bur years. Books 
6th to 10th inclusive are lost: the first 
five books were discovered only 300 years 
ago, by the treasurer of Leo X, in the 
monastery of Corvey. His History (of 
which only four books, and a part of die 
fifth, are extant) begins with the year 69 



TACITUS— TADPOLE. 



121 



A D., when CMba wore the purple, and 
ends with the accession of Vespasian (71). 
His Germapy {De Situ, MorHnu et Popu- 
Us Germama), and his life of Agricola,are 
his only other historical works. The Di- 
alogue on the Decline of Eloquence is by 
some attributed to him. (See QuintUian,) 
The works of this writer have been pro- 
nounced, by the unanimous voice of his 
oontemponmies and of posterity, the mas- 
terpieces or a great mind. Racine de- 
clares him to w the greatest painter of 
antiquity ; and, accordmg to Gibbon, he 
was the first historian who applied the 
Kience of philosophy to the study of 
facta. Independenthr of the value of his 
matter, which is of'^the highest impor- 
tance, from the facts and profound views 
of Roman histoiy, during the first half 
century of the Christian era, which it 
afibrds, his writings are incomparable, 
considered as worics of art. In the choice 
and disposition of his materials, we recog- 
nise the comprehensive genius of a schol- 
ar,- and the fbrming hand of an artist, 
bringinf out order and unity in the midst 
of contusion, and grouping the compli- 
cated details of life and manners in artful 
and espreanve pictures. In drawing the 
character of men and events, he displays 
a wonderful acuteneas and strength ; 
while, amidst the corruption of a degen- 
erate and vicious age, he maintains the 
elevation of a virtuous mind. His ex- 
treme ^ncisenesB has no appearance of 
afi^ctation, but seems to be dictated by 
the peculiarity of his temper and feelings. 
His style is forcible, but there is nothing 
labored in his expressions, nothing super- 
fluous in his delineation : the colors are 
used sparingly, but the light and shade 
are disposed with masterly skill. Amons 
the best editions of his works are those of 
Gronovius (Amsterdam, 1685, and Utrecht, 
1729), of Brotier (Paris, 1771, 4to., and 
1776, 12mo.), of Emesti (Oberiin's, Leip- 
sic, 1801), and of Panckoucke (Paris, 1827, 
folio). The whole of Tacitus has been 
transbited into English by Murphy and 
by Gronion. 
Tackiho, in navigation. (See Ship.) 
Tackijs; a machine formed by the 
conmmnication of a rope with an assem- 
blage of blocks, and known, in mechan- 
ics, by the name of puUey, Tackles are 
used in a ship to raise, remove, or secure 
weighty bodies, to support the masts, or 
to extend the sails and rigging. They 
are movable, as communicating with a 
runner, or fixed, as beinff hooked in an 
immovaUe situation ; and they are more 
or leas complicated in proportion to the 

VOL. XII. 11 



effects which they are intended to pro- 
duce. The application of the tackle to 
mechanical purposes is called ftotgfmg, or 
bowsing. — Ground tadde implies the an- 
chors, cables, &c. 

Tacksmen. (See Clan.) 

Taconic, or Taohkannuc ; a mountain 
range on the borders of Massachusetts 
and New York. The two most elevated 
peaks are west of Sheffield, the highest 
about 2800 feet above the ocean. 

Tactics proper is the branch of mili- 
tary science which relates to the conduct 
of troops in battle. EUmenUEnf tactics 
teaches the preparation of them for it by 
instruction m military exereises: hence 
every species of troops, as cavahy, artille- 
ry, light and heavy mftntry, &C., luis its 
pecuuar tactics. Since the French, or, 
we may say, since the American, revolu- 
tion, tactics have undergone an essential 
change. In recent times, a difierence has 
been made between strategy and tactics. 
(See the articles MUikary Sciences, and 
Strategy.) The word is derived from 
TaxriKtt, wnich comes from tukt^s (ordered, 
placed, commanded). 

Tactics, Mxval. (See JVao^ation, J^a- 
vy, and Ship.) 

Tadmor. (See Palmyra.) 

TAnpoLE ; the young pit>duced fit>m 
the eggs of the frog, which is extremely 
unlike the animal in its nerfect state, 
sedming to conaast only of^a head and 
tail. The bead is large, black and round- 
ish, the tail slender, and nuurgined with a 
broad, transparent fin. Its motions are 
very lively. Its food consists of small 
water plants and different animalculee. 
The mouth has very minute teeth. About 
Ave or six weeks afler it is hatched, the 
first change takes place. The hind \ep 
first appear, and, gi-adually increasing m 
length and size, are succeeded, in about 
two weeks, by the fore lees, which are 
formed at an eariier period beneath the 
skin. The tail now decreases, so that, in 
a day or two, it is quite obliterated. After 
this change, the animal leaves the ^yater, 
and covers the shores in myriads. The 
sudden appearance of such multitudes of 
young frogs has probably induced the 
popular but groundlessbelief of their hav- 
ing fallen fimm the clouds in showers. It 
has now become a perfect froff. (See 
Ratio.) Tadpoles, just after they are 
hatched, are perfectly transparent; and, 
when placed before the double micro-' 
scope, the pulsation of the heart may be 
eas&y seen, and the blood protruded 
thence may be observed in its passage 
through the whole body. 



1» 



TiENARUS-TALC. 



Tahakub* (See TVnarttf.) 

Taffe&kl; the uppermost part of a 
flbip's stem, being a curved piece of wood, 
ana usuaUv ornamented with some de- 
vice in sculpture. 

Taffia, or Tafia, in the French West 
India islands ; that roirituouB liquor which 
is called by the En^h mm, made offer- 
mepted molasses. Taffia is inferior to 
nun in taste and smell. 

Taoanroc, or Tasaiviioka ; a town in 
the Ruflsian ffovenunent of fikaterinoslav, 
on the sea of Azoph, next to Oii^bsa the 
most flourishing commercial place in the 
south of Russia; lat. 47° 13^ N. ; Ion. 38'' 
3dfE. Itspopulation^in 1883^ was 14,000, 
mostly Greeks, and rapidly increasing. 
Only ships of moderate burthen can come 
up to the town ; and these must discharge 
part. of their cargoes at Feodosia (see 
Cq^) or Kertsch. (q. v.) These three 
towns have each its peculiar government. 
The climate is mild and healthy, and the 
country around is fertile, producing fruit, 
com, grapes, mulberries, &c. Taganroc 
was founded by Peter I, in 1699. Alex- 
ander died here in 1825. 

Tagliacozzi. (See BMnoplasHc,) 

Taoliamekto ; a small river of Austri- 
an Italy, emptying into the Adriatic, over 
which Napoleon forced a passage, March 
16, 1797, in the j&ce or the archduke 
Charles, at the head of the Austrian forces. 

Taoub (Spanish, Tc^o ; Portugese, 
TV^'o), the largest river of Spain, issues 
firom the mountains of Albaracim, a little 
more than 100 miles from the Mediterra- 
nean. Pureuing a south-westerly course, 
it passes by Aranjuez, Toledo, Talavera 
and Alcantara, enters Portugal, and passes 
W Abrantes, Santarem and Lisbon, and, 
about seven miles below Lisbon, flows 
into the Atlantic. Length 450 miles. It 
receives the tide at a considerable distance 
above Lisbon, but is navigable only as far 
as Abrantes. It absortis the waters col- 
lected between two parallel ranges of 
mountains. It flows through a mountam- 
ous country, and its current is much 
broken by rocks and cataracts. 

Tasiti. (See Sociebf Islands.) 

Tai ; Chinese {or fortress, in many ge- 
ographical names. (See Tehai) 

Tail. (For estates in tail, or entailed 
estates, see JStitoiL) 

Takkour. (See NigriHit,) 

Talafoins ; priests of Fo. (q. v.) 

Talave&a ; a town in Spain, lyinff on 
the Tagus, thirty five miles west of Tole- 
do. A severe batde was fought here July 
96 and 99, 1809, between the French, un- 
der Soult, and the Engiisb, under Wel- 



lington, in which the fonner were defeat* 
ed. (See Sbain,) 

Talbot, John, first earl of Shrewsbury, 
a fiumous commander, bom in 1373, was 
the son of sir Richard TalboL In 1414, 
he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land, in which Dost he continued seven 
years, and performed creat services for 
the crown, by keepinx me native Irish in 
subjection. In 1420, he attended Henry 
V to France, served under the regent, the 
duke of Bedfi>rd, and, by his exploits, 
rendered his name terrible to the enemy. 
He commanded the troops sent to the 
province of Maine, and made himself 
master of Alencon. He afterwards joined 
the eari of Salisbury at the siege of Or- 
leans. (See Joan of ,^,) Talbot was 
soon after made prisoner. After a captiv- 
ity of three years, he was exchanged ; on 
which he repaii^sd to Enf^d to raise 
fresh troops, and, recrossing the sea, took 
several strong places in^succesoon, and, 
for his eminent services, was made mar- 
shal of France, and, in 1442, eari of 
Shrewsbury. The foUowing year, he was 
appointed one of the ambasnidors to treat 
of peace with Charies VII ; after which he 
was sent once more to Ireland, and the 
earldom of Wexford and Waterfbrd, in 
that kingdom, was added to his honors. 
The English aflairs in France continuing 
to decline, he was made lieutenant-gener- 
al of Aquitaine, in which capacity he took 
Bordeaux, and received the allegiance of 
several other tovms. Receiving intelli- 
gence that the French were besieginr 
Chatillon, he marched to its relief^ ana 
made an attack upon the enemy ; but he 
was left dead on the field of battle, 1453, 
at the age of eighty ; and, tlie English 
being wholly routed, their expulsion firom 
France soon followed. 

Talc ; a well known and widely dif- 
fused species of mineral. It is rarely 
seen under a distinctly crystalline form. 
Its primary form is believed to be a right 
rhombic prism of 120^ and 60°. It is 
sometimes seen in minute hexagonal plates, 
and in a figure resembling tbe fivsta of 
two cones, applied base to base. Cleav- 
age highly perfect ; fracture not observa- 
ble ; lustre pcarUr upcn the faces of cxys- 
tallization and of cleavage ; color various 
shades of green, as blackish-green, leek- 
green, celandine-green, and apple-green ; 
streak similar to the color; semi-trans- 
parent to translucent It exhibits diflS^r- 
ent colors, sometimes in different direc- 
tions; sectile in a hish degree: thin 
laminsd are easily flex»le. It is one of 
the soflest of all solid minerBk. The 



TALC. 



193 



maaBhre kinds present a ^eat varie^ of 
atructure. Tbe composition varies mm 
imperfect columnar to eranular and im- 
palpable. The individuds are sometimes 
strongly cc^erent with each other, or flat, 
so as to gire rise to an imperfect slaty 
structure. The species talc has been 
subdiyided into a great number of varie- 
ties or sub-species, the most of which 
depend upon colors, composition and for- 
eign admnctures. The varieties of dark- 
green (leek-|pneen and celandine-green) 
colon, inclimng to brown, constitute the 
dUoriUj which has been subdivided into 
common, daiy^ and earUof chlorite. The 
first of these contains the granular or 
Cfystalline varieties ; the second embraces 
those in which the individuds can scarce- 
ly be traced, and which exhibit a slaty 
texture; the earthy chlorite consists of 
such as are but loosely coherent, or al- 
ready in a state of loose, scaly particles. 
Lnmediately with those varieties of chlo- 
rite whose composition is impalpable, the 
green earth is connected. The roecies 
talc comprehends the varieties of pale- 



green, particulariy apple-green, ^y, and 
white varieties, and is divided, m popu- 
lar laneuase, into oomiium, eah%, and m- 
durated talc. Simple varieties are com- 
mon talc ; also such compound ones in 
which cleavage is transformed into slaty 
structure, or such as consist of columnar 
particles of composition : earthy talc, or 
fiaarite, c<Hisi8t8 of loose particles, or such 
as are but slightly cohering; and indu- 
rated talc refers to imperfect and coarse 
slaty varieties, in which this kind of struc- 
ture is more the effect of composition 
than of imperfect cleavage. If this stnic* 
ture be sufficiently imperfect to become 
coarse and indistinctly granular, poUiUme^ 
9oap8Ume, lapis oUarUj or tUatUe^ is form- 
ed, which, possessing the united proper- 
ties of somiess and tenacity, may be 
easily turned, and wrought into vessels. 
Four varieties of the present species, 
foliated talc, analyzed by Vauquelio, 
slaty chlorite, analyzsed by Gruner, 
green earth, analyzed also bv Vau- 
quelin, and steatite by Klaproth, have 
yielded 



Silex, 



63.00 29.50 52.00 59.50 



Magnesia, 27.00 21.39 6.00 30.50 

Oxide of iron, 3.50 QQ39 23.00 2.50 

Alumine, 1.50 15.62 7.00 0.00 

Water, ' 6.00 7.38 4.00 5.50 

Potash, 0.00 0.00 7.50 0.00 

Lhne, 0.00 1.50 0.00 0.00 



lliese analyses, as well as those of 
several other varieties of the species, show 
that our information respecting its chemi- 
cal constitution is sdtl very defective. Be- 
fore the blow-pipe, some of them lose then* 
color, and are fused with difficulty ; others 
are changed into a black scoria ; still oth- 
ers are infusible. Common talc, indu- 
rated talc, steatite, potstone, and slaty 
chlorite, constitute beds of themselves in 
primitive mountains. The latter often 
contains imbedded cirstals of magnetic 
iron. Common chlonte is found in beds 
in rocks consisting chiefly of ores of iron 
and calcareous spar with augite. Other 
varieties, and, among them, the small 
scaly crystals of chlorite and earthy chlo- 
rite, occur in veuis of various descrip- 
' tions, and in the cr^nstal caves of the Alps. 
Green eordi occuis in amygdaloidal rocks, 
I Iming vesicnlu' cavities. Tyrol, Salz- 
■ burg, Switzeriand, Sweden, Norway, 
I Sccmnd and New England abound in 
those varieties which by themselves form 
mountain masses. The soapstone of 
Comwafl k impalpable in its comporition, 



nearly white, or sometimes mottled with 
green and purple : when flrst raised, it is 
so soft as to allow of beins kneaded like 
dough ; but, by exposure, loses a part of 
its moisture, and is then translucent on 
the edges, yields to the nail, and possesses 
an unctuous feel. A similar variety is 
met with in Wales. It is included in 
serpentine, and sometimes embracesiTeins 
of amianthus. The white varieties of 
steatite, or those that become so by cal- 
cination, are employed in the manufacto- 
ry of the finest poreelain ; other varieties 
are said to be used in foiling. The Arabs, 
according to Shaw, use steatite in their 
baths instead of soap; and it isconfident- 
Iv asserted that the inhabitants of New 
Caledonia either eat it alone, or mingle 
it with their food. Humboldt says, that 
the Itomaques, a savage race, inhabiting 
the baidcs of the Orinoco, are almost en- 
tirely supported, during three months of 
the year, by eating this variety of talc, 
which they first slightly bake, and then 
moisten with water. The varieties 
known under the name of potstone have 



194 



TALC—TALES. 



been in use for the construction of a ya- 
riety of utensils from time immemorial. 
It is particularly valuable as a fire-stone in 
furnaces, and is worked into plates in the 
fabrication of stoves. Numerous iodalities 
of it exist in the north- virestern part of Mas- 
sachusetts, and, in Vermont, green earth 
is used, both raw, as a green color, and 
burnt, as a reddish-brown color, for paint- 
ing houses, &c. Its most important de- 
posits are the Monte Baldo, near Verona, 
Iceland, and the Tyrol. The Venetian 
talc, a variety of common talc, of a green- 
ish-white color, fbnnerly used as a medi- 
cine, seems to be no longer in use, except 
for llie purpose of removing oil-spots from 
woollen clothes. The localities of com- 
mon talc are too numerous to be men- 
tioned ; a few, however, which are some- 
what remarkable, may be indicated. At 
Cumberland, in Rhode Island, it occurs 
of a delicate sreen color, in large colum- 
nar pieces, which are contained in a rock 
of steatite. At Smithfield, in the same 
region, a beautiful white scaly talc is 
found, in irregularly shaped masses, dis- 
seminated through white limestone. A 
delicate apple-green variety of columnar 
talc comes from Bridgewater, in Ver- 
mont, where it occurs in veins in a stea- 
titic rock. 

Taxe ; a nominal or imaginary money 
in China, estimated by Americans as bear- 
inrthe proportion of 133 dollars to 100 tales. 

Talpnt. (See Drachm.) 

Tales. This term, though used some- 
what indefinitely, may, perhaps, be cor- 
recd^ defined as signifying those simple 
fictitious narratives, in prose or in verse, 
which hardly extend beyond a single ad- 
venture, or ffroup of incidents, without 
the variety of plot and character which 
characterizes the novel and the romance. 
Thus it answers to the French conte^ the 
German m&rchtn^ and the Italian nowUe. 
(See Mfvd, and Romance,] " A work of 
great interest," savs air W. Scott (preface 
to Lady of the Lake), ** might be com- 
piled upon the ori^n of popular fiction, 
^d the transmission or similar tales 
from age to age, and fit>m country to 
country. The mythology of one period 
would then appear to pass into the ro- 
mance of the next century, and that into 
the nursery tale of the subsequent ages. 
Such an investigation, while it went 
g^-eatly to diminish our ideas of the rich- 
ness of human invention, would also 
show, that these fictions, however wild 
and childish, possess such charms for the 
populace as enable them to penetrate 
into countries unconnected by manners 



and language, and having no apparent io- 
teroourse to afford the means of trans- 
mission." While, in some countries, the 
people have found amusement in fictions 
founded on their remote histoiy, or m 
listening to mythological narratives^ the 
natives of the East luive long been cele- 
brated for their tales or stories, founded 
on fiimiliar incidents and comic scenes, 
or on wild legends of good and bad spir- 
its. The Hitopadessa (see PUpm) of India, 
and the Thousand and one Dajfs, Thou- 
sand and one Nights, the Toohnamth, or 
Tales of a Parrot, &C., of Arabia and Per- 
sia, are specimens of the wealth of the 
Eastern story-tellers in these narratives. 
(See Fabian J^hts.) From their East- 
em neighbors, the Asiatic Greeks borrow- 
ed something of their love for this amuse- 
ment, as appears from what we know re- 
specting the Milesian Tales, which, how- 
ever, have all perished. The QeHa Romano- 
nim,compoeed towards the close of the thir- 
teenth century, and consisting of classical 
stories, Arabian apologues, and monkish 
legends, was the great source from which 
the Italian noveUe, die French conUs and 
fabliaux^ and the English tales, were de- 
rived. The earliest collection of Italian 
novelU was the Cento AooeSe AnHcht^ 
made not long afler the date of the €rtsta 
Romanorumj and composed of anecdotes 
and stories from the romances of chivalry, 
the fabliaux of the French trouveurs^ and 
chronicles, together with incidents and 
jests, gathered from tradition, or of con- 
temporaneous origin. Then came Boc- 
caccio (q. v.), who gave a more dramatic 
form, and more grace of style to his De- 
eamerrm. He was followed by Sacchetti, 
Ser Giovanni, Bandello, Massuccio, &c. 
They were imitated in France in the 
Cent nouvelles Mnivdtes, tales full of 
imagination and gayety, supposed to be 
related at the Burgundian court The 
Cent JVbwdles of Margaret of Valois 
(q. V.) were of a similar character. The 
tales of the trouveurs (q. v.), which were 
recited at fostal meetings among the 
Northern French, are of still earlier ori- 
gin than the Italian nopeUe. Le Grand 
has published a collection of them under 
the title of Fabliaux ou Contes du XII et 
Xni SUde (Paris, 1779, 5 vols.), fiom 
which a selection has been translated into 
Eiiglish by Way (Tales of the XII and 
Xlll Centuries, second edition, vrith notes, 
by Ellisl A more recent collection of 
these fakiaux was published at Paris, in 
ISSQy m 2 vols. I MuveauRecueU de Fa- 
Uimtx et ConUs, du XIIl et XIV Sihde,hy 
Meon). In England, the first important 



TALES— TALLAHASSEE. 



125 



mA which maiks the complete transi- 
tkm firotn Anglo-Norman to Engliah lite- 
rature, 18 that of Chaucer (q. v.), whose 
Caotefiiury Tales were borrowed from the 
samesourceeaa the nanrativefl of the Italian 
novelliBtBand the FrenchyWiers,or imme- 
diately from these latter productions them- 
selyesL (On the sources of Chaucer^aeeRit- 
son's eoiticni of Warton's History ofEng- 
luh Poeiry.) — Of a different character from 
the farefomgf are the faiiy tales and popu- 
lar stones of the nursery. Of the for- 
mer, we haye given an account in the ar- 
ticle Fmries. Our common nursery tales 
are found to exist in the popular traditioDS 
of all the Teutonic nations, and seem to 
be of much hi|^er antiquity than •ro- 
mances and poems of much greater pre- 
teoaoDS. <'Jack the Giant-Killer and 
Tom Thumb," observes an English wri- 
ter, ** landed in England with Hengist 
and Horsa;" and the brothers Grimm ^.v.), 
who have recently thrown much light on 
nuiseiy literature in tlieir Kiiukr-und 
Haua-Marchen (second edition, 3 vols., 
IS^), do not hesitate to refer the origin 
of these stories to the Scandinavian sagas. 
See, on this subject, the article ^Hqui- 
Ues of Margery lAUraturt^ in the Quar- 
teriy Review, volume twenty-first 

Tai^esjhxn. (See Jury,) 

Taliacotiub, or Taoliacozzi. (See 
BhmojpUulic.) 

Tai^iesih ; the most celebrated of the 
ancient British poets, and therefore term- 
ed Pen Beirddj or the chief of the barda 
He flourished between 520 and 570 ; and 
many of his compositions are extant, and 
have been printea in the WelsJi ArchsB- 
ology. He was ranked with the two 
Merans, under the appellation of the 
three principal Christian bards. Tra- 
dition represents him as an orphan ex- 
posed by the side of a river, where he 
was found 1^ Elfin, the son of Gwyddno, 
by whom he was educated and patron- 
ised. He studied in the school of the 
fiunouB Cadog at Llanveithin, in Glamor- 
sanshire, and, in the mature part of his 
fife, was the bard of Urien Rheged, a 
Welsh prince, as appears b;^ many of his 
( addressed to that chiefiain. (See 



Talishaic (Arabic, Jigure) is a figure 
cast or cut in metal or stone, and made, 
with certain superstitious ceremonies, at 
some particular moment of time, as when 
a certain star is at its culminating point, 
or when certain planets are in coi\|unc- 
tion. The talisman thus prepared is sup- 
posed to exercise extraoroinajry influences 
over the bearer, particularly in averting 

nil* 



disease. In a more extensiTe seme, the 
word is used to denote an^ object of na- 
ture or art, the presence of which checks 
the power of spirits or demons, and de- 
fends the wearer fit>m their malice. The 
amulet (q. v.) is much the same as the 
talisman, though, according to some, it is 
more limited in its virtues. As they were 
both used most firequently, and perhaps, 
originally, to avert disease, we find them 
playing a conspicuous part in the histoiy 
of medicine, among all nation^ fixMn the 
earliest to the most recent periods. The 
nature of the talisman has bean very differ- 
ent among different nations. The Egyp- 
tians made use of images of their gods and 
of sacred animals, such as the ibis and the 
scarabaeus ; the Greeks used little tablets, 
inscribed with the Epheeian words, &c. ; 
the Romans employed various idols, which 
they suspended upon the body by chains ; 
the Arabians and Tuiks make use of sen- 
tences from the Koran ; and we also find, 
in the East, medals of particular metals, 
struck under a particular constellation, 
and marked with magical signs; in the 
middle ages, relics, consecrate candles, 
and rods, rosaries, images of saints, &c., 
were enaployed, and still are, in some 
parts of Uhnstendom ; among some sav- 
age nations, the fetich (q. v.), and, among 
the American Indians (see Indxane), the 
medicine^ are of a similar character. In 
the middle ages, astroloejr, and the knowl- 
edge of the virtues of tidismans and amu- 
lets, formed an important put of medi- 
cal science ; and tne quads of modem 
times sometimes have recourse to similar 
means. (See Magic.) 

Tai<i«aba88ee, the seat of government 
of Florida Territory, is situated in Mid- 
dle Florida, about twenty-five miles north 
of Apalachee bay (lat. 30° 28^ N.; Ion. 
84'' d& WA and is 870 miles from Wash- 
ington. Tne position of this town was 
fixed upon as tne seat of government in 
1824. It was divided into lots in 1^25, 
and immediately incoiporated as a city. 
In two years afler the erection of the 
first building, its population was 800. In 
1890, it contained about 1200 ; and the 
county of Lean, in which it is situated, 
contained 6493. The situation of Talla- 
hassee is remariuibly pleasant, and is 
supposed to be healthy. The ground is 
considerably elevated, and the country 
around is high and rolling. St. Marks, 
situated near the head of the bay, is the 
nearest seaport. An elevated chain of 
rolling hills bounds the shores of the Mexi- 
can gulf; and Tallahassee is three miles 
north of this ridge. The countiy around 



126 



TALLAHASSEE—TALLEYRAND. 



it 18 generally fertile, and is suited to the 
culdvatiou of sugar. At present, it is 
mostly covered with oak, hickoxy, pine, 
wild cherry, gum, ash, dogwood, mahoga- 
ny, and magnolia. The mahogany is 
nearly equal to that from Honduras. 
Fish abound in the neighboring lakes, and 
game is abundant in the forests. 

Talijlrt, Camille d'Hostun, duke de, 
marshal of France, descended of an an- 
cient family of Dauphiny, was bom in 
1652, entered young into the army, and, 
after serving under the great Cond^ in 
Holland, and under Turenne in Alsace, 
was engaged in the brilliant campaigns 
of 1674 and 1675. He distinguished 
himself subsequendy on various occa- 
sions, and, in 1693, was made a lieuten- 
ant-general. In 1697, he was sent am- 
bassador to England, to negotiate con- 
cerning the succession to the crown of 
Spain on the death of diaries II. In 
1702, Tallart was unpointed to the com- 
mand of the French troops on the Rhine, 
and, soon after, was honored with a mar- 
shal's stafid He subsequently defeated 
the imperialists before Landau, and, hav- 
ing taken tliat place aAer a short siege, 
announced his success to Louis XIV in 
the following terms : *' I have taken more 
standards than your majesty has lost sol- 
diers."- In 1704, he was opposed to Marl- 
borough ; and, bein^ taken prisoner at 
the batde of Blenheim, was carried to 
England, where he remained seven years. 
On his return to France, in 1712, he was 
created a duke; and, in 1726, was ap- 
pointed secretaiy of state. His death 
took place in 1728. 

Talletrand, Charles Maurice de P6- 
rigord, prince de, a distinguished French 
statesman, and one of the founders of 
French liberty, is descended from an an- 
cient family, to which, in the middle ages, 
belonged the sovereign counts of Peri- 
eord. The celebrated princess des 
Ursins, who played so conspicuous a part 
at the court of rhilip V of Spain, during 
the war of the Spanish succession, was 
his maternal grandmother. Previously 
to the &11 of Napoleon, he was known as 
the prince of Beneventum, but since that 
event, has been styled prince Talleyrand. 
He was bom at Paris, in 1754, and, being 
designed for the church, was placed at 
the seminary of Saint Sulpice. The 
young abb^ de P^rigord was distinguish- 
ed for bis wit, his insinuating maimers, 
his. talent for business, and his insight 
into character, and, in 1780, was appoint- 
ed a^t-general of the clergy. At the 
brealong out of Ike revolution^ he was 



bishop of Auton, and bad already dis- 
played so much acutenees and dexterity 
m seizing the hidden clew of affiurs, that 
Mirabeau, in his secret correspondence 
with Berlin, pronoimced him one of the 
most ingenious and powerful minds of 
the age. This judgment has proved pro- 
phetical Elected deputy of the cler^ 
of his diocese to the states-general, m 
1789, he early foresaw, or rather contrib- 
uted to guide and hasten, the change of 
public opinion, and, on the 19th of June, 
voted in favor of the union of the clersy 
with the deputies of the third estate. He 
was soon aifler named one of the com- 
mittee on the constitution, and proposed 
the abolition of tithes. In the second 
committee on the constitution, he like- 
wise brought fbrward a plan for apply- 
ing the church domains to the public use. 
In the beginning of 1790, the bishop of 
Autun was chosen premdent of the as- 
sembly ; and tlie proposition for establish- 
ing a uniform system of weights and 
measures emanated from him. At the 
celebration of the anniversaiy of the 14th 
of July, he officiated at the altar of the 
country ; and he was one of the first to 
take the constitutional oath imposed on 
the clergy. With the bishops of Lydda 
and Babylon, the bishop of Autun conse- 
crated the fiist constitutional bishops, and 
was excommunicated by the pope, Pius 
VI. Talleyrand immediately resigned 
his bishopric, and was chosen member of 
the directory of the department of Paris. 
In 1792, he was sent on a secret mission 
to England ; and, while the Jacobins at 
home were denouncing him as the agent 
of the court, the emisrants in England 
accused bim of being the emissary of the 
Jacobins ; and the English minister order- 
ed him to quit the country within twenty- 
four hours. M. de Talleyrand therefore 
retired to the U. States, where he occu- 
pied himself in commercial business. In 
1795, the convention repealed the decree 
against him, and, in 1797, we find him 
among the founders of the constitutional 
society established at the H6tel de Salni, 
where he read a memoir on the advan- 
tages of colonizing the coasts of Barbaiy, 
and another on the commerce of the u. 
States. His influence soon began to ^- 
pear in public affairs ; and, in July of that 
year, he was appointed minister of foreign 
affairs to the director^'. It was at this 
time that the commissioners of the V. 
States (Gerry, MarshaU and Pinckney) to 
France were treated with so much in- 
dignity, and made the subject of a sioeu- 
lar intrigue, in wh^ch the name of Tal- 



TALLEYRAND, 



127 



jeyund was compromised.* The influ- 
ence of Mad. de Stael, which had been 
employed in restoring him to France, had 
abo been the principal instrument in pro- 
curing his nomination to the ministry; 
but the new minister, assailed on ail sides 
by denunciations, threats and complaints, 
resigned his portfolio in July, 1799, after 
having pubbshed a defence of his conduct, 
entitle J^kiaireissements domUs par le 
CStoyen 7\dieynmd h ses ConeUoyeTis. 
Lucien Bonaparte was one of his most 
bitter assailants at this time ; and a mutual 
hatred has ever since prevailed between 
them. The return of general Bonaparte 
from Egypt again restored the ex-minis- 
ter to activity. He was one of the chief 
agents in the revolution of the 18th of 
Brumaire (q. v.), and was, immediately 
after, recalled to the ministry of foreign 
afikirs. Here begins the most important 
period of his distinffuished political ca- 
reer, a second period of which is fonned 
by the events of 1814 — 15, and a third 
dates from the last French revolution, in 
1890. The negotiations of Luneville (q. v.) 
and Amiens (q. v.) were conducted under 
his direction. From this period dates his 
great fortune, which has, however, suf- 
fered repeated shocks. Availing himself 
ef his official information on secrets of 
state, be speculated largely in the funds. 
Having procured a brief m)m the pope, re- 
leaang him from his clerical vovtrs, he im- 
mediately married Mrs. Grant, lus mis- 
tress. The refusal of the first consul to 
admit her to court had nearly produced a 
rupture between Bonaparte and Talley- 
rand, which was avoided only by the for- 
mer yielding to the wishes of the latter 
on that pointf When Napoleon assumed 
the imperial title, M. de Talleyrand was 
appointed grand chamberlain of the em- 
pire, and, June 5, 1805, was raised to the 
dignity of sovereign prince of Beneven- 
tuni. His credit Mdth the emperor began, 
however, to sufler ; and, in 1807, he was 
removed from the ministry of foreign af- 
fairs, but, at the same time, was promoted 
to the poet of vice-grand-elector, which 

* See, on the subject of this siiiffular ^air, 
Ljman's Diplotnacy of tlie United States, vol. i, 
ch. 8 (Sd edition, Boston, 1828). 

t The following story is told of this lady : — ^M. 
de Talleyrand, having one day invited M. De- 
non, the celebrated traveller, to dine wilh him, 
told his wife to read the work of their guest, in- 
dicating its place in bis library. Meraame de 
Talleyraxid onJuckily got hold, by mistake, of tlie 
Adventures of Robmson Crusoe^ which she ran 
over in rreat haste, and, at dinner, be^^ to 
Question Denon about his shipwreck, his island, 
itc., and finally about his man Friday. 



give him a seat in the public councils, 
is opposition to the invasion of Spain 
completed his disgrace, and a war of epi- 
grams and railleiy was carried on in tne 
saloons between the conqueror of £iut>pe 
and his disgraced minister. The latter 
was threatened with arrest ; and, in 1814, 
when Napoleon left Paris to defend the 
French soil, he made an attempt to con- 
ciliate the prince, by pretending a confi- 
dence in him which he did not feel, and 
appointed him one of the councU of re- 
gency. The republican and imperial ex- 
minister was placed at the h^ of the 
provisional government, April Ist, 1814, 
and governed France until the arrival of 
the comte d'Artois. (See Ihmee.) The 
influence of the prince of Beneventum 
with the foreign powers is known to have 
been very peaX ; but the secret history of 
his connexion with the Bourbons remains 
yet to be explained. The emperor Al- 
exander lodged at his hdtd ; and, on the 
12th of May, TaUeynind was once more 
named minister of foreign affairs, and in 
June was raised to the peerase under the 
title of prince de Talleyrand. Towards 
the close of the year, he was sent as 
plenipotentiary of France to the congress 
of Vienna. Napoleon made some un- 
successful attempts to attach him to his 
cause in the hundred days. The prince, 
too sagacious to trust to promises dictated 
by necessitv, or iaithfbl to the new cause 
which be nad espoused, was one of the 
most zealous promotere of the declara- 
tions of March 13 and 25 against the em- 
peror, and, joining Louis XVlII at Ghent, 
ne returned to Paris with the king. Louia 
again conferred on him the porablio of 
fbreign affiuis, with the title of president 
of the council (prime minister) ; but Tal- 
leyrand refused to sign the treaty so hu- 
miliating to France, and resigned his post 
in three months from his appointment. 
Pursued by the hatred of the hnigrisy 
stigmatized as a traitor by the liberal par- 
ty, and accused of being the cause of^the 
death of the prince d'Enghien (q. yX he 
now lost all influence in public affaire, 
though he still retained the post of grand 
chamberlain to the king. In 1818, he 
once more appeared upon the scene of 
polidcs, but in the new character of leader 
of the opposition in the chamber of peers. 
Here he distinguished himself in defence 
of the constitution against the gradual en- 
croachments of the royal power. In 
1827, he was assaulted by the marquis de 
Maubreuil, who struck him a blow on 
the face, which knocked him down. The 
reason assigned by Maubreuil for this 



198 



TALLEYRAND—TALLIEN. 



attack was that he bad been employed by 
the prince to asaasBiiiate Napoleon, and 
had not been rewaided ibr his labor in 
making the attempt. (See McMbreuil,) In 
1828, Us fortune suf^red considerably by 
the failure of a p^^t Paris house. After 
the revolution of 1830, the prince de Tal- 
leyrand was sent ambassador to London, 
where he has been the representative of 
France in the conferences between the 
five powers, for settling the aftaiis of Eu- 
rope. (See the sequel of the article 
France^ in the Appendix to this work.) 
Since the death of Casimir Perier, in 
1832, he has returned (June) to France, 
and, it has been rumored, would be called 
to take the presidency of the council. As 
a statesman and minister, prince Tallcnr- 
rand can be neither compared with Sulfy, 
nor Richelieu, nor Mazarin, nor Colbert ; 
he seems to be peculiar in his power and 
his address. While Napoleon possessed 
the genius of victory, Talleyrand possesses 
the genius of politics ; and both together 
were able to bridle and annihilate the 
revolution. , Engaging without danger in 
all the catastrophes which have occurred, 
hovering unseen over the agitations which 
he has himself assisted to produce, varia- 
ble as fortune herself he seems to be the 
master of ceremonies to the revolutions 
which have followed each other in France 
with such rapidity during the last forty 
years. His character and real agency are 
perhap not yet well understood, and 
must be drawn by his own hand.* 

Taxlien, John Lambert, a French re- 
publican statesman, bom at Paris in 1769, 
wos the son of the porter to the marquis 
de Bercy, to whom he was indebted for 
his education. He commenced his po- 
litical career as secretary to the deputy 
Broustaret, and then published a daily 
journal, called ^mi du Citoyenj which 
was affixed to the walls of the metropolis. 

* In answer to some remarks which fell from 
lord Londonderry concenin? prince Tailey- 
rand, in the British house of k>rds (Oct., 1831), 
lord Wellington observed, that none of the great 
measures which had been resolved upon at Vi- 
enna and Paris, had been concerted or carried on 
without the intervention of that illustrious person. 
" In all the transactions in which I have been en- 
gaged with prince Tallejrand, no man could 
nave conducted himself with more firmness and 
ability in regard to his own country, or with 
more uprightness and honor in all his communi- 
cations with the ministers of other countries, than 
prince Talleyrand. No man's public and private 
character has ever been so much belied as those of 
that illustrious individual.'' Lord Holland added, 
that no man's private character had been more 
shamefiilly traduced,andno man's public character 
more mistaken and misrepresented, than the pri- 
▼ate and public character of prince Talleyrand. 



The Jacobins furnished the ezpenaes of 
printing this paper, the object of which 
was to excite the ind^fnation of the pop- 
ulace against Louis XVI and his minis- 
ters. Tallien soon became one of the 
most popular men of the revolutionary 
par^, and was deeply concerned in the 
terrible commotions <^ the 10th of Au- 
gust, at which time he was secretary of 
tbe commune which had installed itself at 
the Hotel de Ville, and which continued 
its sittings in spite of tlie assemUy, be- 
coming the centre and origin of the in- 
trigues and massacres o£ Uiat disastrous 
period. Being nominated a deputy to the 
convention, from the department of Seine 
and Oise, he often mounted the tribune, 
and was the constant advocate of violent 
measures. In the session of December 
15, 1793, he strongly urged the immediate 
trial of Louis X vl, objected to allowing 
him counsel, and added new charges to 
the accusation a^nst him. He after- 
wards voted for his death, and against an 
appeal to the people ; and on the day of 
execution, Januaiy 21, 1793, he was pres- 
ident of the convention. He took part 
in most of the sanguinary proceedings 
which occurred during the ascendency of 
Robespierre ; and, after defending Marat, 
assisting in the destruction of the Girond- 
ists, and becoming the advocate of the in- 
famous Roesignol, he was sent on a mis- 
sion to Bordeaux, where he showed him- 
self tlie worthy associate of Carrier, Lebou 
and Collot d'Herfoois.* He was checked 
in this sanguinary career by the influence 
of madame de Fontenay, a woman re- 
markable for her personal beauty, who, 
having been imprisoned at Bordeaux, as 
she was goinff to join her fiunily in Spun, 
owed her lite to the compassion of Tal- 
lien. (See Chinuy,) He took her with 
him to Paris, whither he went to defend 
himself before the convention against the 
charge of moderantism. Afler the fidl 
of Danton and his party, Tallien per- 
ceived that he should become one of the 
next victims of Robespierre, if he did not 
strike the first blow. Accordingly, at the 
sitting of the convention of the ninth of 
Thermidor, 1794, he ascended the tribune, 
and, after an animated picture of the 
atrocities which had taken place, and 
which he ascribed to Robe^ierre, he 
turned to the bust of Brutus, and, invok- 
ing the genius of that patriot, drew a dag- 
ger from his girdle, and swore that he 
would plunge it into the heart of Robes- 

Eierre, if the representatives of the people 
ad not courage to order his inuneduite 
arrest. On the morrow, TaUien had the 



TALUEN—TALMA. 



1U9 



to anoounce to his colleagues 
tbat their enemies had perished on the 
scafibld. (See JRobe^fnem.) Beinff elected 
a member of the committee of public 
safety, the Jacobins replaced his name on 
their lisL At this penod he married his 
proUg^j madame de Fontenay. He took 
a part in all the proceedings of the assem- 
bly, and used his power and influence to 
promote the interests of justice and hu- 
raani^. This was the most honorable 
period of his life ; but the recrimination 
and opposition which be experienced 
preyenlecl him from enjoying tranquillity. 
In July, 1795, he was sent, with extensive 
powefB, to the army on the coasts of Brit- 
tany ; but after the victory of the repub- 
lioms at Quiberon, he returned to Paris. 
He subsequently became a member of the 
council of^ five hundred, under the con- 
stitution of the year III; but his influ- 
ence giadually declined, and he was at 
length reduced to such a state of political 
insignificance, that he tliought proper to 
retire to private life. Domestic uneasiness 
induced him to wish to leave France ; and 
he followed Bonaparte to Egypt, as one of 
the savans attached to the expedition. He 
became a member of the Egyptian insti- 
tnte, and editor of the D4ea& Egyptiermey 
printed at Cairo ; besides being adminis- 
tntior of the national domains. After 
Bonaparte left Egypt, general Menou 
treated Tallien harehty, and obli^^ liim 
to return to France. The vessel m which 
he sailed was captured by the English, 
and he was taken to London, where he 
recaved much attention from the leaders 
of the whig party. The duchess of Dev- 
onshire having sent Tallien her portrait, 
enriched with diamonds, he kept the por- 
trait, but returned the diamonds. On re- 
visiting his native country, he discovered 
thai he had lost his wife, as well as the 
fevor of Bonaparte, who was then rising 
to sovereign power. He appears to have 
been reduced to distress, but at length ob- 
tained, throuffh Fouch^ and Talleyrand, 
the office of French consul at Alicant 
He died at Paris in 1890. Madame Tal- 
lien, havinff been divorced fix>m her hus- 
band (by wnom she had a daughter named 
Theimidor), was married, in 1805, to Jo- 
seph de Caraman, prince de Chi may. 

TAitLOw ; animal fet melted and sep- 
arated from the fibrous matter mixed with 
it (See Fat) Its quality defiends partly 
on the animal fix)m which it has been 
prepared, and partly on the care taken in 
its purification. It is firm, brittle, and has 
a peculiar heavy odor. When pure, it is 
'mihe and neany insipid ; but the ttdlow 



of commerce has usually a yellowish 
tinge, and is divided, accoiding to the de- 
gree of its purity and consistence, into 
candle and soap taUow. It is manufac- 
tured into candles and soap, and is exten- 
sively used in the dressing of leather, and 
in various processes of Uie arts. There 
were exported from Russia, in 1831, 
4,091,544 poods (63 to a ton) of tallow. 
Large quantities are also exported from 
South America. 

Taixow-Tkee (<(ttt«yigui gdnfera). 
This interesting tree is a native of China. 
It belongs to me natural femily euphor- 
biacut. The Immches are long and flexi- 
ble ; the feliage so much resembles that 
of the Lombardy poplar, that it might 
readily be mistaken, were the leaves ser- 
rated. The flowers are inconspicuous, 
and disposed in straight, tenninaJ spikes. 
The capsules are bard, smooth and brown, 
divided internally into three cells, each 
containing a nearly hemispherical seed, 
which is covered with a sebaceous and 
very white substance. At the close of the 
season, the leaves turn bright red, and as 
the capsules fell ofl^ leaving the pure 
white seeds suspended to filaments, the 
tree presents a very beautiful appearance. 
From a remote period, this tree has fur- 
nished the Chinese with the material out 
of which they make their candles. The 
capsules and seeds are crushed top;ether, 
and boiled ; the fetty matter is skimmed 
as it rises, and condenses on cooling. 
The candles made of this substance are 
very white ; and red ones are also manu- 
factured by the addition of vermilion. 
Sometimes, three pounds of linseed oil 
and a little wax are mixed with ten of this 
substance, to sive consistence. The tal- 
low-tree is cultivated in the Wcinity of 
Charleston and Savannah, and, indeed, is 
almost naturalized in the maritime parts 
of Carolina. 

Talua, Francois Joseph, the greatest 
tragic actor of f/ance in our day, was 
bom at Paris In 1763, but passed his 
youth in England, where his father prac- 
tised as a dentist. He was sent to Paris 
to complete his studies ; and his taste for 
the theatre was awakened by the dra- 
matic masterpieces and the penormances 
of distmguisbed actors which he here wit- 
nessed. The susceptibility of his tempera- 
ment showed itsetf early. While at school, 
he and some of his companions performed 
a tragedy, in which he nad to describe the 
last moments of a friend condemned to 
death by his father: the situation aflected 
him so powerfully that he burst into a 
flood of tears, which continued to flow 



lao 



TALMA— TALMUD. 



for some hours after the coDchiBion of the 
jHece. After his return to Lcmdon, Talraa 
associated himself with aome other young 
men, for the purpose of representinff 
French plays, and displayed such bril- 
liant powers as to attract the notice of 
distinguished individuals, who ursed him 
to appear on the London boarcb. But 
circumstances led him to Paris, where he 
entered the royal school for declamation, 
and soon after (1787) made his <Uhut at 
the Thiatre Dranfois in the character of 
Seide in Voltaire's MahomeL He was 
received with applause, and fix>m this 
moment devotedf nimself with zeal and 
perseverance to the stud;^ of his art. He 
sought the society of distinffuished literati 
and artists, studied history for the purpose 
of becoming acquainted with the man- 
ners and customs of nations, and the char- 
acters of remarkable individuals, and made 
himself master of the attitudes, costumes, 
expression and drapery of the ancient 
statues. Talma rqpdered an important 
service to the French stage by introduc- 
ing a refbim in the costume, (q. v.) The 
revolution, which now broke out under 
his eyes, with all its scenes of violence 
and passion, its displays of exalted virtue, 
and its excesses or cruelty, contributed to 
develope his peculiar talent. Chenier's 
tragedy of Charles IX, or St Bartholo- 
mew's, was brought forward at this time, 
and Talma studied the character of 
Charles in history, and his person in med- 
als and portmits, and exhibited them with 
such truth and life, that bis reputation as 
the first French tragedian was established 
beyond dispute. The principal parts 
which he created, or carried to the high- 
est perfection, were Seide, Othello, Ham- 
let (those of Ducis), Sylla (or rather Na- 
poleon, of Jouy), Reguhis, the grand 
roaster of the templars, Charles IX, 
Charles VI (of Delaville), Manlius, and 
Orestes. He died at Paris in 182&~See 
Moreau's Mimoirti 8W Thlma (dd ed., 
1827). Talma was the author of RyUx- 
iona mar Lekain d sur VAri ih&tnd 
(1825). ^ Tahna," says madame de Stael, 
*< may be cited as a model of power, and 
of discretion in the use of it, or simplicity 
and true erandeur. He possesses all the 
secrets of die various arts: his attitudes 
recall to mind the fine statues of antiquity, 
and the expression of his fiice, and every 
look, ought to be the study of our best 
painters. There is in the voice of this 
man a magic which I cannot describe ; 
which, from the moment when its firat 
accent is heard, awakens all the sjrmpa- 
thies of the heart ; all the charms of mu- 



sic, of painting, of sculpture, and of poe- 
try ; but, above all, the language of the 
soul : these are the means which be uses 
to excite in him who listens, all the efibct 
of the generous or the terrible passions. 
What a knowledge of the human mind 
he displays in the manner of conceiving 
his parts ! He is the author himself come 
again to realize, by his look, his accents, 
and his manner, the person he means to 
present to your imagmation." His per- 
son is described as regular, but not strik- 
ing, his voice full and agreeable, his 
countenance approaching the antique, and 
fiiU of expression. These phy^cal advan- 
ta^ were c<Hnbined with a penetrating 
mmd, a warm imagination, deep feeling, 
and great sensibility. It is well known 
that he was a great favorite of the empe- 
ror Napoleon, who treated him with much 
distinction, and loved to converse with 
him. Talma was buried, according to 
his own directions, without any religious 
ceremonies ; and he likewise left (miere 
that his children should be educated in 
the Protestant ftith ; unwilling that they 
should belong to a church which con- 
demned his profession. His wife, previ- 
ously known as Mile. Vanhove, was a 
distinguished actress. She retired firom 
the stage in 1810. 

Talmud (from the Hebrew lomadj 
he has learned); doctrine. It signi- 
fies, among the modem Jews, an enor- 
mous collection of traditions, illustrative 
of their laws and usages, forming twelve 
folio volumes. It consists of two parts, 
the Mishna and the Gemara. The Mish- 
na is a collection of rabbinical rules 
and precepts, made in the second centuiy 
of the Christian era. The whole civil 
constitution and mode of thinking, as 
well as language of the Jews, had gradu- 
ally undergone a complete revolution, and 
were entirely different, in the time of our 
Savior, from what they had been in the 
early periods of the Hebrew common- 
virealth. (See Hebrews^ and Jewi.) The 
Mosaic DQoks contained rules no longer 
adapted to the situation of the nation ; 
and its new political relations, connected 
with the change which had taken place 
in the religious views of the people, led 
to many difScult questions, for wnich no 
satisfactory solution could be found in 
their law. The rabbins undertocA to 
supply this defect, partly by commenta- 
ries on the Mosaic precepts, and partlv 
by the composition of new rules, which 
were looked upon as almost equally bind- 
ing with the former. These comments and 
additions were called the oral traditions. 



TALMUD— TAMBOURINE* 



131 



in eontnulistinction to the old law or writ- 
teD code. The rabbi Juda, sumamed the 
hafyt was particularly active in makine 
this collection (150 B. C), which received 
die name of Mithna (q, v.| or second law. 
The later rabbis busied tnemselves in a 
similar manner in the composition of com- 
meniaries and explanations of the Mishna. 
Among these works, that of the rabbi 
Jochanan (composed about 2S0 A. D.) ac- 
quired the most celebrity, under the name 
of GemoraJChaldiuc for completion or 
doetriney This Mishna and Gfemara to- 
gether ionned the Jerusalem Talmud, re- 
nting chiefly to the Jews of Palestine. 
But after the Jews had mosdy removed 
to Babylon, and the synagogues of Pales- 
dne had almost entirely disappeared, the 
Babylonian rabbis gradually composed 
new commentaries on the Mishna, which, 
about 500 A. D., were completed, and 
thus formed the Babylonian Talmud. 

Tai.ds, in mythology ; a brazen image 
which Vulcan gave to Minos, or Jupiter 
to Europa. It was endowed vritli liie, 
and had a single blood-vessel running 
fiom the neck to the heel, and closed with 
a brazen noil. Talus was the protector 
of Crete, and went three dmes daily 
around the island, to defend it against at- 
tacks. The &ble says that he prevented 
the enemies of Crete from landing, by 
beating his body in fire, and then em- 
bracing them with his glowing arms. 
Other stories are also told of him, which 
seem to indicate that Talus was prolMibly 
a brazen statue, servidj^ as a beacon, 
placed by the PhcBnicians on a promon- 
tory of Crete. Medea, by her arts, event- 
ually destroyed Talus, when she landed 
with the Ai^nauts. (q. v.] — Another Ta- 
ius is mentioned ; a son of the sister of 
Dsdalus, who invented the saw, com- 
passes, and other mechanical instruments. 
His uncle became jealous of his growing 
&me, and murdered him privately; or, 
according to some, threw him down 
from the citadel of Athens. Talus was 
changed into a partridge by the gods. 
He is also called CkdtiSy AccHuai Perdixy 
and TaLiriB. 
Tamabama. (See Tcmmtamea.) 
Tamarizid-Tree (UwwrwdAu hidica)'^ 
a large and b«iutiful tree of the East In- 
dies, oelonging to the natural family k- 
guminMit. The leaves are pinnate, com- 
posed of sixteen or eighteen pairs of ses- 
sile leaflets, which are half an inch only 
in length, and one sixth in breadth. The 
flowers are disposed, &re or rix together, 
in IcMMse clusters : the petals are yellowish, 
and beautilWy variegated with red veins. 



The pods are thick, compfeesed, and of a 
dull Drown color when ripe. The seeds 
are flat, anf^ar, hard and shining, and 
are lodged m a dark, soft, adhesive pulp. 
The tamarind-tree exists also in Arabia, 
E^pt, and other parts of Africa ; but that 
of^the West Indies is perhaps a different 
species, distinguished by the shortness of 
the pods, which contain two, three or ibur 
seeds only. In the West Indies, the pods 
are gathered in June, July and Auffust, 
when fully ripe ; and the firuit, being need 
fit>m the shelly fragments, is placed in 
layera in a caslc, and boiling syrup poured 
over it till the cask is filled : the syrup 
pervades every part ouite down to the 
bottom ; and when cool the cask is head- 
ed for sale. The East India tamarinds 
are darker colored and drier, are more 
esteemed, and are said to be preserved 
without sugar. This fruit has an agreea- 
ble acid and sweetish taste, is refrigerant 
and gently laxative. A simple infiision in 
warm water forms a very grateful bever- 
age, which is' advantageously used in 
febrile diseases. The Turks and Arabs 
cany the pods, prepared with sugar or 
honey, either green or ripe, in their Jour- 
neys across the deserts ; and they are found 
to constitute an agreeable and wholesome 
article of food. 

Tambour; a species of embroidery. 
The tambour frame is an instrument of a 
spherical form, upon which is stretched, 
fc^ means of a stnng and buckle, or other 
appropriate means, a piece of silk, mus- 
lin, linen, &c., which is wrought with a 
needle of a particular form, and, by means 
of silver or gold, cotton or silk, into 
leaves, flowera, or other figures. 

Tambour^ in fortification; a piece of 
work formed of palisades planted close 
together and driven into the ground, for 
the purpose of enclosing an open work. 
Tambours are sometimes erected before 
the gates of a city, or fortified post. 

Tambouriivs, or Tambour de Basque ; 
one of the most ancient musical instru- 
ments. Wherever we find Hebrew niusic 
mentioned, the tambourine or timbrel also 
appears. The triumphal song of Mu-iam , 
afler the passage of the Israelites through 
the Red sea, shows how early vocal mu- 
sic was accompanied by such instruments 
and by dancing. The invention of the 
tambourine, or drum beaten by the hand, 
would seem naturally to have taken place 
very early, as it is veiy simple ; and many 
domestic instruments would earily sug- 
gest it. How many objects do childrMi 
turn into a drum! And, in fact, such 
instruments are general^ found, even 



133 



TAMBOURINE— TAMMEAMEA. 



among the rudest tribes. The use of the 
tambourine, on sacred or solemn occa- 
sions, has descended to modem times, 
from the Egyptian feasts of Bacchus. 
In the Baccluinalian songs of the Meen- 
ades, on the Thracian mountains, we 
find continual mention of the drums (ket- 
tle drums and tambourines). Intheoigies, 
only the lyre and the flute were originally 
permitted to accompany the song; but 
when, according to the fable, Bacchus 
himself attended by Satyrs, Fauns and 
Bacchanals, appeared at the festivals, they 
brought with tnem drums, sistrums, and 
horns. Those musical instruments which 
are played on by beating, and hence in- 
dicate the rhythm most distincd^, have 
always been very popular at festivals. 
Luther translated the Hebrew word toph 
bvPotiA^fdrum^ In English, it is fm&m. 
The Greeks call it rvfinawv ; the Romans, 
ivmpantun; the Arabians, cfe^(fam&our, in 
the East, is the name of the guitar) ; the 
Spaniards, adufe (a word of Arabic origin, 
and probabjy carried, with the instru- 
ment itself, by the Moors, to Spain). In 
the East, it was always played on by 
maidens at the feast and dance, and there- 
fore cannot be compared to our drum. 
In the middle ages, we find this instrument 
mentioned among the manv used by the 
Troubadours and minstrels. In- those 
times, it was called tambour and doquette, 
and appeared in every concert The 
present tambourine consists of a wooden 
or brazen hoop, over which a skin is ex- 
tended, and which is hung with bells. 
Sometimes the thumb of the right hand 
is drawn in a circle over the skin ; some- 
times the fingers are struck against it. 
Generally, the hoop has a hole, to give 
admission to the thumb of the left hand ; 
on this the instrument is supported during 
the performance, which may be made 
very graceful by various movements of 
the body, on account of which the tain- 
bourine is generally an attribute of the 
muse of dancing. The larger tambourine 
is called tambour de Basque^ because it is 
used in Biscay to accompany all the 
national songs and dances. Steibelt (a 
Grennan| has recently composed pleasing 
and brilliant pieces for the pianoforte 
with the accompaniment of the tambour- 
ine. 

Tambroni, Joseph, an Italianpoet and 
historian, bom at Bolojgna, m 1773. He 
studied in the university there ; and, in 
1794, was elected palasompher, or m- 
speetor of the archives of his native city. 
When the French invaded Lombardy, 
he attached himself to Maroscalchi, whom 



he accompanied to the congren of Ra« 
stadt and to Vienna, as secretary of the 
Cisalpine legation. On the return of the 
Austrians to Italy, Tambroni found an 
asylum in the mountains of Savoy ; but 
he returned after the batde of Marengo 
and the foundation of the Cisalpine re- 
public. He was then attached to the 
Italian legation at Paris, under his fnend 
count Marescalchi ; and, in 1809, he be- 
came consul at Leghom, and two years 
afler at Rome. On the &U of the impe- 
rial ffovemment, in 1814, he retired from 
pubuc life, and engaged in conducting 
the GiomaU Arcadtco. Tambroni died 
at Rome, in 1824. Among his works are 
Comptndio ddle Storie di Polonia (2 vols.), 
hdorno aUa Vita di Canova^ besides many 
letters and poenjs. 

Tambroni, Clotilda, sister of the pre- 
ceding, distinguished for her acquaint- 
ance with Greek literature, was bom in 
1758, and, from her early years, displayed 
an invincible attachment for study, in 
consequence of which her parents afibrd- 
ed her the means of instraction. She 
was admitted into the Arcadian academy 
at Rome, the Etruscan academy at Cor- 
tona, and the Clementine at Doiojpia, ; 
and, in 1794, the professorship of the 
Greek language was bestowed on her, 
which she retained till 1796, when she 
was displaced because she refused to 
take the oath of hatred to rovalty, required 
by the laws of the Cispadane republic 
She was afterwards restored by Bona- 
parte ; but the Greek professorship being 
at length suppressed, she retired to the 
bosom of her family. Her death hap- 
pened June 4, 1817. Her works constat 
chiefly of poems written in Greek, among 
which is an elegy in honor of Bodoni, the 
celebrated printer. 
Tamerlane. (See Timour,) 
Tammeamea, or Tama ham a, king of 
the Sandwich isles, in the Pacific ocean, 
was one of those individuals who are 
destined to produce a mat effect on the 
state of society around them. He be- 
longed to the race of the native chie& ; and 
at the death of captain Cook, in 1780, be 
had arrived at manhood ; but he had no 
concern in that event. Tirrioboo, the 
king of Hawaii, the largest of the 
Saimwich islands, having offended his 
prindpal offieera, be was put to death, 
and Tammeamea was chosen to succeed 
him. He soon showed extraordinary 
talents for his situation ; and it was a part 
of his policy to encourage the settiement 
of European mariners and othera in his 
dominions. Whesp. captain Vancouver 



TAM]»£AM£A->TANCR£D. 



133 



visited Hawaii, Tamineamea put him- 
self under the protection of that officer, 
as the representative of the kinj^ of Great 
Britain ; and, as the price of his submis- 
sioD, he was assistea in building a fine 
vessel, which afforded a model for the 
construction of several more. Tanmiea- 
mea thus formed a fleet, with which he 
conquered the adjoining islands, and 
traded to China* He subsequently erect- 
ed a fort on the island of Oahoo, and ob- 
tained from the Russians some artillery ; 
while, by encouraging the Urading of his 
subjects with navi^tors, he added to his 
own wealth and importance as well as 
that of his people. This enterprising 
monarch died in March, 1819. Rhio 
Rblo, the son and successor of Tammea- 
raea, having made a visit to England, 
together with his queen, in 1824, both 
their majesties died in London, afler a 
few months' residence, in consequence 
of a disease arising from change of cli- 
mate and habits of life. 

Tan, Tana, Tania; an ending com- 
mon to a great many names in the 
Oriental languages, as well as those of 
£iut>pe, signifying country or place pos- 
stsua by; MaurUatda (country of the 
Moors). 
Tanais. (SeeDoru) 
Tancred, with Godfrey of Bouillon, 
the soul of Uie first crusade, was bom in 
1078. History gives us no information 
concerning his father, a Sicilian or Italian 
marquis ; but his mother was the sister 
of the celebrated Norman, Robert Guis- 
rard, whose eldest son, Boheniond, was 
the friend and brother in arms of Tancred. 
(See Gtascard.) In 1096, the two heroes 
embarked for i^pirus, and thence march- 
ed to Macedonia. Tancred was present 
in the van or the rear, wherever danger 
was to be found, and more than once 
i>aved the army from destruction in the 
snares of the Greeks. On the plains of 
Chalcedon he united his forces with those 
(if Godfrey; and here they formed that 
compact which TasBO has celebrated in 
his Jerusalem Delivered. At the siege 
of Nice (1097), Tancred first appears 
among the heroes who directed the 
course of events, and in the battle of 
Doryleum, in wMch his younger brother 
fell, he saved the army of the crusaders, 
when surrounded by 200,000 Seljooks. 
Godfrev's brother Baldwin and Tancred 
now advanced over the Taurus towards 
Jerusalem, a distance of nearlv 1000 
mUes, throuffh an unknown and desolate 
region, for ue purpose of exploring the 
route. Tancied first penetrated through 

VOL. XII. 12 



the passes of the mountains, and obtained 
possession of Tarsus by capitulation. 
Baldwin followed him, and vras ftithless 
enough to take possession of the town 
ostensibly for his brother, but virtually for 
himself. Tancred, though exasDerated 
at this act of treachery, nobly exclaimed, 
** Shall I stain my lance with the blood of 
my brethren ?" and, advancing to Mentis- 
tra, took the pkce by storm. Baldwin 
attempted to repeat his perfidious act, 
and Tancred now suflered himself to be 
so far carried away by his resentment, as 
to turn his armsa^nst him; but the 
quarrel terminated m the reconciliation 
of the chie&. Tancred next marched 
against Antioch, the capture of which 
was delayed seven months, by the dis- 
eases, want of provision, and msubordi- 
nation, which prevailed in the Christian 
army. The garrison left by the Crusaders 
in the city, was surrounded by a Persian ar- 
my, which was defeated by Tancred. Afler 
Easter, in 1099, the crusaders set forward 
for the conquest of Jerusalem. Tancred 
took Bethlehem, and pressed forward to 
be the first to see the walls of the holy 
city. Inunediately afler his arrival be- 
fore Jerusalem, he captured an advanced 
work, which is still called TtmcrtiTs 
tower. During the scenes of horror 
which attended the capture of Jenisalem 
(July 19, 1099), he conducted himself 
with humanity, and saved the lives of 
thousands of the enemy, at the peril of 
his own. For this he was accused of being 
an enemy to the priests and to religion ! 
The sultan of Egypt was now advancing 
to attempt the recovery of Jerusalem, but 
was totally defeated by Tancred, -with 
the loss of his camp, before Ascaion 
(August 121 Tancrea captured Tiberias, 
besieged Jaffa, and, after the death of 
Godfrey, endeavored to efiect the election 
of Bohemond as king of Jerusalem ; but 
the unworthy Baldwin obtained the 
throne, and Tancred, while engaged in 
the field against the emir of Damascus, 
was summoned to appear before the new 
king, on a charge of rebellion. But, 
secure in the attachment of his vassals, 
Tancred, now prince of Galilee, despised 
the base arts otBcddwin, and hastened to 
Antioch, whose prince, Bohemond, had 
been captured by the Turks. The city 
was equally threatened by the Turks and 
the false Greeks ; but Tancred alternate- 
ly made head against both, restored his 
friend to liberty, and, with the utmost 
disinterestedness, cave him back his ter- 
ritories. When Bohemond returned to 
Europe to obtain recruits, Tancred was 



134 



TANCRED--TAN6IER. 



left to protect Antioch, which was men- 
aced at once from Aleppo and by the 
Greek armies. He was even obliged to 
encounter die attacks of Baldwin, count 
of Edessa, and Josselin de Courtenay. 
fiohemond died at Salerno, and his sol- 
diers either dispersed or entered the ser- 
vice of the Greek emperor : still Tancred 
succeeded in forcing the Tuikish sultan 
to retreat over the Euphrates. This was 
his last exploit He died soon after, in 
1113, in his thirty-fifth year. Tancred 
was the flower and pattern of chivalry. 
Tasso has immortalized him. — An ac- 
count of his life may be found in Raoul 
de Caen's Gcstes de Tancr^ie, and in Dela- 
barre's Histoire de Tancr^ief Paris, 1822). 

Tangent, in general ; every straight 
line which has one single point in com- 
mon with, and lies entirely outside of, a 
curve (at least of every such curve as 
can be cut by a straight line in two 
points only). This is the geometrical tan- 
gent In trigonometry, the name is ap- 
plied particularly to that part of the tan- 
gent to the circle which stands perpen- 
dicular at the end of one of the radii, in- 
cluding a particular arc, and is cut by the 
prolonged I'adius passing through the oth- 
er end of the arc (the seecmty Trigo- 
nometrical tangents, used with the sine 
and cosine, &c., for the solution of tri- 
angles (see TVy^nomeiry), have been cal- 
culated according to their relative value 
(i. e. with reference to a radius of a cer- 
tain magnitude) for every arc ; and these 
relative values, or their logarithms, ore 
generally to be found in the trigonomet- 
rical tables, with the sines and cosines of 
the same arcs. How this calculation of 
trigonometrical tangents, in reference to 
sines, cosines and radii, is performed, 
may be easily understood by a mere com- 
parison of the two similar triangles which 
originate when we draw these lines and 
the corresponding arc. The difterential 
calculus gives a very simple method for 
calculating the tangents by means of tlie 
subtangents, under the name of the direct 
method of the tangenis. To this direct 
method the higher analysis adds an m- 
vertcd method, called the inverse method 
of tangents, 

TcmgenHal Force, In order to have 
a clear idea how the planets are made to 
revolve in consequence of tlie attraction 
which the sun, situated in one focus of 
their elliptical orbits, exercises upon them, 
we may unagine that they originally re- 
oeived an impulse urging them forward 
in a straight line. With Siis impulse the 
attniction of the sun (centripetal force; 



see Central Forces) being united, the ]dan- 
et was thus made to describe the diago* 
nal of a parallelogram, whose sides rep- 
resent the directions of these forces. As 
there is nothing to diminish the impulse 
which we have supposed ori^inaUj given 
to the planet, it would continue its path 
in the direction of the diagonal ; but the 
centripetal force, operating continually 
upon the direction which the planet has 
obtained, makes it change its direction 
incessantly. In this way originates (as a 
diagram, drawn according to what we 
have said, clearly showsVa motion around 
the centre of forces. (See Circular Mo 
tioUy and CenJtral Forces.) The planet has 
at each point of its path a certain ten* 
dency (the consequence of its previDua 
motion ; hence, properly speaking, the e^ 
feet of its inertness) to continue its last 
received diagonal direction, and thus to 
recede from the centre of forces. To 
this tendency, the centripetal force, di- 
rected towards this point, is opposed. The 
centripetal force may again oe divided 
into two forces, the first of which (the 
normal force) operates perpendicularly to 
the orbit, and only contributes to retain 
the planet in the same, in order to pre- 
vent the curved motion from degenerating 
into a straight one : the latter, however, 
coincides with the direction of the orbit 
2self, and, tlierefore, only aflects the velo- 
city. This latter fbrce is the tangential 
force, so called because the element of the 
curve coincides with the tangent The 
doctrine of central forces is so important, 
because our imagination, unaided by theo- 
ry, is almost incapable of conceiving a 
body which turns around another, exer- 
cising an attraction upon it, yet without 
ever coming in contact with the attracting 
body. But what has been said shows 
that a correct proportion of the centripe- 
tal force to the original impulse renders 
the contact of the body with the sun im- 
possible. Generally, tlie endeavor of tlie 
planet to recede from the centre of forces, 
18 called the centrifttgal force; but can 
we, properly, coll that a force which is e vi- 
denqy the effect of inertness ? The ori- 
G^nal impulse may be compared to the 
hrst impulse which sets tke pendulum in 
motion ; afler which, if we omit other in- 
fluences, it would continue its oscillatioiis 
for eternity, from the mere influence of 
gravity. 

Tangier, or Tanjah (aneiently 7^- 
gis) ; a town of Morocco, situated at the 
west entrance of the straits of Gibraltar, 
thurty-eight miles south-west of Gibral- 
tar ; Ion. 5° 5(y W. ; Ut 35° 48' N. The 



TANGIER— TANNIN. 



las 



papulation is about 7000. Tangier was 
poflsesBed by the English from 1663 to 
1784. It afterwards became a distinguish- 
ed station for piracy ; but the disuse of 
this practice in Morocco has diminished 
the importance of the town. It now sub- 
sists chiefly by supplying the British gar- 
rison of Gibraltar with catde and vegeta- 
bles. The bay of Tangier is not safe 
when the wind is in the west, having 
been enciunbered by the ruins of the 
mole and fortification ; the cables are lia- 
ble to be torn, and the ships to be driven 
on shore. Tangier, viewed from the sea, 
presents a pretty regular aspect; but 
within it exhibits the most disgusting 
v^retchedness. It is the residence of the 
European and American consuls. 

TjkjTNiN ; a peculiar vegetable princi- 
ple, so named because it is the effective 
agent in the conversion of skin into letoh- 
er. The oak and its products — gall-nuts, 
&c^— contain two kindred matters, tannin 
and gallic acid, wliich seem, by the pow- 
ers of vegetation, mutually convertible. 
The former is supposed to be character- 
ized by its fbnhing, with gelatine, a flexible 
and unputrefiable compound; and by 
forming with oxide of iron a black com- 
bination, which, having a strong aflini^ 
for cotton, tin^ silk and wool, is much 
used by the dver. Hitherto, tannin has 
been found only in perennial plants, and 
chiefly in the more durable ports of these. 
The berks of almost all trees and shrubs 
contain it, principally in the parts nearest 
the wood, because in the oQter coats it is 
changed by the air. It has never been 
met with m the poisonous plants, nor in 
such as contain elastic, resinous and milky 
juices.' Decocdon of nutgalls contains 
tannin with a little gallic acid, some tan- 
nates and gallates of potash and lime, 
tannin altered into the matter commonly 
called extradwe, and lasdy a compound 
(insoluUd in cold water) of tannin with 
perhaps some pectic acid, which is found 
especiallv in the extract of oak bark. The 
purificauon of tannin, or its separation 
from the principles with which it occurs, 



may be effected as follows : — ^Aliz a filter- 
ed mfiisionof nutgalls with a concentrat- 
ed solution of carbonate of notadi, as 
long as a white precipitate &ds, but no 
longer, because me precipitate is redis- 
solved by an excess of alkalL The pre- 
cipitate must be washed on a filter with 
ice-cold water, and afterwards be dissolv- 
ed in dilute acetic acid, which removes a 
brown matter from iL This matter is ex- 
tractive, formed, during the washings, 
by the action of the air. After filtering 
the solution, the tannin is to be precipi- 
tated by acetate of lead ; and the precipi- 
tate is to be well washed, although in tllis 
operation its color passes fi!om white to 
vellow, and it is to be then decomposed 
by sulphureted hydrogen. The filtered 
liquor is colorless, and leaves, by evapo- 
ration in vacuo over potash,' tannin in 
hard, light-vellowish, and transparent 
scales, whicn, when exposed to the air, 
and particularly to the sunbeam, assume 
a deeper yellow color. It is not deli- 
quescent; dissolves in water wi^ the 
ereatest fiicility, and may be readily re- 
duced to powder. Exactly saturated 
compounds of tannin With acids have no 
sour taste, but a purely astringent one. In 
the pure state, they are usualfy very solu- 
ble m water, and cannot be precipitated 
firom it except by a great excess of acid. 
Tannin forms, with the salifiable bases, 
very remarkable compounds: that with 
potash or ammonia in the neutral state is 
but slighdy soluble in cold water, and may 
be precipitfxted in the form of a white 
earth : it dissolves in boiling water, and 
separates from it, on cooling, in the shape 
of^ a powder, which, when drained on a 
filter, pressed and dried, has quite the as- 
pect of an inorganic earthy -salt, and is 
permanent in the air. The compound 
with soda has the same appearance ; but 
it is much more soluble. It is known 
that tannin precipitates solution of tartar 
emetic. This precipitate is remarkable 
firom a portion of tne tannin taking, in 
the salt, the place of the oxide of anti- 
mony. 



Propcrtum of Tannin in different 


vegetable Products, 




Subsuneaa. , 


In 4d0 parts. 


In about 8 oz. 


In 100 parts. 


Whitfl inner bark of old oak 


72 

77 
63 
79 
19 
14 
16 


30 


21 


*« <• " youn^ oak, 

u u u Leicester willow, 

Middle bark of oak . 




« « Spanish chesmut, 

'* « Leicester willow, 


— 



196 



TANNIN— TANNING 



Sub»taDcea. 

Entire bark of oak, 

" *^ Spanish chestnut, 
" <* Leicester willow, ; 

« « ehn, 

«* <* common willow, . , 

Sicilian sumach, 

Malagasumacfa, 

Souchong tea, 

Green tea, 

Bombay catechu, 

Bengal do 

Ndt^ls, 

Bark of oak cut in winter, 

« beech, 

• « elder, 

" plum-tree, , 

Baric of the trunk of willow, . . . . 

" " sycamore, . . 
Bark of birch, 

" cherry-tree, 

" poplar, ; . . . 

« hazel, 

« aah, 

Oak cut in spring, 

Bark of alder, 

'' weeping willow, 

^ Virgmian sumach, 

^ green oak, 

« rose chestnut of America, . 

^ sumach of Carolina, . . . . 



In 460 parU. In about 8 oz. to 100 paita. 



29 


__ 


21 





33 


109 


13 


28 


11 


._ 


78 


158 


79 





48 





41 


.. 


261 


««. 


231 


... 


127 


._ 


— 


30 





31 





41 


— 


58 


-^ 


52 





53 





54 


.^ 


59 


— 


76 





79 


... 


82 


— 


106 



46 



36 
16 
10 
10 
8 
6 



The most important property of tannin, 
amouff those above mentioned, is that dis- 
playea in its relation to animal gelatine. 
They combine with much fecility, fi>rm- 
ine, from a state of solution, a soft, floc- 
culent precipitate, which, on drying, be- 
comes nard and 'brittle: this has been 
called tannp-gdoHne, The combination 
is not always established in the same pro- 
portions, but varies according to the con- 
centration of the solutions and the relative 
quantities of the substances ; nor is the 
compound in all cases insoluble in water. 
When the gelatine is only sli^hdy in 
excess, it consists of 54 gelatme and 
46 tannin: when there is a large ex- 
cess of gelatine, the compound is redis- 
solved. On the formation of this combi- 
nation, the art of ianmng depends. The 
skin of an animal, when freed from the 
hair, epidermis and cellular fibre fwhich 
is done principallv by the action or lime), 
consists chiefly of indujated gelatine. By 
immersion in the tan liquor, which is an 
infusion of baik, the combination of the 
tannin with the oivanized gelatine, which 
fonns the animal nbre, is slowly establish- 
ed ; and the compound of tannin and gel- 
atine not being soluble in water, and not 



liable to putrefaction, the skin is rendered 
dense and impermeable, and not subject 
to the spontaneous change which it would 
otherwise soon undergo. To render it 
equal throughout the whole substance of 
the skin, the action of the tan liquor must 
be gradual ; and hence the tanning ispor- 
fbrmed by successive immersions of^the 
skin in liquors of different strength. Sir 
H. Davy observes, that leather, slowly 
tanned in weak infusions of bark, appears 
to be better in quality, being both sofler 
and stronger than when tanned by dense 
infusions ; and he ascribes this to the ex- 
tractive matter which they imbibe. This 
principle, therefore, affects the quality of 
the material employed in tanning; and 
galls, which contain a great deal of tan- 
nin, make a hard leather, and liable to 
crack, from their deficiency of extractive 
matter. Hides increase in weight during 
the process of tanning from one fiflh to 
one third. 

Tanning is a mechanical art, by which 
the hides and skins of various animals, 
particularly those of neat cattle, are con- 
verted into sole leather, upper leather, 
harness, &c., by being cleansed of the 
hair and flesh, 'and saturated ^vith the 



TANNING--TAPESTRY. 



137 



tannin contained in the bark of the oak, 
hemlock, and some other kinds of forest 
trees. It is a simple process to make 
leather of hides ana bark, but probably 
one of the most critical of manuracturing 
operations to make the most and the best 
leather that can be made from a given 
quantity of hide. The process is long 
and laboriou& Time and labor are 
both materiallv reduced, and the quan- 
tity and weif^t of the leather increas- 
ed, by various improvements, vrhich 
commenced in the year 1803, in Hamp- 
shire county, in Massachusetts. The 
improrements above alluded to are the 
substitution of water power for man- 
ual labor, in many of the most laborious 
parts of the process ; viz. to soflen and 
cleanse the hide preparatory to the bark 
being applied to it ; to grind the bark ; to 
move pumps for transferring the decoc- 
tion of the bark from one vat to another 
(much of which is necessary to be done 
claDy in an extensive tannery), and to roll 
the leather preparatory to its being sent to 
market ; also the least possible quantity 
of lime is now used to facilitate getting 
off the hair: this has been found greatly 
to add to the weight and Quality of the 
leather. The application of heat to baik 
io leaches is found to be very important, 
and more particularly the application of 
the decoction (usually tenned liquor) to 
the hide, rather than the bark, which had 
been commonly employed. In 1829, 
36,360 sides of sole leather were tanned 
iu one establishment in the town of Hun- 
ter, Greene county. New York. They 
weighed 637,413 pounds, and were man- 
ufactured with the labor of forty-nine 
hands, and vnth 3200 cords of bark. The 
tannery has seven powerful water-wheels 
adapted to its various machinery. Slaugh- 
ter nides averaged fifly-six and a half 
pounds of sole leather from one hun- 
dred of hide: best South American 
dry hides gained sixty-one per cent, in 
weight, and ordinary ones in proportion. — 
Tannine is a chemical process ; and un- 
doubtedly the<^|rt will go on improving 
with the progress of chemical science and 
the diffusion of chemical knowled^. 

Taivst {tanacdum vidgare). This plant 
is now naturalized, and pretty common in 
many parts of the U. States. It grows in 
beds by road sides, and m waste places. 
The stems are upright, branching, and 
about two feet high ; the leaves doubly 
pinnate, and incisely serrate, and of an 
agreeaUe aspect It belongs to the com- 
positiP. The flowers are yellow buttons, 
. disposed in a large, upright corymb. The 
12* 



whole plant has a strong and penetrating 
odor, agreeable to some persons, and an 
extremely bitter taste. It contains an 
acrid volatile oil, is stimulant and canni- 
native, and the decoction and seeds are 
recommended as anthelmintic and sudo- 
rific. The young leaves are shredded 
dovrn, and employed to give color and 
flavor to puddings; they are also used in 
omelets and cakes, and those of the curled 
variety for garnishing. 

Tazvtalitjc. (See CohtmbiU.) 
Taittalum. (See Columbium.) 
Tantalus, son of Jupiter, and king of 
Slpylus,in Phrygia, was a fitvorite of the 
gods, who often visited him, until he for- 
feited their flivor by his arrogance. Tra- 
dition does not agree as to his crime. Ac- 
cording to one account, he oflended Jupi- 
ter by his perfidy ; according to another, 
he stole away the nectar and ambrosia 
from heaven ; and a third story is, that 
he murdered his own son Pelops, and 
served him up for some of the god^. 
The same diversity prevails in regard to 
his punishment He is sometimes de- 
scribed as having a large stone suspended 
over his head, which constantly threatens 
to fall and crush him, and firom which he 
cannot fleo. But the more common ac- 
count represents him as standing up to 
his throat in water, with the most deli- 
cious fi^iits hanging over his head, which, 
when he attempts to quench his burning 
thirst or to appease nis raging hunger, 
elude his giiisp. From this fable comes 
the Engliui expression to tantalize. 

Tapestry ; a kind of woven hangingH 
of wool and silk, frequently raised and en- 
riched with gold and silver, representing 
figures of men, animals, landscapes, his- 
torical subjects, &c. This species of cur- 
tain-covering for walls was known among 
the inhabitants of Eastern countries at an 
extremely remote era. The most gro- 
tesque compositions and fimtastic combi- 
nations were commonly selected for the 
display of the talents of workmen in this 
department of Oriental art, which was 
afterwards unported into Greece. Fron) 
these compositions the elegant Greeks are 
supposed, by Bottiger, to have taken tlieir 
ideas of giimns, centaurs, &c. Atlen^h 
the refined taste of Athens became visi- 
ble in the structure of tapestries. The 
old grotesque combinations no longer, as 
formerly, covered then: surfaces, but 
were confined to the borders only ; and 
the centre received more regular and 
systematic representations. In modem 
times, this description of embroidery has 
been executed with veiy great success, 



138 



TAPESTRY— TAR. 



and has often employed the talents of the 
greatest masters in the art of painting. 
in Flanders, particularly at Arras (whence 
the term arraa, signifying tcmestry), dur- 
ing the fifteenth and sixteentn centuries, 
the art was practised with uncommon 
skill ; and tapestries were executed there 
after the masterly designs of Ra^elle 
in his cartoons, (q. v.) This art was 
introduced into England by William 
Sheldon, near the end of Henry VIII's 
reign. In 1619, a manu&cture was 
established at Mortlake, in Surrey, by 
sir Fras. Crane, who received £2000 
ironi James I, to encourage the design. 
The first manufacture of tapestry at Paris 
was set up under Henry IV, in 1606 or 
1607, by several artists whom that mon- 
arch invited firom Flanders. But the 
most celebrated of all the European tapes- 
try manufiictures was that of the Crobelins 
(q. v.), instituted under Louis XIV, which 
sent forth very beautiful cloths, remarka- 
ble for strength, for elegance of design, 
and happy choice of colors. The finest 
paintings were copied, and eminent punt- 
ers employed in makmg designs. For a 
long while Gobelin tapestry was the most 
cosdy and &vorite method of hanging the 
walls of chambers. The texture of tapes- 
try is in many respects similar to that of 
the finer carpetings ; but the minuteness 
of the constituent parts causes the sight 
of the texture to be lost in the general 
eftect of the piece. (See Carpets^ and 
Hautdisse.) 

Tapeworm, one of the most stubborn 
worms which infest the bowels of beasts, 
and also of man, has its name fi'om the 
broad, fiat, ribbon-like appearance of 
each articulation and of the whole body, 
which is composed of these articulations. 
Bremser makes two species — tania and 
haUtryocephalus — both of which were for- 
merly united in one species, under the 
name of tamo. One kind of both spe- 
cies appears in the human body ; namely, 
1. tcenta solium, the single or long- 
limbed chainworm, in which the organs 
of generation are found on one side of 
every articulation ; it is the kind most 
commonly met with in Germany, France 
and England; 2. botknfocepJuuus latus, 
the proper or broad tapewomi, in which 
the sexual organs are found on the fiat 
side of the articulations. It is met with 
only in Russia, Poland, Switzerland, and 
some parts of France, and causes little 
pain. Both kinds often reach the length 
of twenty or thirty feet, and usually only 
detached parts pass from the body, but 
not that which has the head ; before this 



has passed away, the worm reproduces 
itself; and, moreover, what was fbrmeriy 
doubted, several tapeworms are often met 
with in one intestinal canal. The symp- 
toms of the tapeworm are a peculiar, sud- 
den sensation of pricking in the stomach, 
oppression, and unduhitoiy motions in the 
aodomen, anxiety, cramps, swoons, &c. ; 
but all these symptoms are uncertain, and 
only the actual passing of pieces of the 
worm firom the body is a certain proof 
of its existence. The cure is dimcuh, 
and requires an experienced physician. 

Tapioca. (See Mamoc.) 

Tapi r. The American tapir, when full 
grown, is six feet in total length, and 
about three and a half in height. In gen- 
eral form it resembles the hog; but the 
legs are rather longer in proportion, and 
the nose is prolonged into a small mova- 
ble proboscis. The fore feet have four 
toes, aud the hind ones three only. The 
eyes are small and lateral, and the ears 
long and pointed ; the skin thick, and 
covered with scattering, short, silky hairs ; 
the tail short, and slightly hairy. The 
teeth resemble those oi the horse. It is 
the largest animal of South America, and 
is found in all parts of that continent, 
though most abundant in Guiana, Brazil 
and Paraguay. It shuns the habitations 
of men, and' leads a solitary life in the 
interior of the forests, in moist situations, 
but selects for its abode a place somewhat 
elevated and dry. By travelling always 
the same round^, it rorms beaten patlis, 
which are very conspicuous. It comes 
out only in the night, or during rainy 
weather, and resorts to the marshes, ifs 
ordinary pace is a sort of trot ; but it 
sometimes gallops, though awkwardly, and 
with the head down, and, be^des, swims 
with facility. In the vrild state, it lives on 
firiits and young branches of trees, but 
when domesticated, eats every kind of 
food. Though possessed of great strength, 
it makes use of it only for defence ; and its 
disposition is mild and timid. The flesh 
is diy and disagreeably tasted; but the 
skin is very tough, and might be applied 
to useful purposes. The Indian tapir has 
only been discovered within a few years. 
It inhabits Sumatra, Malacca, and some of 
the surrounding comitries. The colors 
are remarkable. The head, neck, feet 
and tail are black ; the rest of the body 
and tip of the ears white. 

TAPROBArcA (with the ancients); the 
name of Ceylon. 

Tar; a well knoum sul)staBce obtained 
chiefly from the pine by burning in a close, 
smothering heat. Some of the unctuous 



TAR-TARLETON. 



139 



ipecies of bitumen are also called mineral 
tar, (See Bihmeru) The tar of the 
north of Europe is 6U])erior tO/that of the 
U. States, on account of the latter being 
prepared from dead wood, while the 
fbnner is procured from trees recently 
felled. The mode practised in the Scan- 
dinavian peninsula is precisely that de- 
scribed by Theophrastus and Diosoorides, 
as in use in ancient Greece. A conical 
cavity is made in the eround, with a cast- 
iron pan at bottom, from which leads a 
funnel. The billets of wood are thrown 
into this cavity, and, being covered with 
turf^ are slowly burnt without flame. Jhe 
tar which exudes during combustion is 
conducted off through the funnel above- 
mentioned into barrels, which are imme- 
diately bunged, and fit for exportation. 
Tar River. (See Pconlico,) 
TARArrruLA. (See Appendix.) 
Tare is an allowance for the outside 
package, that contains such foods as can- 
not be unpacked without detriment; or 
for the papers, threads, bands, &c., that 
enclose or bind any goods imported loose, 
or which, though imported in casks, 
chests, &c., yet cannot be unpacked, and 
weighed net. 

Tarentum (Tapaf) ; au old Greek colo- 
ny in Lower Italy, founded by Lacedee- 
monian Partbenii, 700 B. C. It was one 
of the most flourishing and powerful 
cides of Magna Gnecia, and for a long 
time defend^ its fireedom against the at- 
tacks of the Romans. It was also dis- 
tinguished for luxury and splendor. 
F^agoras found many disciples here, 
and the fine arts were encouraged. Ar- 
chytas, a mathematician, was a Taren- 
tine. The city was taken by the Romans 
R C. 372. The harbor of the modem 
Taranto is choked up with sand ; but the 
place has some trade, and a population of 
14,000 souls. Marshal Macdonald re- 
ceived his title of duke of Tarentum 
finom this place. 
Tarentum, Duke of. (Bee Macdonald.) 
Taroum (ifderpretation, translatian) ; a 
Chaldee version of the Old Testament 
Afler the Babylonish captivity, the an- 
cient Heln^w had gradually become un- 
intelligible to the common people (see 
HebrtwlAmguagt^ and JtwB) ; and it there- 
fore became necessary to read or explain 
the Scripttires in the synagogues in the 
vulgar language of the country. The 
okiest Targum is that of Chikeloe, which 
comprises only the pentateuch ; the sec- 
ond, or that of Jonathan, is a version of 
the prophets. These are supposed to 
have been written about the time of our 



Savior. The third targum is also a ver- 
sion, or rather a paraphrase of the law, 
accompanied with many glosses and ft- 
bles. The fourth, likewise of the law, is 
called the ^Jerusalem tai^gum,** because it 
is in the Syro-Chaldaic language, which 
was spoken at Jerusalem. The fifUi is a 
paraphrase of the megHloth (Ruth, Esther, 
EcQlesiastes, Solomon's Song, Lamenta- 
tions) ; the sixth, of Esther ; the seventh, 
of Job, the Psalms and Proverbs ; and 
the eiffhth, of the Chronicles. These six 
are of later origin and less value than the 
two first mentioned. Several of the tar- 
gums are contained in the polyglot Bibles. 
(See Polyglot,) 

Tariff, or Tarif ; first a list of certain 
merchandises ; then a list of duties on 
imports and exports. This word, like 
many others used in commerce, is derived 
from the Italian, in w hich it is tariffa ; 
this again comes, like several other ex- 
pressions relating to commerce or naviga- 
tion, from the E^. In Persian, it is tarif. 
In Arabian, the verb oi/ signifies to know, 
which in the second form becomes tarify 
signifying to make known. The substan- 
tive derived from the verb therefore signi- 
fies nofj/lcation. 

Tarleton, general, is the son of a 
merchant of Liverpool, into whose count- 
ing-house he was introduced ; but a rem- 
ment being raised in that town, Mr. Tarle- 
ton quitted the pen for the sword, and took 
a commission m that regiment, in which 
he soon rose to the rank of captain. In 
America, he very much distinguished 
himself by his courage, and was allowed 
to raise a corps of horse and foot, called 
a legion. He then obtamed the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. In this capacity he 
distinguished himself for his intrepidity 
as a partisan ; but a defeat which he met 
with from the American general Sum- 
ter, did not speak much in favor of his 
talents as a general. On his remm, he 
published a History of the Campaign in 
the Southern Provinces of America, in 
which he endeavored to justif}' his con- 
duct. At the peace, he went on half-pay. 
He had, however, the good fortune to be 
introduced to, and favored with the con- 
fidence of, the heir-apparent, of whom 
he was, for some time, a constant com- 
panion. He also, by the interest of his 
family, obtained a seat in parliament, for 
his native place, Liverpool, and while in 
the house, he warmly entered into the 
opposition, vrith whom the prince then 
acted. While a member, he published a 
Speech intended to have been spoken ; 
and, in 1810, a Speech, which he did 



140 



TARLETON—TARQUINIUS. 



speak. He has risen regularly in the 
army to tlie rank of general, and to the 
command of the eighth regiment of. dra- 
goons, and to be governor of Berwick. 
General Tarleton married a lady of the 
Bertie family, which has connected him 
with the houses of Cholmondeley and 
Salisbury. 

Tarn; a department of France. (See 
D&partmtni.) 

Tarn et Garonne ; a department of 
France. (See Department,) 

Taroc ; a game at cards, perhaps the 
most interesting, but also the most diffi- 
cult. It is played with seventy-eight 
cards, and derives its name from the 
twenty-two trumps or tarocs in it, the 
most impoftant of which is the exciue. 
If cards, as is said, are an invention of 
the Arabians, and carried by them to 
Spain, or by the crusaders to Italy, &c., 
tlio French and German cards, and the 
games founded on them, must be explain- 
ed from national customs ; but the taroc 
would seem to have remained in a great 
degree &ithfUl to its Oriental origin. The 
difference between the taroc-cards and 
the common French consists in those 
twenty-two tarocs and four others, be- 
tween the queen and knave, called ctwcds. 

Tarpawling; a broad piece of can- 
vass, well daubed with tar, and used to 
cover the hatchways of a ship at sea, to 
prevent the penetration of the rain or 
sea- water which may at times rush over 
the decks. 

Tarfeia, the daughter of Tarpeius, the 
^vemor of the citadel of Rome, prom- 
ised to open the gates of the city to the 
Sabines, provided they gave her their 
gold bracelets, or, as she expressed it, 
-what they carried on their left hands. 
The Sabines consented, and, as they en- 
tered the gates, threw not only their brace- 
lets, but ueir shields, upon Tarpeia, who 
was crushed under the weight. She was 
buried in the capitol, which, from her, 
was called the Tarpeian rock ; and there 
Roman male&ctors were afterwards 
thrown down a deep precipice. 

TA&quiNius, Lucius, sumamed Priacus, 
or the Elder, fifth king of Rome, was the 
son of a merchant of Uorinth, who setded 
at Tarquinii, in Etruria. His wife, Tan- 
aquil, urged him to repair to Rome, where 
he ingratiated himself both with the king 
Ancus Martins and the people ; and the 
former conferred on him tne guardianship 
of his two sons. These he superseded on 
their fiithei's death, and procured the suf- 
frages of the people for himself. His first 
step was to admit two hundred plebeians 



into the senate ; afler which he engaged in 
a war with the Latins, and, having finally 
defeated a confederacy between them and 
the Sabines and Etrurians, obliged them 
to sue for peace. For this success, he 
was honorea with a triumph ; and he em- 
ployed the spoils of war in erecting the 
Circus Maximus. (See Circus.] A con- 
federacy of all the Etrurian tribes against 
the Romans followed, which, after a war 
of nine yean* duration, terminated in the 
Etrurians acknowledging him for their 
sovereign. Tarquin enclosed the city 
with walls, and constructed those cele- 
brated sewers, which, eVeu at the summit 
of the Roman splendor, were viewed with 
admiration. (See Cloacit,) A new war 
breaking out with the Sabines, he obliged 
them to purchase peace by the surrendei 
of all their fortresses. Tarquin, who had 
vowed a temple to Jupiter, Juno and Mi- 
nerva, now commenced it on the Tarpeian 
rock, and thus founded the principal seat of 
the Roman religion. (See CapitoL) He had 
reached his eightieth year, when the sons 
of Ancus procured his assassination (B. C. 
576j. Tanaquil kept his death a secret 
until the succession was secured to her 
son-in-law. — Servius T\illiua Tarqvdmus, 
named Superbut, or the Proud^ is suppos- 
ed to have been fiirandson to Tarquinius 
Priscus. Servius Tullius married his two 
daughters to the brothers Aruns and Tar- 
quin ; the latter of whom was violent and 
ambitious, while his brother was mild and 
unaspiring. Their characters were re- 
vereed in their respective wives. The 
tragical deaths of Aruns and the wife of 
Tarquin, and a criminal union between 
the laner and his sister-in-law TuUia, fol- 
lowed, and, finally, the murder of Servi- 
us, and the accession of Tarquin to the 
soverei^ty, B. C. 534. He supported his 
usurpation by a band of foreign mercena- 
ries; many of the senatora went into ban- 
ishment, and the plebeians found the yoke 
Sress as hardly on themselves. He un- 
ertook a war against the Volscians, as 
also against the ^ibines, and was victori- 
ous in both instances. Returning to Rome, 
he twice triumphed, and employed the 
idle populace in finishuiff the ^reat circus 
and sewere commenced by his grandfa- 
ther. It was in the reign of this Tarquin 
that the Sibylline books were brought to 
Rome, where they were for many years 
resorted to for the purposes of supersti- 
tion or state policy. Brutus (q. v.), ta- 
king advantage of the anger of the people 
by the unhappy ftte of Lucretia (q. v.), 
procured a decree for the banishment of 
Tarquin and his sons; and Che king, at 



TARQUINIUS— TARTARIC ACID. 



141 



th« age of seventy six (B. C. 509), was 
•Uiged to abandon 'his capital, and take 
refuge in Etruria. The Taiquins interest- 
ed some of the neighboring states in their 
&vor, and Porsenna, king of the Clusini, 
an Etrurian tribe, invest^ Rome in their 
behalf^ but, discovering treachery in their 
conduct, renounced their cause. The 
Latina aJso took anns in their favor ; but 
the new rejniblic finalljr triumphed over 
all its enemierf! Tarqum at length, hav- 
ing seen all his sons perish in the field, 
redred to Cunue, where he died in the 
ninetieth year of his age, and the four- 
teenth of his exile. (For a critical exam- 
ination of the history of the Taniuins, as 
here given, see Niebuhr's History of 
BomtJ) 

TABRAGONAJanciendy Tarraco)\ a town 
in Spain, in Catak>nia; Ion. P 15^ £.; 
kL 4P 9^ N. ; population, 7500. It is sit- 
tiated on the coast of the Mediterranean, 
surrounded with walls and turrets, and 
has a magnificent Gothic cathedral. Un- 
der the Romans, it was the capital of the 
province Tarraconensis, and was, at one 
time, one of the chief cities of Spain. In 
516, a council was held here. It was be- 
sieced and sacked, in 1811, by die French, 
under marshal Suchet 

Tarbas. (See CemenU,) 

Tarsus, an ancient city of Asia Minor, 
the capital of Cilicia, is said by Strabo to 
have been fbunded by Sardanapalus. It 
was adorned by a number of masnificent 
temples, as well as with a ^mnasium and 
theatre. Its inhabitants enjoyed the privi- 
leges of Roman citizens, and the city rose 
to such distinction as to rival Athens, An- 
tioch and Alexandria in wealth and 
grandeur, as well as in the arts and sci- 
ences. It is venemble as the birth-place 
of Sl PauL It is now a poor village. 

Tarsus of Birds. (See Omiihology.) 

Tartaqlia ; a mask in the Neapohtan 
comedy. 

Tartar, Cream of. (See Crtam of 
Tartar.) 

Tartaric Acid. This acid, as it ex- 
ists in veoetables, is usually combined with 
potash, forming a salt with an excess of 
acid — the super-tartrate or bi-tartrote of 
potash. This salt is deposited in consid- 
erable quantity from the juice of the 
grape during its conversion into wine, or 
rather from the wine during the slow fer- 
roentatiod which it suffers in the cask. 
It does not appear to be a product of the 
fermentative process, but exists before 
this m the juice of the grape, and is mere- 
ly separated. It also exists in other fruits, 
luutlcularly in the tamarind, of which it 



forms a considerable part As deposited 
from wine, it is impure, having mingled 
with it coloring matter and tartrate of 
lime. In this state, it forms the crude 
tartar of commerce, named tekite or red 
tartar, accordin|f to its color. It is nurifi- 
ed by boiling it m water, with the addition 
of a small quanti^ of fine clay, which at- 
tracts the coloring matter. By evif))ora- 
tion, it is obtain^ crystallized, fbrroinff 
the purified tartar, crystals, or cream of 
tartar of the shops. From this salt the 
tartaric acid is ontained, by adding to a 
solution of the super-tartrate of potash in 
boiling water, caroonate of Ume in pow- 
der, as long as any effervescence is excit- 
ed : the tartrate of lime which is formed 
and precipitated, being well washed, is 
decomposed by adding sulphuric acid 
equal in weight to the chalk that had been 
employed, previously diluted with half its 
weiffht of water, digesting them with a 
moderate heat : the sulphuric acid com- 
bines with the lime, and forms the sul- 
phate, which, being of sparing solubility, 
IS separated, while the tartaric acid is dis- 
solved by the water, and, by evaporation, 
is obtained in a crystallized form. The 
crystals are taUes orprisms, white, and 
nearly transparent. Tlieir taste is sour, 
and tiiey deeply redden vegetable blues. 
Tfaev are very soluble m water, and form 
a solution so concentrated as to have an 
oily appearance. By the action of very 
strong nitric acid, tartaric acid is convert- 
ed into oxalic acid. The crystals are 
composed of acid 66 and water 9 m 75 
parts. The add appears to be composed 
of 

Hydrogen, 4.48 

Carbon, 35,82 

Oxygen, 59.70 

100.00 

Tartaric acid is decomposed by heat, 
affording, among other products, a white 
sublimate, which is a peculiar acid, nam- 
ed, from its origin, mpro4artarxc add, 
which has been regarded by some as 
acetic acid disguised by the addition of a 
little oily matter. Tartaric acid combines 
with the alkalies and earths, forming salts 
named tcairates. The acid appears to 
have a peculiar tendency to enter into 
combination )vith more than one base, and 
to form ternary salts. It has also a ten- 
dency to form salts with an excess of acid, 
in uniting with those bases, with which it 
forms soluble compounds. Tartrate of 
potash is usually formed by neutralizing 
the excess of acid in the bi-taTtrate,bvthe 
addition of carbonate of potash, from 



143 



Tartaric acib-tartary. 



its affinity to water, it ib not easily crya- 
tallized, but, by a slow evaporation, affords 
four-aided prisms. It is oeliquescent in a 
humid atmosphere, and yety soluble m 
water, whence its name, also, of soluble 
tartar. Tartrate of soda is soluble and 
ciTstallizable. A triple salt, the tartrate 
of potash and soda, formerly named /2b- 
ckalt aalt^ is formed by neutralizing the 
excess of acid in the super-tartrate of pot- 
ash, by addinff carbonate of soda. It 
crystallizes in rhomboidal prisms, soluble 
in five parts of water. Tartaric acid acts on 
some of the metals, and it may be com- 
bined with the oxides of all of them b^ 
double affinity. By employing the bi- 
tartrate of. potash to act on these oxides, 
ternary compounds are obtained. The 
most important of these is that formed 
with the oxide of antimony. It has 
long been known, In medical practice, un- 
der the name of tarteo' emehc, as one of 
the mildest and most manageable of the 
antimonial preparations, ft is prepared 
by boiling three parts of the brown oxide 
(obtained by deflagrating sulphuret of an- 
timony with nitre) with four parts of bi- 
tartrate of potash in 32 parts of water for 
half an hour : the solution, when strained, 
is set aside to crystallize. 

Tartarus, m the earliest mythology 
of the Greeks; the kingdom of the detul, 
the infernal regions in general, or the 
realm of the subterranean Jupiter — ^Pluto. 
(See Cemetery.) At a later period, it was 
limited to that part of t^e infernal regions 
in which the Titans and the damned 
were confined. It was represented as a 
dark and gloomy region, surrounded by 
a triple wall, and encircled by the fieiy 
river Phlegethon, Cocytus, the stream of 
lamentation, and Acheron. We find a de- 
scription of Tartarus in Hesiod, one of the 
earliest Greek poets ; and Virgil (JEn. vi, 
577) paints the norrors of the place. Here 
lay the monstrous Tityos (who attempted 
to violate Latona), stretching over nme 
acres, while two vuluires incessantly 
gnawed his liver; here Sisyphus rolled a 
ponderous stone; Ixion revolved on his 
wheel ; Tantalus was tormented with 
inextinguishable hunger and thirst, and 
the Danaids toiled in vain to fill their 
sieves fix>m the waters of the Lethe. 
(See, also, the article HieroglyphieSi divis- 
ion Egyptian Mythology*) 

Tartart, Tartars. The old geogra- 
phers divided the countnr of the Tartars 
mto European or Little Tartary, and Asi- 
atic or Great Tartary. The former com- 
prised those countnes round the Black 
sea which were inhabited by the Nogay 



Tartara, and the Budshiac Tartars, or 
Bessarabians, and A part of the oountxy 
between the Dnieper and the Dniester. 
But smce these districts have been an- 
nexed to Russia (1784), the name has 
gone out of use ; and they constitute the 

SvemmentB of Taurida (q. v.), Cherson 
V.) and Ekaterinoslav, which contain 
several commercial cities, and, besides 
Tartars, have many Russian, Greek, Ger- 
man and Jewish colonists among their 
population. Asiatic Tartary, called, from 
Its extent. Great Tartary, borders on the 
Asiatic provinces of Russia, on Persia, 
Thibet and the Chinese empire. The 
northern part (Dschagatai, or Zagatai, or 
Independent Tartary) contains extensive 
steppes, and is partly occupied by no- 
macuc tribes, which are governed by sep- 
arate khans (princes), and differ consider- 
ably in their character and manners : some 
of these khans are under the protection 
of Russia. The southern part is called 
Great Bucharia, in which, among other 
commercial cities, is Samarcand, once the 
residence of Timour. Little Bucharia ia 
subject to China. (See Bucharia.) The 
whole of Central Asia, to the west of 
Dschagatai, ia often improperiy swled 
Chinese Tartary. This error arises m>m 
the confusion of the Mongol and Man- 
tchoo tribes, who roam over these regions, 
with the Tartars, with whom they have 
no affinity. (See Mongols, Calmucs, and 
Mandshvres.) The proper Tartars, or, 
more correcdy, TatarSj are divided into 
numerous branches, and, under dififerent 
names, occupy a large extent of territory 
in Europe and Asia. Their true name is 
7\arkSf or Turcomanns, that of Tatar be- 
ing, according to some, a Chinese term 
for all the nomadic tribes of Central Asia, 
and, according to others, the name of a 
Mongol tribe. Once the terror of their 
neighbors, and not without civilization, 
some traces and monuments of which 
still exist, they are now, for the most part, 
subject to foreign masters. Some tribes 
continue to preserve their independence, 
occupying regions too barren to ofier any 
temptation to conquerors, or too remote 
to be easily accessible ; but these circum- 
stances, which have protected them fix>m 
the arms of foreign conquerors, have also 
prevented them firom being much visited 
by travellers ; and litde is uiown of them 
and of their country. The Tartar popu- 
lation in Rusna amounts to about three 
million souls, residing chiefly in the south- 
em provinces, in stationary habitations, 
and occupied with asriculture : they are 
peaceful and industnous in their liabita. 



TARTARY— TARTUFFE. 



148 



Seme Tartar colonies are distributed 
among the Russian villages in tbeeoyem- 
menta of Orenburg, Kasan and Tobolsjc, 
and seyeral hordes are independent allies 
ef Ruflsilu The Russian Tartars consist 
of sereral branches; the Tartars proper, 
the Nbgays, the Bashkirs, the Kirahises, 
Yakoutes, and Teleutea. The Tartars 
proper are descendants of the two great 
hordes which the successors of Gengis 
Khan established in Siberia and on £e 
Volga. They comprise the tribes of Kasan, 
Astrachan and Taurida. They still pre- 
serve the peculiar national physiognomy. 
The true Tartar is well formed, of middle 
size, slender, with small, but lively and 
expressive eyes, and of decent and even 
dignified demeanor: he is frank, kind, 
hospitable, peaceful, courageous, fond of 
instruction and of the arts, agriculture and 
mechanical occupation. The females are 
not without grace and beauty. About 
one fifth of these Tartars have embraced 
tiie Christian religion ; the rest are Mo- 
hammedans. Some of them still live in 
tents, and lead a wandering life. The 
Siberian Tartars have intermixed witli 
other races, and lost much of tlieir na- 
tional peculiarity: some of them are sta- 
tionary, and cultivate the ground ; but the 
most of them are nomads : they are either 
heathens or Mohammedans. The Nogay 
Tartars, who dwell on the Cuban and 
the Volga, and in some other districts, are 
Mohammedans, and chiefly lead a wan- 
dering life: they are much inferior to the 
Tartars proper in civilization and personal 
appearance. The Bashkirs are in a still 
lower condition : they wander in summer, 
and dw^ll in villages and wooden huts in 
winter. (See Bashkirs,) The Kirghises, 
who inhabit the great steppe of Orenburg, 
breed cattle, live in tents, are Mohamme- 
dans, and resemble the true Tartars more 
neariy than the last mentioned tribes. 
(See Ktrgkises,) The Yakoutes and Te- 
leutes are few in number, lead a wander- 
ing life, worship idols, and are altogether 
In a low state of civilization. TJie Bu- 
chanans, who are found in Russia, live in 
cities and villages, and are industrious 
woricmen. (See TurcomanicL, and Us- 
hecks.) 

Tartiiti, Giuseppe, an Italian musician 
and composer, a native of Pirano, in the 
province of Istria, was bom in 1692. His 
ftther gave him an expensive education, 
with the view of qualifying him to folio W' 
the law as his profession, and had him 
also isfltructed in all the accomplishments 
of a gendeman. Among them music was 
not ^rgotten ; but it was not till a secret 



marriage alienated fom him the afiections 
of his frienda, that he thought of making 
it conducive to his support An ecclesi- 
astic, connected with tne ftmily, procured 
him a situation in the orchestra of his 
convent, where an accident discovering 
his retreat, matters were at length accom- 
modated, and he v^as enabled to settle 
with his vrife at Venice. Here the exam- 
ple of the celebrated Veracini excited in 
him the strongest emulation; and he is 
sbid to have retired to Ancona for the 
sole purpose of being able to practise on 
the violin in greater tranquillity than cir- 
cumstances aUowed him to enjoy at Ven- 
ice. While thus occupied, he discovered, 
in 1714, the phenomenon of *<the third 
sound," i. e. the resonance of a third note 
when the two upper notes of a chord arc 
sounded ; and, after seven years* practice, 
obtained the situation of leader of the or- 
chestra in the cathedral of St. Anthony nt 
Padua. In this capacity he continuecl to 
act till death, with increasing reputation, 
and declining, from devotion to his patron 
saint, many lulvantageous oftera t>otn from 
Paris and London. A singular story is 
told respecting one of his most celebrated 
compositions. One night he dreamed that 
he had made a compact with the devil, 
and bound him to his service. To ascer- 
tain the musical abilities of his associate, 
he gave him his violin, and desireil him 
to play him a solo, which Satan executed 
in so masterly a manner, that Tartini, 
awaking in the ecstasy which it produced, 
and seizing his instrument, endeavored to 
recall the delicious sounds. His eftbrts 
were so far effectual as to produce the 
piece generally admired under the name 
of the Devil's Sonata : still the produc- 
tion wa9, in his own estimation, so infe- 
rior to that which he had heard in his 
sleep, as to cause him to declare that, 
could he have procured a subsistence in 
any other line of life, he should have 
broken his violin in despair, and renounced 
music for ever. Besides his m usical com- 
positions, Tartini was tlie author of sev- 
eral treatises on the science. His death 
took place at Padua in 1770. 

Tartsche; a round shield, formerly 
much in use with the Turks. Perhaps the 
word is of Slavonic ori^n, as it still has 
this signification in Russian and Polish. 

Tartuffe ; the chief character in Mo- 
li^re's best comedx» first played, in 1d64, 
before Louis XIV. Tartuflte is a hypo- 
crite ; and the word is at present usea to 
designate such, not only in French, but . 
also in other languages. Some say that 
the character of Tartufie depicts the con- 



m 



TARTUFFE-TASSO. 



fenor of Louk XIV, father Lacbaise, 
whom Moli^re once saw eadiig truffles 
(in French, tarluffes) with great relish. 
Others say that the poet, being at the 
bouse of the nuncio, saw two monks 
praying, apparently very devoutly, when a 
Savoyard entering with truffles to sell, the 
two monks exclaimed with great enthusi- 
asm, Osigmrtj tartuffi! tarhffi ! The lat- 
ter version does not seem probable. Mo- 
li^re had already many enemies amonff the 
clersy, lawyers and physicians; and all 
the'rools and bigots were against the pub- 
lic performance of TarmflS. Two years 
Moli^re applied in vain for permission- to 
the coiut, me papal iefpte, the prelates, 
&c. At length permission veas obtained ; 
but just as the curtain was about to rise, it 
was prohibited again, of which Moli^re 
pointedly informed the public himself 
with these words, referring to the presi- 
dent of the porliament : Monsieur It prtsi- 
dent ne veui pea qu^on U joue ! At len^h, 
in 1669, Moli^re succeeded in bringing 
the play on the stage ; and for three months 
Tartuffe was performed uninterruptedly — 
a sufficient l^oof of the justice of its satire. 

Tasch ; Tui^ish for Mone, in many ge- 
ographical names. 

Tasso, Bernardo, a distinguished epic 
and lyric poet, whose fame has, however, 
been eclipsed by that of his son Torquato, 
was bom at Bergamo, in 1493, and was of 
an ancient and noble &mily. His educa-* 
tion was conducted with great care ; and he 
not only cultivated the lighter literature, 
but devoted himself to the study of poli- 
tics. He had already become known as 
a poet throughout Italy, when Guido Ran- 
gone, general of the pope, and a patron 
of learning, took him into his service, and 
employed nim in managing the most dif^ 
ficult negotiations with Cfement VII at 
Rome, and Francis I in France. Ber- 
nardo subsequently entered into the ser- 
vice of Renata, duchess of Ferrara, but 
soon left her court, and went first to Pa- 
dua and then to Venice. Here he pub- 
lished a collection of his poems, which 
gave him a place among the first of livinff 
|X)ets. Ferrante Sanseverino, prince of 
Salerno, engaged him in his service, in 
1531, as secretary, on honorable and ad- 
vantageous terms. When the prince fol- 
lowed Charles V to Tunis, in a galley 
equipped at his own cost, Tasso accom- 
panied him, and, afler his return, was 
sent on public business to Sgain. In 
1539, he married the rich and beautiful 
Porzia de' Rossi, and retired, with the 
consent of the prince, to Sorrento, where 
he lived till 1547. But the misfortunes of 



his master, whose estates had been seized 
by Charles V, on account of his opposi- 
tion to the introduction of the inqumtion 
into Naples, involved Tasso in the great- 
est embarraasmentB. He was compelled 
to seek another place of refuse, and was 
finally invited by the duke of Urbino to 
take up his residence at Pesaro. The 
leisure which he now enjoyed was era- 
ployed in finishing his ArrnidOj which he 
published at Venice in 1560. In 1563, 
the duke of Mantua engaged him in his 
service, and appointed nim governor of 
Ostiglia, where he died in 1569. His re- 
mains were interred at Mantua under a 
handsome monument erected by the duke, 
with the inscription Ossa Bemardi T\xs8i; 
but his son Torquato afterwards removed 
them to Ferrara. His chief work, Anni- 
doy a romantic epic, displays much tal- 
ent and art : in the expression of the 
tender passions, in his descriptions of na- 
ture, in vivid delineations of adventures 
and battles, all the ornaments of poetry 
are happily introduced. His lyrical and 
other poems, in five books, are among the 
most charming productions of the Italian 
muse. We have also a Discourse on Po- 
etry, and three books of Letters, from his 
pen. 

Tasso, Torquato. This poet, celebrat- 
ed for his immortal woriis, as well as his 
unhappy fiite, the son of the above-men- 
tioned Bernardo Tasso, was bom in the 
year 1544, at Sorrento. His talents early 
and rapidly developed themselves. While 
yet a litUe child, he was always erave and 
sedate. From his seventh to his tenth 
year, he attended the schools of the Jes- 
uits in Naples, and learned the Latin and 
Greek languages thoroughlv* He then 
accompanied his fiither to Kome, where, 
under his superintendence, he continued 
his studies with equal success for two 
years. He then went to Bergamo, and, 
six months afler, to Pesaro, where his 
father had met with a favorable reception 
from the duke of Urbino. Here he shar- 
ed the instruction of the duke's son. His 
fiivorite studies were philosophy and po- 
etry ; but he also devoted himself to math- 
ematics and chivalrous exercises. When 
his father resided at Venice, he remaine<l 
there with him for a year, and then went, 
at the a^ of thirteen years, to Padun, 
Avith the mtention of studying law. But 
his genius drew him irresistibly to poetry, 
and, at the age of seventeen years, be 
came out with an epic poem, in twelve 
cantos (Riruddo), which he dedicated to the 
cardinal Ludovico of Este. Italy received 
this work with universal applause; and 



TASSO. 



145 



his fiither consented, afler a long opposi- 
tion, that he should relinquish tne study 
6f the law. Torauato now devoted him- 
self with rekiouhfed zeal to literary and 
philosophical studies, and, with this view, 
accepted an invitation to Bologna. Here 
he commenced the execution of a plan of 
an epic poem, which he had already 
formed in Padua ~4he conquest of Jeru- 
salem under the command of Godfrey of 
Bouillon. But, in the midst of these oc- 
cupations, he was unexpectedly disturbed. 
He was falsely accused as the author of a 
satirical poem in circulation, and was 
subjected to a j ud icial examination. This 
induced him to leave Bologna. He went 
to Modena, and then accepted the invita- 
tion of the friend of his youth, the young 
Scipio Gonzaga, who bad founded an 
academy in Padua, and wished to see 
Taaso at the head of h. He studied with 
peat assiduity the philosophy of Aristotle, 
out still more that of Plato, towards whom 
he felt himself drawn by the cords of 
^mpathy. Meanwhile, he did not lose 
ag^t of his epic poem. How intently the 
theory of this species of poem occupied 
him may be seen by the three dialo^cs 
which he then composed on the subject. 
The cardinal Ludovico of Este appointed 
him a gentleman of his court, and wished 
that he should be present in Ferrara at the 
nuptials of his brother Alphonso with an 
archduchess of Austria. Tasso went, in 
October, 1565, and attended the splendid 
JUe9 with which those nuptials were cel- 
ebrated. The sisters of the duke, Lucre- 
tia and Leonora, both indeed no longer 
young, but beautiful and lovely, gave the 
poet their friendship; in particular the 
latter, who presented him to Alphonso. 
This prince, who knew that Tasso wished 
to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem in 
an epic poem, received him in a most 
flattering manner, and warmly encour- 
aged his undertaking, so that the poet re- 
turned to his labor, which had been inter- 
rupted during two years, and determined 
CO dedicate his work to the duke Alphon- 
so, and to raise in it a monument to the 
&me of the ducal house, from which he 
then enjoyed such distinguished favor. 
For a short time only he feft Ferrara to 
visit Padua, Milan, Pavia, and Mantua, 
where he saw his father. He returned 
with increased celebrity. The heart of 
TasBo was much affected by the unex- 
pected death of his father; but neither 
this misfortune, nor other distractions, 
prevented him from laboring every day on 
his poem, of which he had finished eight 
cantos, when he travelled in the suite of 

VOL. XII. 13 



the cardinal of Este to France, in 1571. 
Here he was received with distinction by 
Charles IX, as well as by the whole 
court The poet Ronsard was his friend ; 
and they communicated to each other 
their poetical labors. In tBe mean time, 
Taaso may have expressed himself too 
freely and unguardedly concerning some 
subjects which then occupied the minds 
of all : he lost the frivor of the cardinal, 
and, in consequence, appean to have been 
involved in some embarrassments, and 
finally departed fi>r Italy. He returned to 
Rome, and soon entered, according to his 
wishes, into the service of the duke Al- 
phonso, by the mediation of the princess 
of Urbino, Lucretia of Este, and the 
princess LeononL The conditions were 
favorable and honorable, and left him in 
possession of entire freedom. But hardly 
bad he applied himself again to the woric, 
which the world expected with impa- 
tience, when the death of the duchess 
again interrupted his labore. Alphonso 
soon afler made a journey to Rome, and 
Tasso took advantage of the leisure thus 
afforded him to compose his Amwia^ the 
plan of which had been for a longtime in 
his mind. The representation of an idyl 
in dialogue, written by Asostino degPAr- 
genti, at which he had been nresent 
six yeara before, in Ferrara, had delighted 
him, and suggested to him the idea of a 
similar work, which he now completed in 
two months, and which &r surfMkssed all 
that Italy then possessed of this kind. 
From this dramatic performance the ope- 
ra may be considered to have taken its 
rise. The duke was most agreeably sur- 
prised, on his return, by this performance, 
and ordered the representation of it to be 
made with the greatest splendor. Tasso's 
consideration and favor with the duke 
increased; but his good fortune excited 
the envy of many, vnio continually medi- 
tated his ruin. The princess of Urbino 
wishing to become acquainted with the 
poem, which was the subject of general 
admiration, Tasso paid her a visit at Pe- 
saro, where the old prince Guidobaldo, as 
well as his son and daughter-in-law, re- 
ceived him in a very flattering manner. 
For several months, he lived in the 
charming castle Durante, in the most in- 
timate friendship with Lucretia, who vrill- 
ingly listened to the verses in which he 
immortalized her. With rich presents 
he returned to Ferrara, and occupied him- 
self again with his epic poem, which he 
once more reluctantly discontinued, to 
accompany the duke to Venice, whither 
the latter went to meet king Henry IH, 



146 



TASSO. 



who had just exchanged the throne of 
Poland for that of France, and who was 
now invited to visit Fenrara. This jour- 
ney took place in the hottest season of the 
year, and brought on the poet a fever, 
which continncd a long time, and inter- 
rupted all his labors. iWing his conva- 
lescence, he finished, in the early part of 
the year 1575, his Goffrtda—^e fruit of 
so much exertion, and the source of such 
great misfortunes to him. But he wish- 
ed, before publishing it, to obtain the 
judgment <M his friends; and their dis- 
cordant opinions perplexed and agitated 
him to such a degree as to occasion an- 
other burning fever, fifom which, however, 
he soon recovered. He immediately ex- 
amined his work anew, in order to re- 
touch or alter It in particular places. The 
duke treated him with redoubled atten- 
tion and distinction. Taaso accompanied 
him on his ioumeys of pleasure to Belri- 
guardo, and Lucretia, who had separated 
nx>m her husband, and bad returned to 
her brother, wished to have the poet 
always with her. It was with difficulty 
that he obtained, under these circum- 
stances, in November, 1575, permission to 
go to Rome, in order to subject his poem 
to a new and thorough examination. 
Here he was well received, in particular 
by his frieiHl Scipio di Goozifa, By 
hnn he vras presented to the cardmal Fer- 
dinand de' Medici (brother, and afterwards 
successor, of the grand-duke of Tuscany), 
who, knowing tlm the poet was no longer 
pleased with Ferrara, oropoeed to him the 
service of the grand-duke. Tasso, how- 
ever, declined, nom a feeling of gratitude 
towards the house of Este. He uierefore 
soon returned to Ferrara, where, not long 
after, arrived the young and beautifud 
countess Leonora oanvitali, wife of the 
count of Scandiano, a lady whom Tasso 
ardently admired, and whom he has cele- 
brated in his poems. She, also, on her 
part, was not insensible to his friendship ; 
and the duke about this time conferred 
upon him the vacant office of historiograr 
pW to the house of Este : thus, to his 
misfortune, he found himself bound more 
elosely to Ferrara; and the hau^ of his 
rivals and enemies was increased. He 
was greatly troubled by the information 
diat ms poem had been printed in a city 
of Italy, as it did not appear to him suffi- 
ciendy finished for the press, and as he 
saw himself also, by this means, deprived 
of the advantages which he had noped 
for firom the utbor of so many years. 
This and other troubles, partly real, pardy 
i m agi n a r y, increased h»mebncholy: he 



believed himself pemcuted by his ene- 
mies, calumniated, accused. In this state 
of mind, one evening, in the apartment of 
the duchess of li rhino, he drew his 
sword against one of her servants. This 
induced the duke to arrest him, and 
confine him in a house near the pal- 
ace ; but, upon his entreaty, he restored 
him to Uberty, and merely desired that he 
would put himself under the care of a 
physician. A cure appeared to be effect- 
ed, and the duke took him on a journey 
of pleasure to Befa-iguardo, in order to 
console and divert him, after he bad 
caused the grand inquisitor to satisfy 
some scruples of conscience which had 
arisen in Tasso's mind, on account of 
doubts upon religious subjects. But all 
this care was not sufficient to restore the 
poet's peace, and the duke at last saw 
nimselr under the necessity of letting him 
return, according to his desire, to the 
Franciscans in Ferrara. His stuation 
became continually worse: he imagined 
himself surrounded by perils, gave him- 
self the most painful reproaches, and, at 
last, in this f;ate of mental disorder, took 
advantage of a moment when he was not 
watched, and, destitute of every thin^, 
without even his manuscripts, made his 
escape on the 20th of July, 1577. He has- 
tened to his sister Cornelia, who lived in 
a state of widowhood at Sorrento, in Na- 
ples, and who received him most tender- 
ly. By her care, he at last began to 
grow composed. He repented of his pre- 
cipitate ffight, and presented to the duke 
and princesses a petition that he might be 
restored to his place, but particularlv to 
their fevor. He, indeed, went back to 
Ferrara ; but his old malady soon return- 
ed, and he escaped a second time. In 
vain did he seek shelter in Mantua, Padua 
and Venice: at the court of Urbino he 
first met with a worthy reception. But, 
notwithstanding all the firiendship and 
care with which he was treated, his mel- 
ancholy acquired new strength : he 
thought himself not secure ; and, while 
he fied from imaginaiy dangers, be rush- 
ed upon real ones. He went, at last, to 
Turin. Here a friend recognised him, 
extricated him from his embarrassments, 
and presented him to the marquis Fi- 
lippo d'Este, who received him in a very 
fiiendly and liberal manner. The arch- 
bishop of Turin, an old friend of Bernardo 
Tasso, introduced him to duke Charles 
Emanuel, who received him under the 
same conditions as those on which he had 
lived in Ferrara. Once more the unhap- 
py Tasso took courage, and bri^^t sparb 



TASSO. 



147 



shone through the gloomy mist which 
had veiled his mind, and which but too 
800D resumed the ascendency. He longed 
to be once more in Ferrara, and thought 
that the nuptials of the duke with Marca^ 
reta Gonzaga would be the most suitable 
time for his appearance there. He went, 
but was bitterly disappointed. He was 
received on every side with indifference, 
even with mockerv and contempt: nei- 
ther the duke nor the princesses admitted 
him to their presence; and he poured 
forth loud invectives against Alphonso 
and the whole court. The duke, instead 
of bestowing pity upon the unfortunate 
poet, commanded that he should be placed 
in St. Anne's hospital, and confined there 
as a madman (March, 1579^ In order to 
explain this cruel comoiana of the prince, 
other causes have been assigned, in par- 
ticular the love of Tasso for the princess 
Leonora. But though his passion cannot 
be denied, yet it can in no way^ be proved 
that Tasso overstepped the hmits of re- 
spect and modesty. It may, indeed, have 
contributed to aggravate the frenzy which 
sometimes visi^ him, and which may, 
perhaps, have been oviing to physical as 
well as to moral causes. That Tasso, by 
such measures as were taken with him, 
could not have been cured, is evident 
The very thought that he was in a mad- 
house must have been revolting to him ; 
and not less painfully must he have felt 
Cbe severity with which he wu troatAd ; 
the indifference with which all his entrea- 
ties and. representations were received by 
the duke and the princess. And yet, 
amidst his despondency, this rare genius 
enjoyed calm and lucid moments, in 
which he poured forth the most glorious 
poetical and philosophical effusions. A 
new affliction to him was the information 
that his poem had appeared in print at 
Venice in a very mutilated condition. 
This fiist edition was quickly followed in 
different places by others, of which eveiy 
successive one surpassed the preceding in 
correctness and completeness. Thus, in 
six months, six editions of the Jerusalem 
Delivered were printed. The printers 
and publishers enriched themselves, while 
the unhappy poet languished in close im- 
prisonment, sick and forgotten. It was 
not till two years after that he was allow- 
ed by the duke, in consequence of his re- 
peated entreaties, several apartments, in- 
stMui of his prison-like abode. Here he 
enjoyed greater freedom, received visits 
from friends and strangers, and was per- 
mitted, from time to time, accompanied 
only by one person, to walk out, and to 



visit some society or place of amusement 
The duke even once sent for Tasso at a 
time when some French and Italian no- 
blemen were vrith him : he received him 
with kindness, and promised him a speedy 
release* Notwitfa^anding this, he saw 
himself, even before the end of the year, 
deprived of his late accommodations. 
Amidst these melancholy circumstances, 
a new stoim burst over hiim. Among other 
writings to which the Jerusalem Deuvered 
bad given rise, was a dialogue by Camillo 
Pellegrino on epic poetry IR Comfa^ 
cnvtTo deUa Poena epicOj 1584), in which 
Tasso was placed for above Ariosto. 
This gave occasion to violent contentiona 
The numerous adherents of the Divino^ 
and among these the two academicians 
of Crusca, Uonardo Salviati and Seba»- 
tiano de* Rossi, stepped forth in opposition, 
in the name of the academy, and assailed 
the Jerusalem Delivered, and its author, 
in order to defend the Orlando, or at least 
under this pretext With dignity and 
moderation, Tasso replied to the charges 
of his opponents, which, in his situation, 
embittered by mental and bodily pains, 
must certainly be considered as a double 
merit At the same time, he was occupi- 
ed about the means of obtaining his liber- 
ty. He had called upon the most power- 
fiil persons to be his intercessors. Greg- 
ory AlII, the cardinal A]bano,tbe grand- 
duke of Tuscany, the duke and duchess 
of Urbino, the duchess of Mantua, several 
princes of the house of Gonzaga, had in 
vain employed their good offices for him. 
The city of Bergamo, Tasso's native 
place, had, for the same purpose, sent a 
special ambassador to the duke. The lat- 
ter made promises which he never fulfil- 
led. Tasso's condition continually be- 
came worse: he was broken down in 
body and mind, and suffered periodically 
from actual madness. At length the 
hard-hearted Alphonso was softened, and, 
at the most ursent entreaties, yielded up 
the person of me poet, after an imprison- 
ment of more than seven years, to his 
brother-in-law Vincenzo Gonzaga, prince 
of Mantua, who promised to keep such a 
watch over him, that Alphonso should 
have nothinff to fear fit>m him (July, 
1586). In Mantua, Tasso met with the 
most friendly and honorable i^eception; 
but his malady had taken too deep root 
to leave him entirely. He, neverthelesfl^ 
resumed his literaiy labois: he com- 
pleted, among other things, FlondanU, 
which had been commenced by his father, 
and published it with a dedication to the 
duke of Mantua and Bologna. He also 



148 



TASSO. 



recomposed his tragedy Tonismondo. In 
the next year, he enjoyed the happiness 
of visitinff Bersamo, where his appearance 
was celeBrated by the w6ole city. The 
death of the duke of Mantua recalled him 
to that city. His son and successor man- 
ifested towards the poet the same kind- 
ness, but not the same friendship and 
confidence. Tasso began to be discon- 
tented with his residence in Mantua. He 
received an honorable invitation to be 
professor in the academy at Genoa, but 
was prevented by his sickness from ac- 
ceptinff it He then formed the resolu- 
tion of going to Rome. Here he was so 
well received, not only by Scipto Gonza- 
ga, but also by several cardinals, that he 
again entertained new hopes; but nothing 
was effected, and he repaired, in 1588, to 
Naples, for the purpose of recovering the 
confiscated fortune of his parents. Here he 
occupied himself with a recomposition of 
his Jerusalem Delivered, in order to purge 
it from the feults which he perceived in it, 
as weU as from the praises bestowed in it 
upon the house of Este. From Naples he 
returned to Rome ; and, finding there also 
occasion fer discontent, he accepted the in- 
vitation of the grand-duke of Florence. He 
had reason to be satisfied in every respect 
with his reception, both from the grand- 
duke and from the people, but soon sighed 
again for Naples, and, -with every nrnm of 
esteem, and with rich presents, departed in 
the autumn for Rome, where he arrived 
sick. Before he had recovered his health, 
he repaired, in consequence of urgent en- 
treaties,to Mantua,to visit the duke Vincen- 
zoGronzaga; and it would have been well 
for him to have remained here, if his con- 
tinually declining health had not made 
him desirous to go to Naples. At the 
invitation of his friends, he went thither 
in January, 1592, and took up his abode 
with his patron, the prince Conca. The 
completion of Jerusalem Conquered (the 
recomposition of Jerusalem Delivered) 
was his first employment, and was almost 
concluded, when ne became suspicious 
that the prince wished to take possession 
of his manuscripts. He communicated 
this apprehension to his fi-iend Manso, 
who, with the consent of the duke, and 
without any violation of gratitude or 
friendship, received him into his house, 
which was most charmingly situated on 
the sea-coast This had a very fevorable 
influence upon Tasso, who gave the last 
finish to his Jerusalem Conquered, and 
immediately commenced, at the desire of 
the mother of ^ marquis, his poem 
Of the seven Days of the Creation. In 



the mean time, Hippolitus Aldobrandini 
had ascended the papal chair as dement 
VIII. Tasso had congratulated his for* 
mer patron upon this event, as he had 
before done Urban VII, in an exceUent 
canzone, and was at last obliged to com- 
ply with the repeated invitation of die 
pope to come to Rome. The pope, as 
well as both his nephews, in particidar 
the cardinal Cintio Aldobrandini, paid him 
the most delicate and fiiendly attentioDS. 
Tasso, from gratitude, dedicate^ to the 
latter his Jerusalem Conquered ; and the 
return of his malady alone induced him 
to leave Rome, and again to return to 
Naples. Here he passed four months 
veiy happily in the circle of his fiiends. 
Meanwhile, Cintio, in order to draw him 
back to Rome, had procured for him 
from the pope the honor of a solemn cor- 
onation in the capitol. At this news, 
Tasso set off for Rome, where he arrived 
in November, 1594, and was received 
with great distinction. The pope over- 
whelmed him with praises, and saki to 
him, ** I give to you the laurel, that it may 
receive as much honor fit>m you as it has 
conferred upon those who have had it 
before you.* The solemnity was, how- 
ever, delayed till the spring, in order to 
give it the gi-eater splendor. During the 
winter, Tasso's health failed more and 
more: he felt his end approaching, and 
ordered himself to be carried into the 
mnnastory of St. Onofrio^ vhere he died, 
April 25, 1595, the veiy day which had 
been appointed for his coronation. A 
raging fever terminated his life, at the 
commencement of his fifly-second year. 
The cardinal Cintio caused him to be 
buried honorably in the litde church of 
the monastery ; and, eight years afler, the 
cardinal Bevilacqua onlered the monu- 
ment to be erected which is still to be 
seen there. The Italians Manso, Serassi 
and Zuccala (1819) have written his life. 
Serassi has also published a coUection of 
ihore than 250 letters by Tasso. The 
physician Giacoinazzi, in his Dtalogki 
BOpra gli Amorij la Prigumia ed U Crmio 
d% Thrquato Tasso^ etc. (Brescia, 1827), 
has expressed the opinion that not Leo- 
nora, but Lucretia, afterwards the wife of 
the duke of Urbino, was tlie object of the 
Platonic love of the unfortunate poet 
Frederic Schlcgel, in his GeschichU der 
alien vnd neuen LUeratur (History of 
Ancient and Modem Literature), compar- 
ing Ariosto, Camoens and Tasso, says of 
the hitter, *' Not only a poetical, but also a 
patriotic, inspiration tor the cause of 
Christendom animated this poet, in whoai 



TASSO—TASSONI. 



149 



love of glory and pious feeling were 
eqaally predominant. Yet he has by no 
means reached the grandeur of his sub- 
ject; and so little has he CKhausted its 
treasures, that he may be said only to 
have skimmed orer its surface. He was 
in some degree confined by the Virgilian 
form, fiom which he has borrowed, with 
no great success, a few pieces of what 
is commonly called the epic nuuMntry, 
Tasso belongs, upon the wnole, rather to 
the class of poets who represent them- 
selves and their own exquisite feelings, 
than of those who reflect a world in their 
own minds, and are able to lose and for- 
get themselves in it The finest passages 
of his poem are such as would be beauti- 
ful either by themselves or as episodes in 
any other epic, but have no necessary 
connexion with tlie subject. The charms 
of Armida, the beauty of Clorinda, and the 
love of Erminia — these and simiJar pas- 
sages are the ones which delight in Tasso. 
In his lyrical noems (Rimt\ there is a glow 
of passion, ang an inspiration of unfortunate 
iove, compared with which the coldness of 
the artificial Petrarch appears repulsive. 
Tasso is altogether a poet of feeling ; and 
as Ariosto is, throughout, a painter, so over 
the language and versification of Tasso, 
there is potued forth the whole charm of 
music — a circumstance which has, without 
doubt, greatly contributed to render him the 
favorite poet of the Italians. His popularity 
exceeds even that of Ariosto. Individual 
parts and episodes of his poem are fi«- 
quently sung ; and the Italians, having no 
romantic baSads, like those of the Span- 
iards, have split their epic poem, in order 
to adapt it to song, into what may be call- 
ed ballads, the most melodious, graceful, 
Doble and poetical ever possessed by any 
people. Perhaps this mode of treating 
their great poem was the best for the en- 
joyment of k; for, by giving up the con- 
nexion, litde seems to be lost. How fiur 
Tasso's notions on epic art were from be- 
ing satisfactory to himself, is evident from 
bis many alterations and unsuccessfiil at- 
tempts. His first attempt was a romance 
of chivalry. Afterwards, in the decline 
of his powers, he entirely recast the 
whole of his Jerusalem Delivered, to 
which he owes his greatest &me, sacri- 
ficing to the moral severity or anxiety 
which he had adopted the most delightful 
and glowing passages in the poem, and 
introducing, throughout, a cold allegory, 
litde calculated to compensate for what 
he had taken away. lie also attempted 
a Christian epic on the subject of the cre- 
ation. But, even to the most gifted poet, 
13* 



how difficult must it be to unfold a few 
mysterious sentences of Moses into as 
many cantos ! In -this poem, Tasso laid 
aside the use of rhyme, although his po- 
ems derive a great nut of their charms 
fiom it, and although no poet ever pos- 
sessed so entire a command of rhyme. 
He has often been censured for his plays 
of thought, or ooncettt, as they are called. 
Many of these, however, are not oidy fiill 
of meaning, but beautiful as images. A 
poet of feeungand of love may especially 
oe pardoned such trifling errors.* If we 
regard Tasso merely as a musical poet of 
feeling, it forms, in truth, no proper sub- 
ject en reproach, that he is, m a certain 
sense, unifi>rm, and, throughout, senti- 
mentaL Uniformity of this sort seems to 
be inseparable finom that poetry which is 
in its nature lyrical ; and it seems to me a 
beauty in Tasso, that he has spread this 
soft breath of elegy even over the repre- 
sentation of the charms of sense. But an 
epic poet must be richer in every thing ; 
he must be multiform ; he must embrace 
a whole world of objects, the spirit of the 
present time and of past ages, of his na- 
tion and of nature ; he must have com- 
mand not only over one chord, but over 
the whole complicated instrument of 
feeling." — ^An account of the diflerent 
original editions of Tasso's works is to be 
found in Ttasot Leben und CharacUristik 
nach Chdnguenif dargestdlt wm F, A, 
Ebert — ^Tasso's Life and poetical Char- 
acter, by Ebert (Leipeic, 1819). The Eng- 
lish language possesses three translations 
of TasBo's Jerusalem Delivered, by Fair- 
fax, Hoole and Wiffen. 

Tassoni, Alexander, one of the cele- 
brated Italian poets, was l>om at Modena, 
in 1565. His childhood was rendered 
unhappy by the early loss of his parents, 
by sickness, enemies, and various misfor- 
tunes. All this, however, did not interrupt 
him in his studies at Bologna and Ferrara. 
In 1597, he went to Rome, and became 
secretary to cardinal Ascanio Colonna, 
who took him to Spain in 1600, and 
twice despatched him upon business into 
Italy (1602 and 1608). Upon one of these 
journeys he wrote his celebrated Consi- 
(kraxwrn sopra U Petrarca. At Rome, 
he was admitted into tlie academy of the 
Umoristi. One fruit of his intercourse 
with the societies of Rome was the ten 
books of his Ptnsien diversij a specimen 
of which, under the title Quenii, he pub- 
lished in 1608, enlai'^ in 1612. This 
work, fUll of ingenious paradoxes (in 
which the author was not probably al- 
ways serious), directed against the sci- 



150 



TAS80NI— TASTE. 



•nces, was also seasoned with miich ifnt 
and elegance, and made a powerful im- 
pression. Still more was this the case 
with the above-mentioned Comiderazianij 
which first appeared in 1609. Consider- 
ing the yeneration in which Petrarch was 
h^d by some to be extravagant, he en- 
deavored, in an unreasonable manner, to 
diminish the fame of this great poet, and 
hence became involved in a series of con- 
troversies. Tassoni had been virithout of> 
fice since the death of cardinal Colonna. 
Being destitute of the means of an inde- 
pendent livelihood, he entered, in 1613; 
the service of the duke of Savoy, Charles 
Emmanuel, and of the cardinal, his son. 
Here he was alternately in favor and dis- 
grace. This mi^ht liave been, in part, 
owinff to his uniform hatred against the 
Spaniards, vnth whom the auke was 
sometimes at war, sometimes at peace. 
Tassoni has been accused, not without 
reason, of writmg some philippics {JU^- 
jnche) against the Spaniards, and likewise 
a treatise entitled Le EseguM della Mo- 
narduadi Spagna, although he positively 
denied the authorship of tnem. In 1623, 
he left the service of the duke, and de- 
voted himself for three years to study 
and the cultivation of flowers, of which 
he was very fond. At that time, he prob- 
ably completed a work previously com- 
menced (R CompendioddBarwno), which 
he began in I^in, but afterwards exe- 
cuted in Italian. In 1626, his condition 
was improved. Cardinal Ludovisio, a 
nephew of Gregory XV, received him 
into his service upon advantageous terms. 
After the death of the cardimd, in 1632, 
Tassoni entered,with the title of counsellor, 
into die service of his native prince, duke 
Francis I. He received an honorable al- 
lowance, and readed at court, but en- 
joyed this good fortune for three years 
only, when he died, in 1635. The fame 
of Tassoni is owing, not to the works 
already enumerated, but to a comic-epic 
poem, under the title La Secchia rapUOj 
which first appeared in 1622, and was 
publisdied by him, probably for particular 
reasons, as the production of his youth, 
althou^ the careful finish of the versifi- 
cation bears the stamp of mature ace. 
The subject of the poem is the war of Uie 
Modonese and Bolognese, in the middle 
of the thirteenth century. In this war, 
the bucket of a well was removed from 
the city by the Modonese, who had pene- 
trated into Bologna, and conveyed as a 
trophy to Modena, where it is preserved 
as a memorial to the present daj. This 
event, and the firuideas efforts of^the Bo- 



lognese to recover the lost bucket, To^ 
soni relates in twelve burlesque epio can- 
tos, characterized by the spirit and erace 
of Ariosto, and breathing in some places 
an epic grandeur. The language has the 

C nine Tuscan character, and the versi- 
tion is easy and agreeable. If this 
poem has met the ftoe of Huditoifl, the 
reason, in both cases, is the same ; namely, 
that the interest of die circumstances has 
passed away with the time in which the 
poem was written, so that man^ allusions, 
which constimte the very spirit of the 
poem, and at the time of its publication 
were easily understood, can now be made 
inteUigible only by means of copious 
notes. 

Taste, in physiology ; one of the ^ve 
senses, by which are perceived certain 
impressions made by particles of bodies 
dissolved by the sahva on the tongue or 
the other contiguous parts of the body 
endowed vrith this sense. As has been 
already observed in the article Senses, 
taste does not appear to be confined to 
the tongue, that member being wanting in 
many animals which do not seem desti- 
tute of the sense, and, in many which 
have a tongue, this member, from it2<i 
structure, is not adapted to receive im- 
pressions from objects of taste. Again, 
it is not the whole surfitce of the human 
tongue, according to some late experi- 
ments, which is capable of those impres- 
sions that we ascribe to taste. By cover- 
ing the tongue with parchment, some- 
tiroes in whole, and sometimes in different 
parts, two experimenters in Paris (MM. 
Guyot and Admyraula) found, that tlie 
end and sides of the tongue, and a small 
space at the root of it, together with a 
nnall surface at the anterior and superior 
part of the roof of the palate, are the 
only portions of surface in the cavity of 
the mouth and throat that can distinguish 
taste or sapidity fiom mere touch. A 
portion of extract of aloes, placed at any 
other part, gives no sensation but that of 
touch, until the saliva carries a solution 
of the sapid matters to those pans of the 
cavity.* (See Tongue.) The little glands 
of the tongue dissolve the salts containeil 
in articles of food, which, when dis- 
solved, penetrate into the three nerves 
on each side of the tongue, that are con- 

* Blumenbach, in his Comp. Anatomy, Ensl. 
by Cottlson (London, 1827^ en. xviii), sa>'9 *. " I 
have seen an adult, and, tn other respects, well 
formed man, who was bom without a tongue. 
He could distinguish, nevertheless, very easily, 
the tastes of solutions of salt, sugar and aloes, 
rubbfd on his palate, and would express the tost* 
of each by wnting/' 



TASTE— TATTOOING. 



151 



nected with the brain and spinal nianow. 
TbuB we receive those sensations which 
we call noeeC, «aur, bitUt^ sharps imipidj 
aatrinreni^ and numberless others, which, 
thou^ we have no names for them, yet 
are Tery distinct, as they enable us to rec- 
ognise particular objects. The impres- 
sioiis thus received we ascribe to the ob- 
jects that excite them, though acidity is. 
properly speaking, not more a quality of 
vinegar tban pain is of the whip or spur. 
The word iatie thus comes to be applied 
to the things which excite it; and we say, 
sugar tastes sweet with the same propn- 
ety or impropriety that we say, a flower 
smells sweet, a bird looks black. This 
confusion of cause and effect, in common 
language, is very natural, in &ct unavoid- 
able, considering the way in which lan- 
guage is formed. We possess very few 
WOI& to desisnate the endless variety of 
tastes, of whicn we are very sensible. In 
this respect taste is similar to hearing. 
Though we all know hoW to distinguiui 
a tune on the piano from the same on the 
guitar, it is impossible to explain distincdy 
why or how. Our capabihty of express- 
ing tastes is, however, much greater than 
of expressing smells. Taste and smell 
are very closely connected, the loss of one 
being accompanied with the loss of the 
other. (See Smdl.) Many words, desig- 
nating impressions on the one sense, are 
used also for those received from the 
other, and fianor is daily applied to both. 
A 9wtti meU is a very common phrase ; 
and in Thuriugia the conunon people say 
the nosegay iatit» sweet In respect to 
(esthetics, taste signifies that faculty by 
which we judge of the beautiful and 
proper, and dironguish them firom the 
ugly and unsuitable. The name results 
from the similarity of this fiicultv with 
the phyracal taste. The office of both is 
to discriminate between the a^^reeable and 
disagreeable ; but die companson has of- 
ten Men carried too far ; thus, because the 
beautiful is also agreeable, the beautiful 
and agreeable have oflra been taken for 
one and the same ; and because matters 
of physical taste are not proper subjects 
of dilute (since the same flavor, for in- 
suuice, may be pleasant to one person and 
very disagreeable to others), it has been 
sometimes supposed that taste, in esthet- 
ics, can have reference only to the acci- 
dental impression of a work of art on the 
individual. But esthetics teaches that, 
though an individual may not like a pic- 
ture of Rai^ael, and find less satisfection 
in a drama of Shakspeare than in the 
coarse productions of a very inferior mind, 



there is yet beautr in them; that is to say, 
the^ answer the demands of certain rules 
which have an objective (q. v.) and gen- 
eral character, so that the beauty of a 
work of art may be a prcyper subject of 
discussion. Taste is the racuhy of judg- 
ment operating in a certain sphne. It 
must be formed by practice, whereby it 
differs essentially from the sense of the 
beautiful. This is natural, whilst taste is 
the fruit of observation and reflection. 

Tate, Nahum, an English poet, was 
bom in Dublin about the year 1652, and, 
afler receiving a classical education at 
Trinity coUege, went to London, where 
he obtained the patronage of the earl of 
Dorset On the death of Shadwell, the 
interest of his friends procured him the 
situation of poet laureate to WUliam III. 
This post he held through that and the 
succeeding reign ; and he even lived long 
enough to write the first birth-day ode on 
George I. He died in the mint, whither 
he hfui retired fh)m his creditors, in 1715. 
He was the author of Brutus ; of Alba, a 
tragedy; DukeandnoDuke,a&rce;aiid 
some other dramatic pieces: but it is by 
his metrical version of the Psalms of Da- 
vid, executed in conjunction with doctor 
Nicholas Bradv, and commonly affixed to 
the Uturgy of the church of England, that 
his name is now principally known. Sev- 
eral elegies and other occasional pieces 
also proceeded from his pen. 

Tatianists. (See Gnofficf.) 

Tatius, Achilles, a Christian bishop of 
the third century, was bom at Alexandria 
in Egvpt Prior to his becoming a pros- 
elyte m)m paganism, he was the author of 
one of the earliest Greek romances now 
extant, entitled the Amours of Clitophon 
and Leucippe, of which there is a trans- 
lation by Cruceius. Part of a commen- 
tary on the Dt SpKara of Aratus, as- 
cribed to him, has come down to posteri- 
ty, and has been translated bv Petavius. — 
Tbtnw is also the name of an ancient 
king of the Sabines, who made peace with 
the Romans, and shared his kingdom 
with Romulus, but was assassinated six 
yeaiB afterwards, at the instigation of his 
colleague. 

Tattooing; a name borrowed from 
the South sea islands, where it denotes 
the practice of staining the skin by punc- 
turing it with a shaip mstniment covered 
with coloring matter, or inserting the color 
in incisions made in the skin, and thus 
forming a variety of figures. We find 
similar practices amon^ other barbarous 
tribes, and, to a certam extent, among 
soldiers, sailors, &c. Degrees of rank 



158 



TATTOOING— TAURroA. 



among savages are often designated by 
the greater or leas surftoe of tattooed 
akin : sometinies the whole body, the face 
not excepted, are found tattooisd. This 
is the case among the people of New 
Zealand. 

Tauchnitz, Charles Christopher Tniu- 
gott, a printer and bookseller in Leipsic, 
bom iu 1761, has had an important influ- 
ence upon German typography. In 1806, 
he began the publioition of the classical 
authors, and, in 1816^ he set up his stere- 
otype foundery on the Stanhope plui, 
which had previously been unknown in 
Germany. Tauchnitz was the first to ap- 
ply the process of stereotyping to music 
Besides publishing cheap editions of the 
classics, he has also printed some splendid 
editions both of Greek and Latin authors. 

Tauenzien von WiTTEifBERo, Fred- 
eric Bogislav Emanuel, count of, Prus- 
sian general of infantry, a distinguished 
soldier, was bom in 1760. His father 
was the celebrated defender of Breslau. 
Tauenzien took part in the unfortunate 
campaign of 1806. In 1813, he coope- 
ratea in the victories at Gross-Beeren 
(q. V.) and Dennewitz. (q. v.) December 
26, he took the fortress of Torgau ; Janu- 
ary 13, 1814, Wittenb^ (on account of 
which he was called Tnuenzim von WU- 
tenberg); and, Ma^ 24, 1814, Magdeburg. 
He died, in 1824, m Berlin. 

Taught ; the state of being extended 
or stretched out, usually applied in oppo- 
sition to alaek, 

Tauler, John, a celebrated German di- 
vine, bom in 12(H, or later, at Strasburg or 
Cologne, entered, when very young, the or- 
der of the Dominicans. His life was pure. 
His sermons, vmtten in Latin and deliv- 
ered in German, produced a great effect. 
He did much to improve the German di- 
dactic style. The earliest editions of his 
sermons are of 1498 and 1580. His early 
sermons are more metaphysical ; the later 
ones simple and popular. Versions of 
them have oflen been published in mod- 
era German. He died in 1361. Amdt 
wrote his life in 1689. 

Tau5t ; amarine epithet, signifying ^^^ 
or tall. It is particularly applied to the 
masts, when they are of an extraordinary 
length, as square is applied to long yards. 

Taunton, the shire-town of Bristol 
county, Massachusetts, is situated at the 
junction of Canoe, Rumford and Taun- 
ton rivers, thirty-two miles south of Bos- 
ton, and twent}'-one east of Providence ; 
population in 1830, 6045. It is a hand- 
some and flourishing town, and contains 
tlie county buildings, an academy, a bank, 



and seven meeting houses. It has excel- 
lent water power, and there are several 
factories for cotton, paper, nails, and vari- 
ous kinds of ironwork. The Indian name 
of Taunton was CohamuL 

Taunton; a town of England, in 8om- 
ersetshire, 140 miles west of London; 
Ion. 3° 16^ W.; lat. 50P 59' N.; popula- 
tion in 1821, 8339. It consists of four 
Gcipal streets, which are wide and well 
t, and contains two parish churches. 
The woollen manufacture has flourished 
in this town almost ever nnce its first in- 
troduction into England by the emigrants 
from Flanders, the first manufacture be- 
inff estabHshed here about the year 1336. 
Of late years it has decayed. A silk 
manu&cture was introduced here in 1780, 
and now employs a sreat part of the in- 
habitants. Taunton is an ancient borough 
by prescription, and has returned mem- 
bers to parliament fix>m the year 1294. 

Taueia. (See TauridcL) 

Taurida; a government of Russia, 
comprising the Crimean peninsula (Cher- 
sonesus T&unca), the island of Taman, 
and the districts and steppes inhabited by 
the Nogayand Budshiak Tartars. The 
province of the Cossacks of the Black sea 
IS also connected with it in matters of 
government; population, 346,000. These 
countries were anciently inhabited by 
Scythians and Greek colonists, and, since 
the time of Herodotus (B. C. 450), have 
been conquered and devastated by more 
than seventy different nations. Towards 
the end of the fifteenth century, they were 
conquered by the Turks, who drove out 
the Venetians and the Genoese colonies 
there. The Crimea bad its own khan, 
who was, however, dependent on the sul- 
tan, and was obliged to be confirmed by 
him in his dignity. In 1774, the Turks 
were forced by Russia to acknowledge its 
independence, and, in 1783, it was an- 
nexed to Russia. The imperial title was 
graced with the addition of czar of the 
Taurian Chersonese, and Potemkin, who 
had been active in effecting the subiuga- 
tion of the Tartars, received the tide of 
the Taurian. The principal towns in 
Taurida are Simpheropol, or Akmetchat, 
the capital, Kinburn, at the mouth of the 
Dnieper, Perekop, or Orcapi, a fortress on 
the isthmus which connects the Crimea 
with the continent ; Feodosia (see Ciiffa)^ 
Sebastopol and Eupatoriaare important 
for the commerce of^the Black sea. Most 
of the inhabitants are Tartars, who profess 
the Mohammedan religion, and are en- 
gaged in trade, manufactures, agriculture, 
and the raising of cattle. There are also 



TAURIDA— TAXES. 



153 



many Ruabiad, Greek, AnneDiao, Ger- 
inan, &c. colonifltSy who are encourwd 
bjthe gOYeminent to settle here. The 
part of Taurida between the isthmus and 
the DDieper consists of great plains, some 
of which are infertile and uucultivated. 
The northem i>art of the Crimea isdesti- 
mte of water and wood, and has a poor 
and saline soil. The southern part is 
mountainous, but one of the most fertile 
and delightful countries in the world. All 
aorta of fruits and grain, wine, silk, wax 
and tobadeo are among the productions. 
— See Claike's Travels %n Russia, Ihrtary 
and Jhtrkey, and Castelnau's Essai fur 
VERttoirt ancierme d modeme de la J\ou- 
veUe Rttssie (Paris, 1820). 

Tauris ; capital of the province of 
Aderbidjan, in Western Persia, situated 
in an extensile plain without trees, on the 
small river Spintsha ; lat. 38° 2(y N. ; Ion. 
46° 31' £. It contains 300 caravansaries, 
250 dshamis and mosques, and 150,000 
inhabitants. It is celebrated throughout 
Asia as a commercial place, and also has 
important manu&ctures. The shagreen 
is made here, with which almost all Per- 
aa is supplied, every one except the peas- 
ants wearing boots and shoes of it. Tau- 
ris contains some magnificent ruins. It 
has sufiered repeatedly from earthquakes, 
and from hostile violence. It viras the 
residence of Abbas Mirza, crown-prince 
of Persia, until 1828, when it was occu- 

piiid by tha RuiwifinA. (6oe Persia.) 

Taurus, in astronomy. (See ContUl' 
laHotij and EdipHc,) 

Taurus ; a celebrated chain of moun- 
tains in the eastern part of Asiatic Turkey, 
whose greatest height is in the vicinity of 
the sources of the EiUphrates, whence it ex- 
tends in several ridges over the greatest 
part of Western Asia. One ridge, the 
Ala Bag, runs through Natolia, and ter- 
minates in the Chelidonian promontory 
over against Rhodes. Another branch 
extends into Syria, and there forms the 
Libanus and Anti-Libanus. To the north, 
the Taurus, which is connected vrith the 
system of mountains in Central Asia by 
its branches, approaches the Caucasus, 
and to the east unites with the snowy 
Kiare and mount Zagros. 

Tautoloot (from the Greek rmro, the 
same, and Xoyoi, speech) ; the repetition 
of the same sense in different words or 
phrases. (See Pleonasm.) 

Ta VERIFIER, Jean Baptiste, baron d'Au- 
bomne (a title derived from an estate near 
Geneva, which his success in mercantile 
parmuts enabled him to purohasel vtbs 
the son of a Ihitch mercfiant settled at 



Paris, who traded lamlv in charts 
and maps, the perusal of^ which first in- 
spired his son with a propensitv for trav- 
ellinff. He was bom at Paris aiXHit 1605, 
and, before his twenty-first year, had al- 
ready visited a considerable portion of 
Europe. He subsequently travelled 
through Turkey, Persia, and other Eastern 
countries, six times by different routes, 
trading as a diamond merchant, at the 
same time that he indulged his thirst for 
making himself acquainted vrith the man- 
ners and custopis of remote nations. Of 
these his journeys he gave an account, 
with the assistance of a literary friend, 
whose services the defects of his own ed- 
ucation made necessary to arrange the 
mass of his observations. In 1668, hav- 
ing realized a large fortune, and otoined 
a patent of nobility from the French king, 
he retired to his estate in the Genevese 
territories, with the view of passing the 
remainder of his life in tranquillity. The 
misconduct of a nephew, by injuring his 
pecuniary resources, altered bis deter- 
mination, and induced him once more to 
set out for Russia for the purpose of re- 
cruiting his shattered finances. He suc- 
ceeded in reaching Moscow, the ancient 
capital of that vast empire, but died there 
soon afler his arrival, in the summw of 
1689. His Travels, of which there is an 
English translation, have gone through 
several editions in th<e original French: 

Taxes, Taxation, denotes that por- 
tion of their property vHiich the govern- 
ment of a state exacts, for the supply of 
the public necessities, from its subjects, 
or other persons residing in the country, 
and partaking of its advantages. Hence 
they, form a part of the state revenues. 
Another part is formed by the revenues 
from the domains, and from the royal 
prerogatives, so fiur as the last afford only 
officii gains, and are not used at the 
same time as means to exact or to raise 
taxes. (See Domains, and RovaUies.) In 
most states, particulariy in tnose of an- 
cient times, the public expenditures were 
supplied from the revenues of domains 
and royalties, which were considered, 
the former as the property, the latter as 
privileges, of the sovereigns. As the ex- 
penses of the state continually increased, 
or the rulers, from bad economy, found 
the above-mentioned sources of revenue 
insufficient, they began to demand con- 
tributions from the members of the com- 
munity, and imposed upon them taxes or 
imposts. Thgr usually, however, met 
vrith great difficulties, since the nobles 
would not suffer themselves to be taxed. 



154 



TAXES. 



under pretext of forming a state witbin 
themselves, and maintained, that such 
contributions could be raised only with 
their consent What could be obtained 
from them voluntarily, was very little. 
They, however, acknowledged the neces- 
aity of increasing the revenue of the 
state ; but the soverei^ were afraid to 
consUrain them tocontnbute, and inclined 
to grant them exemption from taxes, if 
they would only consent that the rest of 
the nation, which did not belong to their 
privileged order, should be subjected to 
imposts. The nobles, fearinff that if no 
other source of revenue were left open to 
the sovereign, the burden of taxes would 
finally &11 on themselves, willingly allow- 
ed him the right of taxing the rest of the 
nation, which, from want of union and 
power, was obliged to yield. Thus the 
taxes, for a long time, were laid almost 
every where on the commons only, the 
higher and more powerful orders, the 
clergy and nobility, bein^ exempt. En- 
lightened eovemments, however, early 
perceived that, in order to render taxes a 
permanent source of revenue, means 
must be left to the subjects, of gaining, every 
year, so much as to be able to subsist, and 
to have a sufficient sum remaining to pay 
the taxes. Hence they were induced to 
refrain fix>m exhaustinf their property. 
But a long time elapsed befbre the prin- 
ciples of equitable taxation were well 
understood. It was not till a late period, 
fitoce government has become an object 
of profound reflection, and a more per- 
fect system of political economy has 
arisen, that a theory of taxation has been 
formed, which can be used as a solid basis 
of revenue. Accordmg to this theory, 
taxes are the portions of the property of 
individuals, which each has to contribute 
to the public treasury, to defray the public 
expenses. From this definition it follows, 
1. that no one should be exempted fit>m 
taxes, who possesses property or income, 
and is protected in his person and estate, 
and that, in consequence, absolute free- 
dom firom taxes in any individual, so situ- 
ated, is unjust towards those members of 
the community who are charged with 
them ; 3. that the taxes ought to be as- 
sessed according to the net income of 
each individual ; 3. that the taxes must 
never be suffered to injure the sources of 
income ; 4. that the ratio of taxes to in- 
come ought to be as small as possible, in 
order that the revenue of the nation, as 
well as of the individua], may be allowed 
to increase. The greatest difficulty in 
effecting a just distribution of taxes, is to 



find the clear income of every individuaL 
In the mode of taxation formerly prac- 
tised, this difficulty was but little consid- 
ered. Financiers were satisfied with 
laying taxes where they observed proper- 
ty or income, without caring much 
whether they were taken from the gross 
or net income, from the capital, or from 
the interest and profits. The rudest 
mode was to assess the taxes according to 
tfie number of heads. On the supposi- 
tion that every one receives enough to 
pay something, they demanded firom ev- 
ery head such a sum as, it was presumed, 
evfn the poorest could afibrd: the rich 
and the poor paid the same amount ; and, 
therefore, the greatest inequality prevail- 
ed. Real property was early taken as a 
standard m distributing the taxes, as cul- 
ti\'ated land, in civilized countries, ap- 
[>eared to be the safest and most substan- 
tial property. As this afforded to its pro- 
prietors or cultivators a certiun income, 
the annual produce of the lands of those 
who were declared subject to taxation 
was estimated, and, after this ratio, tlie 
tax was distributed on real property. 
Thus arose the land tax, in which, how- 
ever, the gross and net produce of the 
lands were seldom accurately distinguish- 
ed ; and where it was done, little depen- 
dence was to be put upon the estimate 
itself, and sdll less on the maintenance of 
this principle throusfa the changes of tn- 
como. As tlie Icmd tax Was inmifficrant 
to furnish the necessary revenue, other 
means were sought for, and the closest 
attention was paid, particularly as the cir- 
culation of money increased in civil soci- 
ety, to all those quartera where money 
appeared. Wherever money changed 
hancA, as in sales, exchanges, inheritances, 
taxes were laid. Whoever desired to ob- 
tain any favor from the public officers, 
was obliged to purchase it with money. 
When property was acquired, something 
must be relinquished. Hence the long 
series of taxes on acquisition and indus- 
try. As the income of the members of 
the community did not yield so much as 
the state required, the attention of gov^- 
emments was diracted to expenditures ; 
and people were made to pay, wherever 
their expenses could be estimated. Thus 
taxes on consumption of every descrip- 
tion were establisned. When taxes be- 
gan to be treated scientificallv, which 
was not till a long time after the difi^er- 
ent kinds had b^ invented and intro- 
duced, attempts were made to bring the 
whole mass of the existing taxes under a 
general system. — ^All taxes may be ar- 



TAXES. 



155 



FBOgmi under the fbHowiog clasfleB : taxes 
on the possesgiony on the acquMion, or 
on the enjoyment ofpn^ferty. In order to 
judge whether they are rightly distributed, 
it must first be considered, whether they 
can be paid regularly and continually 
from the net income or not. There may 
be a possession which brings no gain at 
all, as a library, a collection of pictures, 
&c. If an annual tax is laid upon such 
property, it would, sooner or later, con- 
sume the property, if it were to be paid 
fixim it, and, consequently, would contra- 
dict the principles above laid down, that 
property should be taxed only so far as it 
affords a regular income. In like way, 
acquisitions can be taxed, according to 
the principles of political economy, only 
when they are a permanent source of 
gain. If, therefore, any one acquires an 
estate or a capital by purchase, exchange, 
&C., and taxes are laid upon such an ac- 
quisition, the tax is taken from the capi- 
tal, that is, from the means destined to 
produce profit. As ftir as this happens, 
or is in dan^r of happening, the system 
of taxation is defective. If^ in fine, a tax 
is laid on enjoyment, or the value of thinss 
enjoyed, this can be justified only so rar 
as he who purchases or enioys such things 
can afibrd the expense, from an income 
which furnishes more than enough for 
bis subsistence, and the source of which 
is not necessarily diminished by the tax. 
If we seek, therefore, for the principle of 
the distribution of taxes, which ou^ht to 
serve, at the same time, as a rule for judg- 
ing of the propriety of the distribution, 
this can be no other than the net income 
of the persons, or the net produce of the 
property. Net income or net profit 
is that part of income or profit which re- 
mains after the portion necessary for the 
maintenance of the person, or the con- 
tinuance of the property which produced 
the income or the profit, has been sub- 
tracted. An income and profit are pro- 
duced either, 1. from land ; 2. from capi- 
tal ; 3. from labor. All taxes will be just 
and useful only so far as they are a part 
of the net produce from these sources, 
and are imposed and distributed after 
this principle. But as it is difficult, and, 
in many cases, impossible, in practice, to 
ascertain the net revenue of every one, 
the politician must take different ways to 
find the just proportion. The first way 
is direct — to determine, from the statement 
of the parties concerned, or from official 
estimation, the net income of the persons, 
or the net produce of the land, and to as- 
sess the taxes according to the result 



Thiskmd of taxes is called dirtd. But 
as this mode leaves a large portion of net 
incomes doubtful, their amount is sought 
for in an indirect way. It is suppowd, 
that he who receives more than the 
amoimt at which he has rated his income, 
will consume and enjoy more than this 
sum will warrant, and, in particular, that 
he will enjoy certain articles, which the 
man of smaller income consumes not at 
all, or not in equal quantity. If, now, the 
expense for articles of consumption is 
taxed, an additional sum can be generally 
drawn from all those who pay already a 
direct tax on income, not sufficient, how 
ever, to cover the expenses of the state. 
This sum they can pay from their net 
income, if their affairs are properly ar- 
ranged. In this way, something more is 
obtained from the net income of those 
who have concealed a part, than they 
would have contributed it they had been 
taxed merely according to their own 
statement. These taxes are termed truft- 
recty as they are calculated, like the others, 
on the net income, but only in an indi- 
rect way. The art of reaching this net 
income by taxes on consumption, or other 
indirect taxes, still remains very imper- 
fect Its perfection is, however, neces- 
sary, if the system of taxation is to be 
established according to just principles. 
Another si^ification is usually attached 
to the division of taxes into direct and in- 
direct The mode in which they are 
raised is made the principle of denomi- 
nation. By direct taxes are understood 
such as are laid inmiediately on the con- 
sumers ; by indirect taxes, such as are as- 
sessed on others in advance, who are lefi 
to remunerate themselves from the rest 
of the community. But this principle 
does not afford a logically correct division ; 
for the same tax can be raised at one 
time directly, at another indirectly. Thus 
all taxes of consumption may be raised 
as well from those who consume the arti- 
cles, as from the tradesmen who deal in 
them. In like manner, many articles of 
luxury are taxed directly, ^feve^theless, 

,the taxes remain indirect, because the net 
income only is taxed according to tlie 
extravagance of individuals. Taxes im- 
posed on goods at the time of their im- 
portation, ai*e denominated custoTtis^ duties^ 
or impostS' Adam Smith mentions one 
objection to this mode of raising revenue, 

^ as the imjwrting merchant must enhance 
the price of his goods, not only by the 
amount of the duty advanced by him, 
but also for interest, profit, and guarantee 
of that amount, so thai the consumer 



156 



TAXEa 



must, in ftct, pay more thtn the tax. 
Thk obje<Stion is ayoided by an excise 
tax, whicb is levied on the goods in the 
hands of the person who uses them, or at 
the time of their coming into his hands. 
An annual excise is sometimes levied 
upon articles of a durable nature, such as 
carriages, watches, &c. ; and the principle 
on which this is apportioned, is to gradu- 
ate it according to the supposed expen- 
diture of the persons paying the tax, 
assuming that this will, as a general rule, 
be in some near proportion to their in- 
come. In respect to imported articles, 
the excise is either a substitute for cus- 
toms, or an addition to them. Consider- 
ed as a substitute, the excise avoids the 
objection pointed out by Adam Smith; 
but then it is an expensive tax to collect, 
and it necessarily gives rise to an irksome 
inquiiy into the private concerns and 
habits of people, so that, as far as import- 
ed goods are the subject of taxation, the 
customs are the most ccmvenient, and, on 
the whole, the most productive tax ; and 
this mode of taxing is almost universally 
adopted. It cannot be made a question, 
among a free people, to whom the right 
of taxation belongs. In England, the 
principle has long been acknowledged, 
that taxes are a voluntary donation from 
the people to the government (See Chat- 
ham's speeches on the complaints of the 
American colonies.) On the European 
continent, .where, in the course of time, 
nearly all national representation has been 
lost, the physical power of the government 
is the sufficient argument, as in so many 
other instances, by which all discussion 
on the right of taxation is made useless. 
The theory of taxes has been but very late- 
ly illustrated and perfected. Adam Smith 
laid the first foundation of a complete 
theoiy. Before him prevailed the pn^si- 
ocratical system (see the article), which, 
however, has no solid foundations — See 
the works of Adam Smith, and Say, On 
PoliHcal Economy ; also sir Wm. Mere- 
dith's JHRstorical Remarks on the Taxation 
of Free States (London, 1788, 4to.); An- 
drew Hamilton's Inquiry into the Princi- 
pUs of Taxation (Edinburgh, second 
edition, 1793, 4to.) ; Casaux's Considera- 
hons of the Effect of Impost in the vari- 
ous Modes of Taxation (Paris, 1794, 8vo.) ; 
Trend's Principles of Taxaiim (1799, 
8vo.) ; Monthion's L\ftuence of the Different 
Specits of Taxatifm on the Morality^ the 
Aetivihi and the Industry of^Taiions (Paris, 
1808, 8vo.); Mirabeau^ Thiorie de Vln^ 
p6t; Ricardo's Prvnciples of Political 
Economy and Taxation (1819, 8vo.). 



Exen^pHon Jnm Taxes. [Thou^the 
following observations are more pazticu- 
lariy applicable to the continent of Eu- 
rope, it was thought that the views which 
they present of a state of things difierent 
from what we have been accustomed to, 
might render them acceptable to our 
ret^ers.] The privilege of exemption 
from taxes is ffranted to some orders of 
society, to individuals, or to particular 
kinds of property. The reasons for which 
it is usually allowed are, 1. the identity 
of the person exempted with the state; 
2. to reward services rendered to the 
state ; 3. as a means of paying debts due 
from the state ; 4. the incompatibility of 
the public burdens with the office or 
character of the individual exempted ; 
5. because an equivalent is received in 
some other way ; 6. poverty ; 7. ancient 
privileges. As to the first reason, it is 
applicu)le only to tiie person of the sove- 
reign ; for it would be absurd to load the 
sovereign vrith taxes, whilst the taxes ore 
only esteblished in order to affi^rd the sove- 
reign the means of promoting the public 
welfare. It follows, tlien, that the revenues 
of the state must be free firom taxes, or 
that the state' itself, considered as a per- 
son, must be free finom every tax. But 
whether the individual, likewise, who is 
invested with the sovereignty, should be 
entirely exempt fit>m taxes, is a very 
difierent question ; for in the revenue 
of such an individual, there are always 
two thmgs to be distinguished, namely, 
a. that which is employed by him in the 
exercise of his public functions, and, 6. that 
which serves to defray his private ex- 
penses ; for it cannot be contended that 
all which the sovereign expends is de- 
voted to the accomplishment of public ob- 
jects. In addition to his public capacity, 
he stands in the condition of a private 
person, who has his individual wishes and 
wants to gratify. Now, if the revenue of 
the ruler is so ]ar^ as not only to 
supply that expenditure which is re- 
quired for maintaining the dignity of the 
reigning family, but also to suffice for the 
private gratification of the ruler, the latter 
part is undoubtedly to be considered Ukc 
the net income of*^a private person. In 
tiiis point of view, there is no sufficient 
reason why the income of the prince 
should be free from taxes. It appears 
rather,, for several reasons, advisable to 
subject it to taxation, like other private 
property; 1. because, in this way, the 
prince feels, proportionally, the burden 
of the tax, in his private capacity, being 
obliged, like every other man, to restrict 



TAXES. 



157 



Ub personal esroenditure ; 2. because the 
paiticifMitioii or the prioce in the public 
burdeofl, affiirds an encouraging example 
to hie subjects, and serves to check the 
claim of exemption in any other class of 
society. In those states where the sove- 
reignty is vested in a numerous body, 
the dustinction between that which be- 
longs to the members of the sovereign 
body, in their public and in their private 
capacity, is yet more evident. The 
members of a council who share in the 
sovereignty, or of the sovereign senate 
itself^ can be as httle entitled to exemp- 
tion firom taxes as the members of a 
sovereign assembly of the nation in a 
democracy ; and the riffht of a prince to 
freedom from taxes on mat portion of his 
income which is devoted to his piivate 
gratification, is no better founded.' If 
the state would reward an individual for 
public services by exempting him from 
taxes, this can reasonably be done only 
by a persona] exemption ror his lifetime. 
To declare his estates free from taxes, is 
to make him a donation of a sum equal 
to the tax from which his estates are 
exempted. But to make this exemption 
perpetual, would be to make a grant of an 
mdefinite value, and must be regarded as 
an instance of blind extra valance. In 
general, this species of reward is one of 
the most objectionable ; for the reward 
of public services should be drawn fipm 
the public revenue, to which all classes 
contrilmte in equal proportion. But the 
remission of a certain kind of taxes usual- 
ly imposes new burdens on some particu- 
lar class of subjects. Another objection 
to this kind of reward is, that it makes 
exemption from taxes api^ear an honor, 
when it is for the interest of the state that 
a citizen should consider himself the 
more important the more he contributes 
to the support of the public burdens. 
Nearly the same reasons, in particular the 
last, may be urged against the use of this 
exemption as a means of pay ing the salaries 
of public officers. The privilege too oflen 
operates unequally in die case of different 
officers, one denving from it a much 
greater advantage than another. Taxes 
paid in money are incompatible with no 
rank in society and no kina of occupation. 
Otlier public burdens, pereonal service, 
maintenance of soldiers, &c., may, in- 
deed, be inconsistent with one or the 
other. On that account, it would be 
better that such burdens should be borne 
by individuals who are paid at a fixed 
rate for undertaking them. That the 
poor pay no taxes, is the natural conse- 

VOL. XII. 14 



quenoe of a good system of taxation, 
which charges only tne net income. It 
follows, from what has been said, that a 
personal right to exemption fi*om taxes 
cannot be properly granted, and should 
be abolished where it exists; sufficient 
indemnification being provided for those 
who suffer by the measure. These ex- 
emptions had their origin in a time of 
limited views. As to the exemption 
from taxes of particular kinds of property, 
the most remarkable is that which is 
granted to certain landed estates. This 
privilege is usually justified by the foUow- 
mg reasons : 1. that one estate has under- 
taken to pay the tax of another. In this 
way the nobility have often endeavored 
to defend the exemption of theur estates, 
by pretending that their ancestors had 
ceded part of their lands to the peasants, 
on condition that the latter, in addition to 
some labor on the lord's estate, should 
pay the taxes of the same, fh>m the 
produce of their fiurms. Such a contract 
might have been lecally made, and might 
stand good, if it had been concluded for a 
fixed proportion of taxes, and the agree- 
ment could be clearly proved; but no 
compact can be acknowledged as binding, 
by which one side undert&es to relieve 
the other from the burden of all future 
taxes, since no one can know what their 
amount may become, and whether the 
land grantea would be a proper equiva- 
lent; for, in every contract, the nature of 
the obligation should be definite. But 
in addition to the fact, that such contracts 
are mere fictions, the state should allow 
them no validity, because they ^ve to 
taxes the appearance of an ignominious 
bunlen — an idea which no government 
should favor. 2. Governments have 
sometimes allowed individuals, and even 
whole nations, to redeem themselves fivm 
a certain tax, for a gross sum ; as, for in- 
stance, in England, in the case of the 
land tax. Such contracts must be kept ; 
but no individual, still less a whole class, 
or nation, can purehase an entire exemp- 
tion from taxes, because the amount of 
futtue taxes cannot be estimated, and, 
consequendy, their value cannot be set- 
tled. This would be to sell the very 
means of the state's existence. To sell 
an improper tax, in order to establish a 
better, as was done vnth the land tax in 
England, may be advisable, and certain 
objects may thus, for a time, be exempted 
firom taxes ; but this is no reason for re- 
leasing the income which they affi>rd, fat 
all future times, from taxes. 3. Finally 
the priyilege of exemption never can be 



156 



TAXES-^TAYLOR- 



eoDBidered as absolutely irrevocable, but 
is subject to be judsed on the general 
principle of utility, like all other positire 
uiws and institutions ; and if found inap- 
plicable, injurious, and oppressiye to other 
classes of citizens, such laws must be 
amended or abolished. And as the state 
ought never to persist in old errors at the 
expense of its citizens, so, on the other 
hand, those who are to lose the privilege of 
exemption from taxes should be indemni- 
fied for it according to equitable principles. 

Tat, a river of Scotland, which rises 
in the west part of Perthshire, passes 
through Loch Tay, and runs into the 
German sea, fbrminff a large bay at its 
mouth, called the Frith of Tay. It is 
navigable for vessels of five hundred tons 
to Newburgh, in Fife, and for vessels of 
considerable size as &r as Perth. The 
salmon fisheiy on the Tay is extensive. 

Taylor, John, usually called the water 
fod, from his being a waterman, was 
Dom in Gloucester, atraut 1580. He was 
taken young to London, and apprenticed 
to a waterman. He was at the taking of 
Cadiz, under the earl of Essex, in 1596^ 
and afterwards visited Germany and Scot- 
land. At home he was many Tf^uB col- 
lector for the lieutenant of the Tower of 
London, of his fees of the wines fipom all 
the ships which brought them up the 
Thames. When the civil wars broke out, 
he retired to Oxford, where he kept a 
common victualling house, and wrote 
pasquinades upon tne Roundheads. He 
afterwards kept a public house at West- 
muister. He died m 1654, aged seventy- 
ibur. His works are pubMied under the 
title of **' All the Works of John Taylor, 
the Water Poet, being Sixty and Three in 
Nmuher, collected into One Volume by 
the Author, with sundry new Additions, 
corrected, revised, and newly imprinted" 
(1630, folio). These pieces are not desti- 
tute of natural humor, and of the jingling 
wit which prevailed so much during the 
reijBpi of James L 

Tatlor, Jeremy, an eminent divine and 
prelate of the Irish church, was bom in 
the year 1613, at Cambridge, where his 
father was a barber. He was educated at 
Perse's free school in his native place, 
and entered, in 1626, a sizar in Caius col- 
lege, where he continued until he hod 
graduated master of arts. Entering into 
orders, he occasionally lectured for a 
fiiend at St Paul's ca&iedral, where he 
attzacted the attention of archbishop Laud, 
who procured him a fellowship of All 
Souls coUe^ Oxford, and, in 1640, ob- 
tained for hun the rectoiy of Uppingham. 



In 1642, he was created doctor of divinity 
at Oxford, at which time he was , chap* 
lain in onlinaryto Charles I, whom he 
attended in some of his campaigns, and 
aided by several writings in defence of 
the church of England. After the par- 
liament proved victorious, his living being 
sequestrated, he retired into Wales, where 
he was kindly received by the earl of 
Carbeiy, under whose protection he was 
allowed to exercise his ministry, and keep 
a school. In this obscure situation he 
wrote those copious and fervent dis- 
courses, whose fertility of composition, 
eloquence of expression, and comprehen- 
siveness of thought, have rendered him 
one of the first writers in the English 
language. The death of three sons with- 
in a ^hort period, rendered a change of 
place necessary for the restoration of his 
tranquillity, and he removed to London, 
and officiated, not without danger, to pri- 
vate congregations of royalists. At length 
he accepted an invitation from lord Con- 
way to reside at his seat in Ireland, where 
he remained until the restoration, when' 
he was elevated to the Iri^ see of Down 
and Connor, with the administration of 
that of Dromore. He was also made a 
privy counsellor for Ireland, and chosen 
vice-chancellor of the university of Dub- 
lin. He conducted himself, on his ad- 
vancement, with all the attention to his 
duties, public and private, which had ever 
distinguished him in humble situations. 
Piety, humility and charity were his lead- 
ing characteristics ; and, on his death, at 
Lisbume, Aug. 13, 16^, he left but very 
moderate fortunes to his three daughters. 
Taylor possessed the advantages of a 
comely person and a melodious voice, 
which were further set off by the most 
urbane manners and agreeable conversa- 
tion. His works have been printed in 
four, and also in six volumes folio, a great 
part of which consists in sermons and 
devotional pieces. There are likewise 
several treatises, one of the most remark- 
able of which is entitled, A Discourse of 
the Liberty of Prophesying (Preaching), 
(4to., 1647), which pleads eloquently and 
strenuously for libeily of conscience. Of 
the other writings of this prelate, tfio 
most generally known are his Golden 
Grove, or Manual of daily Prayere ; his 
treatises on Hol^ Living and Dying ; and 
his Dudor Dubtlantium, or Rule of Con- 
science. Of these the two former are pe- 
culiariy admired for fervor of devotional 
feeling, beau^ of unagei^, and illustra- 
tive and copious impressiveness of elo- 
quence. A new edition of his works, 



TAYLOR. 



159 



widi a life, by the late bishop Heber, vna 
pabli^ed in 1822 (15 volumes). 

TATI.OB, John, LL. D., a distinguiabed 
scholar and critic, the son of a barber of 
Shrewsbury, received the rudiments of 
education at the grammar-school of his 
native town, and was entered of St John's 
college, Cambridge, of which he became 
a fellow in 1730. In 17SK2, he was ap- 
pointed librarian of the university, which 
office he soon after quitted for that of 
registrar. He puUished an edition of 
Lyaas in 1739, and in 1742 became a 
member of doctors' commons. Two 
years afterwards he was made chancellor 
of Lincoln ; and in 1751, entering into 
orders, was presented to the living of La w- 
ford, in Essex. He published, in 1755, 
Elements of Civil Law (4to., reprinted in 
1769). He died in 1766, after having just 
completed an edition of Demosthenes, La 
two vols., 8vo. Besides the works already 
mentioned, he was author of an Ex- 
planation of the Marmor Sandvicenatj 
and an edition of Two Orations of De- 
mosthenes and Lycurgus. 

Tatlob, Thomas, well known by the 
title of the PlaUmigt^ was bom in London, 
of obecure parents, in 1758, and, at the 
age of nine years, was placed at St. Paul's 
school, it being intended to educate him 
9a a dissenting minister. Disgusted, how- 
ever, with the manner in which the dead 
languages are taught, he [Npevailed on his 
&ther to relinquish this plan. He was 
then only twelve years old ; yet he became 
deeply enamored of a Miss Morton, who 
afterwards gave him her hand. While at 
home. Ward's Younj^ Mathematician's 
Guide inspired him with a love of mathe- 
matics, and, though his &ther was adverse 
to the study, the youth soon contrived to 
become a proficient in his fiivorite sci- 
ence. This he accomplished by sacri- 
ficing to it a part of the hours of rest ; 
and mat he might procure a light without 
being discover^ he concealed a tinder- 
box under his pillow. When he was fif- 
teen, he was placed under an uncle, at 
Sheemess, who was an officer of the 
dock-yard — a situation brksome in its na- 
ture, and rendered more so by the tyran- 
ny of his uncle. After enduring it for 
three years, he became pupil to a dissent- 
ing preacher, with the view of entering 
into the church. At this period he also 
renewed his acquaintance with Miss Mor- 
ton, to whom he was secretly married. 
Their secret was, however, betrayed, and 
they were thrown upon the world, with 
scarcely sufficient resources to prevent 
them from starving. At length Mr. Tay- 



lor obtained employment as usher to a 
school at Paddinffton, which, as it kept 
him absent firom his wife, he exchanged 
for that of a clerk in a banking-house, in 
the city. Still his pecuniary means were 
so limited, that in the course of the day 
he could not obtain a proper quantity of 
food, and he often fell senseless on the 
floor when he reached his home. At 
length, his circumstances were somewliat 
amended. His studies were still con- 
tinued with unabated ardor, and, as the 
banking-house absorbed the whole of his 
days, he was obliged to devote to them 
several hours of the night Having made 
himself master of the works of Anstotle, 
be passed on to those of Plato, and the 
commentators on Plato's philosophical 
writing After he had been nearly six 
vears in the banking-house, the feilure of 
his health, and the nature of his occupa- 
tion, determined him to procure some 
more eligible mode of living. An attempt 
to construct a perpetual lamp made him 
advantageously known to several eminent 
persons, who enabled him to emancipate 
himself from the drudgery of the banking- 
house. The munificence of a private in- 
dividual, Mr. William Meredith, now put 
it in his power to publish a translation of 
the works of Plato, and the Platonic com- 
mentators. Mr. Taylor also labored for 
the booksellers ; but the remuneration 
which he received from them was inade- 
quate to his toil For his translation of 
rausanias he was paid only sixty pounds ! 
If we contemplate the numerous obsta- 
cles which have opposed his progress, it 
is impossible not to admjre'the steady 
perseverance with which he has pursued 
his course ; and it is littie to the credit of 
England, that a man of such powers of 
mind, and such extensive learning, should 
so long have been left to struggle through 
the world with no other patronage than 
that of a few private individuals. Among 
his translations from the Greek are Ploti- 
nus on the Beautiful (12mo.) ; Proclus on 
Euclid, and Elements of Theology ; Five 
Books of Plotinus ; Pausanias's De- 
scription ofGreece, with Notes (3 vols., 
8vo., 1794) ; Aristotie's Metaphymcs, 
with Notes ; the Dissertations of Max- 
imus Tyrius (2 vols., 12mo.) ; the 
Works of Plato (5 vols., 4to., 1804) ; tiie 
Work^ of Aristotle, with Elucidations 
fiY)m the best Greek Commentators (9 
vols., 4to.); the Six Books of Proclus on 
the Tlieology of Plato, to which a Sev- 
enth Book is added by the translator; 
Jarabhchus's Life of P^afloras, or Pyth- 
agoric life, accompanied by Fragments 



100 



TAYLOR— TEA. 



of the Ethical Writiiun of certain FythtLg- 
oreaos, and a new Collection of Pytha- 
goric Sentences ; the Connnentaries of 
rroclus on the Tinueus ; Jamblichus on 
the Mysteries, &c. (8vo.). Among his 
original works are a Dissertation on the 
Eieusiniau and Bacchic Mysteries ; a 
Complete Collection of all the existing 
Chaldffian Oracles ; the Elements of the 
true Arithmetic of Infinites ; Miscellanies 
in Prose and Ver8e,with a great number of 
treatises accompanying his translations, 
and of articles in the Classical Journal 

Tatlor, Jane; an amiable and accom- 
plished feinale writer, bom Sept 23, 1783, 
m London. Her father was a highly re- 
spectable artist. While quite young, she 
save evident indications ofpoetic tidenL 
Mr. Taylor became, in 1792, pastor of a 
dissentinff congregation at Colchester, 
whither he carried his daughters, and 
taught them his own art of engraving. 
In the intervals between these pursuits. 
Miss Taylor committed the efiusions 
of her genius to writing, and con- 
tributed to the Minor's Pocket Book, a 
small publication, in which her first work, 
the B^gar Bov, appeared in 1804. From 
this period until 181^ahe continued to pub- 
lish occasionally miscellaneous pieces in 
verse, of which the principal are Original 
Poems for Infant Minds (in two volumes) ; 
Rhymes for the Nursery (in one); and 
some verses in the Associate Minstrels. 
A prose composition of higher pretension, 
which appeared in 1815, under the name 
of Display, met with much success. Her 
last and principal work consists of Essays 
in Rhyme on Morals and Manners, didac- 
tic poems, written with much elegance 
and feeling. This amiable and intellec- 
tual femafe died of a pulmonary com- 
plaint, in April, 1823. 

Tchad ; a lake in the interior of Africa, 
in the western part of Nigritia (cuv.), dis- 
covered by major Denham, in 1822. (See 
Ck^erUm,) It lies between the king^ 
doms of Bomou and Kanem, in lat. lS° 
N., Ion. 17° E. As it has not been en- 
tirely explored, its north-eastern limits 
are unknown, and its extent is uncertain. 
It receives two large rivers, the Yeou 
and the Shary, from the south-west 

TcHAi (in Turkish and Peman, river) ; 
found in many geographical names. In 
Chinese ideographical names, TcJuA sig- 
nifies fi)rtified place. TTxt, Pao^ Ooet, aiui 
other words, signify the same. 

TcHAifo (Chmese for middle); in many 
geographical names, as Tmanf-Kime 
(Central Kingdom), die name which the 
Chinese give to their empire. 



TcHSRNT ; a Sclavonic word, sknufying 
Uacky and sometimes tributary. Tchemy 
appears in many geo^phical names, as 

TcHiNe; Chinese for town and waU^ 
as Shi'Tddng (New Town). 

TcHUDSKO Lake. (See Pe^pua.) 
Tea {thea). The tea plant so stron^y 
resembles the cameUia m its botanicu 
characters, that it has lately been referred 
to diat genus. The flowers and leaves 
are, however, much smaller. The shrub 
attains the height of five or nx feet, and 
is branching and evergreen. The leaves 
are idtemate, oval-oblong, serrated, about 
an inch and a half in length, of a dark, 

gknsy-green color, and firm texture. The 
owers are solitary or in pairs, disposed 
in the axils of the leaves; the corolla 
white, and composed of six petals. It is 
a native of China and Japan, and haa 
been cuhivated, and in common use in 
tfiose countries, from the most remote an- 
tiquitv. Tea was hardly known in Eu- 
rope before the iniddle of the seventeenth 
century, but now has become an article 
of sucn commercial importance in that 
portion of the globe, as to employ more 
that fifty thousand tons of shipping m the 
transportation of it from Canton. Still 
so vast is the home consumption, that it 
is alleeed, Aat were Europeans to aban- 
don the commerce alto^ther, the price 
would not be much dimmished in China. 
It appears to be cultivated in all parts of 
China, even in the vicinity of Pekin, 
which is in the same latitude as Philadel- 
phia, and has a veiy similar climate. It 
succeeds best in south exposures and in 
the neighboriiood of runnmg water. As 
the seeds are very apt to spoil, and scarcely 
one in five will germinate, it is usual to 
plant several in the same hole, at the 
depth of four or five inches. The plants 
require little further care than that of re- 
moving the weeds, till the third year, 
when the leaves may be gathered. In 
seven years, the plants have attained ^e 
height of six feet ; but, as they bear few 
leaves^ they are trimmed down, which 
Reduces a great number of new leaves. 
The leaves are plucked ofif^ one by one, 
with manv precautions; and only from 
four to fineen pounds are collected in a 
day. In a district in Japan, where the 
tea plant is cultivated witn peculiar care, 
the first gathering takes place at the end 
of the winter, when the leaves are young 
and tender, and are onlv a few days old : 
these, on account of their scarcity and 
deamess, are reserved for the weakhy, and 
called imperial tea. The second gather- 



TEA. 



161 



ing IS at the beginning of flprinf, when 
aome leayee have attained their mil size, 
and others are only expanding: all are 
gathered promiacuously, and aAerwards 
sorted: the youngest especially are sep- 
arated with great care, and often sold for 
the imperial. The third and last gather- 
ing takes place towards the middle of 
summer: the leaves are now fully ex^ 
panded, of inferior quality, and are re- 
served for the common people. In China 
die leaves are probably collected in the 
same manner. There are two varieties 
of the tea plant — T. viridis, with broader 
leaves, and 71 h<^a — ^by some writers 
considered distinct species. Formerly, it 
was thought that green tea was gathered 
exclusive^ from T. viridts ; but this is 
now doubtfid ; though it is certain there 
18 what 18 called the gretn tea dutrid^ 
and the black tea district ; and the varie- 
ties of the one dii&r from those of the 
odier district Doctor Abel was told, by 
competent persons, that either of the two 
plants will afibrd the black or green tea 
of the shops, but that the T. viridia is 
preferred for making green tea. The 
names given, in commerce, to the differ- 
ent sorts of tea, are unknown to the Chi- 
nese, the imperial excepted, and are sup- 
posed to have been applied by the mer- 
chants at Canton. The tea leaves, being 
gathered, are- cured in houses which con- 
tain firom five to ten or twenty small 
furnaces, about three feet high, each hav- 
ing at the top a large, flat, iron pan. There 
la also a long, low table, covered with matfi. 
<« which the leaves are laid, and rolled 
by workmen, who sit round it The iron 
pan being heated to a certain desree by a 
little fire made in the furnace underneath, 
a few pounds of the finesh gathered leaves 
are put upon the pan : the fresh and juicy 
leaves crack when they touch the pan ; 
and it is tiie business of the operator to 
shift them as auickly as posabfe with his 
bare hands, till they become too hot to be 
easily endured. At this instant, he takes 
off the leaves with a kind of shovel re- 
sembling a ftm, and pours them on the 
mats: odier operators, now taking small 
quantities at a time, roll them in the palm 
of their hands in one direction, while a 
third set are fimning them, that they may 
cool the more speedily, and retam their 
curi the longer. This process is repeated 
two or three times, or oflener, before the 
tea is put into the stores, in order that all 
the moisture maybe thoroughly dissipated, 
and their curl hiore completely preserved. 
On every repetition, the pan is less heated, 
and the operation performed more closely 
14# 



and cautiously. The tea is then sepft- 
rated into the different kinds, and depos- 
ited in the store for domestic use or ex- 
portation. The different sorts of black 
and green arise not ^merely from soil, nt- 
uation, or the age of the leaf; but afler 
winnowing the tea, the leaves are taken 
up in succession as they fall ; those near- 
est the machine, being the heaviest, are 
the gunpowder tea ; the lightest, the worst, 
is chiefly used bv the lower classea That 
which is brought down to Canton then 
undergoes a second roasting, winnowing, 
packing, &c.; and many hundred women 
are employed for these purposes. As a 
more select sort of tea, the flowers of die 
eameUia aasanmui appear to be collected. 
The leaves, indeed, of this plant are often 
used, and sometimes those of the other 
species of camdHa, though that practice 
is rather to be considered in the light of 
adulteration. Several other plants appear 
to be used as subQ^tutes Ux tea, as a spe- 
cies of moss, different sorts of ferns, &c. ; 
and in Japan the leaves of the olea fra- 
grans are used to give it a high flavor. 
The seeds of the tea plant, as well as of 
the camellias, and especially of the C 
oUiferOy are crushed for their oil, which is 
in very general use in the domestic econ- 
omy of China. The black teas, usually 
imported by Europeans and Americans, 
are, beginning with the lowest qualities, 
bohea, congo, campoy souchong, vouchong, 
pekoe ; the green teas are ttMnkayy hyson 
skinyyoungmfsoftyhysony imperial^ and gun- 
powder. The effects of tea on the human 
system are those of a very mild narcotic, 
and, like those of any other narcotic taken 
in small quantities, exhilarating. The 
green varieties of the plant possess this 
quality in a much higher degree than the 
black, and a strong infusion of the former 
will, in most constitutions, produce con- 
siderable excitement and wakefulness. 
Of all narcotics, however, tea is the least 
pernicious, if indeed it be so in any de- 
gree. It acts, likewise, as a diuretic and 
a diaphoretic, and powerfully assists di- 
gestion. Most of th e attempts to cultivate 
me tea plant in foreign countries have 
met vrith little success. Within the last 
few years, however, considerable efforts 
have been made, by the Dutch govern- 
ment of Java, to produce tea in that 
island, with the assistance of Chinese 
cultivators, vrith some prospect of success ; 
and the experiment nas been made to 
propagate the tea shrub in Brazil, also 
with the aid of Chinese laborers. Tea, as 
we hate said, was unknown in Europe un- 
til the middle of the 17tii cratury, when 



]« 



TEA— TEAR. 



a flOMll quantity waa first imported by the 
Dutch. In 1664, the EnglLrii East India 
company import^ two pounds and two 
ounces of tea, aa a pr^nt to the king. 
In 1800, the annual oonsumption in Ens- 
land was somewhat above twenty mO- 
hon pounds, since which time it has been 
gradually declining, owing in part to the 
increase of duty in 1806 and 1819, and in 
part to the monopoly of the East India 
company. The present consumption is 
estimat^ at about twenty-five million 
pounds, which, for a populatic^i of sixteen 
and a half millions, gives but one pound 
nine ounces per head, while in 1800 it 
was one pound thirteen and a half ounces. 
This monopoly renders the prices of tea 
higher, the qualities inferior, and the va- 
rieties fewer, in England, than on the 
continent, or in the U. States ; so that, 
while about a dozen kinds of tea are 
quoted in the Hamburg and New York 
markets, not more tlian six or seven are 
to be met with in England. Imperial 
is unknown there, and pekoe and gun- 
powder are found only in small quantities. 
Russia and HoUand are the only countries, 
on the continent of Europe, in which the 
consumption of tea is considerable. In 
1830, the imports into Russia amounted 
TO 5,563,444 pounds, alm6st entirely of the 
black sorts. It is carried over land from 
Kiachta to Tomsk, and thence, partly by 
land and partly by the rivers, to Nov- 
gorod. The consumption in Holland 
amounts 4o about 2,700,000 pounds a year. 
In France, tea is not generally used, and 
the consumption is estimated not to ex- 
ceed 230,000 pounds. The importations 
into Hamburg vary fipom 1,500,000 to 
2,000,000 pounds, the greater part of 
which is forwarded to the interior of Ger- 
many. The imports into Venice and Tri- 
este do not exceed seven hundred weighL 
The consumption of the U. States fluctu- 
ates from about 6,000,000 to 8,000,000 
poundsL The amount imported in the 
year ending September 30, 1830, was 
8,609,415 pounds; exported 1,736,324 
pounds. The duties, by the tarifiT of 1832, 
cease entirely on the 3d of March, 1833. 
The consumption of this country has re- 
mained nearlv stationary for some years, 
while tha.t of coffee has increased with 
great rapidity. The prices of the difler- 
ent sorts of tea quoted in the Boston price- 
current for July 30, 1832, are, bohea, 24 
to 28 cents per pound ; souchong, 35 to 
37; hyson skin and tonkay, 50 to 55; 
young hyson, 70 to 77 ; Hyson, 80 to 85 ; 
imperial, 1.06 to 1.12; gunpowdel*, 1.10 
to 1.15. Pouchong and pekoe are not 



ouoted: the finrmer is somewhat higher 
than souchong; the latter is higher than 
gunpowder. 

TsAK-Woon (tedona grandU) ; one of 
the largest trees known, and one of the 
most interesting, firom the properties of the 
wood. It' is referred to tne natural fiun- 
ily verbenacett. The young branches are 
quadrangular and jointed ; the leaves op- 
posite, oDovate and downy beneath, some- 
what declining-, on young trees firom one 
to two feet long, and eight to sixteen 
inches m breadth. The flowers are small, 
white and fitigrant, disposed in widely 
spreading tenmnal panicles. The calyx 
is tomentose, and the corolla hardly 
longer than the cdyx. The fruit is a 
one-celled drupe, lliis tree abounds in 
the extensive forests of Java, Ceykm, 
Malabar, Coromandel, &c., but especially 
in the empires of Birmah and Pegu, from 
which countries Calcutta and Madras 
draw all their supplies of ship timber. 
The wood is light and easily worked, and, 
at the same time, strong and durable. It 
is considered superior to all others for 
ship building, and is, besides, extensively- 
used in the East in the construction of 
houses and temples. This tree has been 
introduced into the British possessions in 
India, and is now planted, with a view to 
timber, in the mountainous pans of Ben- 
gal. Its cultivation has also been recom- 
mended in the West Indies; and some 
circumstances seem to encourage the 
idea that it vrill succeed beyond the trop- 
ics. The leaves furnish a purple dye, 
which is employed for coloring cottons 
and silks. 

Teal. This name is g^ven to some 
small species of duck, resembling, in their 
habits and anatomical characters, the do- 
mestic species. Teal frequent the fresh 
waters of the interior, living on aquatic 
plants and seeds, and rarely visit the sea- 
shore. The flesh is dry and difficult of 
digestion, but, notwithstanding, is in 
great request We have two species in 
the U. States. The green-winged teal 
(anas creeca) is distinguished by a large 
spot of brilliant green upon the wing. It 
is found in all the northern parts of the 
globe. In Europe, it breeds so far south 
as France, but is not known to breed in 
the U. States.— Tlie blue-winged teal (^. 
discors) is peculiar to America. It is the 
first of our ducks to return firom the 
north on the approach of winter, usually 
making its appearance in the Delaware 
early in September, and proceeding fer- 
ther south with the first firosts. 

Tear, and Lachktmal Organs. The 



? 



TEARr-TECHNOLOGY. 



limpid fluid secreted by the lachrymal 
glsDda, and flowing on the sur&ce of the 
cyea, is a little heavier than water, and 
cootaina much pure soda, abo muriate. 
earfoonate and phosphate of soda, and 
phosphate of lime. The organs which 
secrete this liquid are the lachrymal 
^ands, one of which is situated in the 
external angle of each orbit, and emits 
six or seven excretory ducts, which open 
on the internal surface of the upper eye- 
fid, and pour forth the tears. The tears 
have piixed with them an arterious, ros- 
ctd vapor, which exhales from the in- 
ternal surroce of the eyelids, and external 
of the tunica cor^netiva, into the eye. 
Perhaps the aqueous humor also trana- 
udes through the pores of the cornea 
on the surface of the eye. A cer- 
tain part of this aqueous fluid is dis- 
npated in the air ; but the greatest part, 
after having performed its ofiice, is pro- 
pelled by the orbicular muscle, which so 
closely compresses the eyelid to the ball 
of the eye as to leave no space between, 
except at the internal angle, where the 
tears are collected. From dus collection 
the teaia are propelled through the lach- 
nrmal canate mto the lachrymal sac, and 
now into the cavi^ of the nostrils, whore 
they are partly thrown out, partly swal- 
lowed. If the passa^ of the tears from 
the eyes to the nose is disturbed, or pre- 
vented (e. g. by a stoppage of the lachry- 
mal duct), the^ flow down the cheeks, and 
also collect m the lachrymal sac, ex- 
tend it, are here changed in their quali- 
ty, and cause on inflammation, which gen- 
mlly brings on ulceration, and, if not at- 
tended to, even affects the bones. This is 
the disease known by the name of 2acA^- 
mal Jtstula, To ciue it, an operation is 
required, by which a new duct is formed 
for the tears to enter the nose. The teara 
have no smell, but a saltish taste, as peo- 
ple who weep perceive. They are of a 
transparent color, and aqueous consist- 
ence. The quantity, in its natural state, 
is just sufficient to moisten the surface of 
the eve and eyelids ; but from sorrow, or 
any kind of stimulus applied to the sur- 
face of the eye, so great is the quantity 
of tears secreted, that the pvneta lachry- 
moMa are unable to absorb them. Thus 
the greatest part rvmA down from the in- 
temu angle of the eyelids, in the form of 
great andcopious drops, upon the cheeks. 
A great quantity also descends through 
the lachrymal passage into the nostrils ; 
hence Uioee wno cry have an increased 
discharge firnn the nose^— The use of 
the teaiB is to prevent the pellucid cornea 



from drying and becoming opaque, or the 
eve iirom concreting with the evelids. 
They prevent that pain which would oth- 
erwise arise from the friction of the eye- 
lids against the bulb of the eye, from con- 
tinually winkinff. They wash and clean 
away the dust of the atmosphere, or any 
thing acrid that has Allien into the eye. 
Weeping relieves the head of oongesdona. 

Teasbl (dipmuu8\ This plant bears 
a general resemblance to the thisde, and 
might very readily be mistaken for a com- 
pound flower ; but each floret is provided 
with its calyx, and the four stamens are 
not united. The corolla is tubular, and 
divided into four lobes at the summit; 
the florets are disposed in large, oval, 
conic receptacles, and are sepwated by 
lon^, projecting scales or chafl^ — ^The 
cultivated teasel (D. Jvttomm) has a 
herbaceous, upright, prickly stem; the 
leaves are connate, oval-lanceolate, and 
likewise prickly beneath, on die principal 
nervures. Tho florets are blue, and ex- 
pand succeeeavely by zones. It has been 
considered a variety of the wild teasel 
(Z>. aylvutn8)j a common plant in many 
parts of Europe ; but it diflers in having 
the scales or cliaf^ more rigid, recurveil, 
and fonnbg a litde hook at the extremity. 
This conformadon is peculiarly suitable 
for raising the nap upon woollen cloths ; 
and for this purpose the heads are fixed 
round the ctreumforence of a large, 
broad wheel, which is made to turn round, 
and the cloth is held asainst them, or they 
are set into flat boards like cards. This 
plant is, in consequence, cukivated for 
manufacturing purposes, both in Europe 
and now in the U. States, and has become 
an article of considerable importance. 
The seeds are sown in March, on well 
prepared, strong, rich land, broad-cast, 
and at the rate of one peck to the acre. 
They are hoed, like turnips, to a foot dis- 
tance ; and the second year, in August, 
the heads are fit to cut. They are sokl 
by the bundle of twenty-five in each, and 
the ordinary produce is 160 of such bun- 
dles to the acre. We have no nadve 
species of this genus in the U. States ; but 
the wild teasel is naturalized in some 
districts. 

TxcHiriCAL (fiiom tvxw, art) signifies, 
in general, that which belongs peculiarly 
to art, or to any branch of it in particular. 
A technical term is an expression peculiar 
to an art or profossion. In the nne ails, 
the technical is contradistinguished to the 
4E»theticaly comprising eveiy thing relating 
to the material execution of worn of art. 

TxcBNOiiOttT (finm Tixvnf art, and Xwys. 



164 



TECHNOLOGY— TEETH. 



wordf science) is the science which treats 
of the arts, particularly the mechanicaL 
Technology may be divided into two 
kinds, a higher and lower, of which the 
latter treats of the various arts themselves, 
and their principles, their origin, history, 
improvement, &c.; the former, of the 
connexion of the arts and trades with the 
political condition of a nation, and the 
important influence which they have ex- 
ercised ever since the mechanical occu- 
pations have come to honor ; L e. since the 
growth of free cities in the middle ages. 
Tecum SEH, a celebrated Indian chief, 
was bom on the banks of the Scioto riv- 
er, near Chllicothe, Ohio. His &ther was 
a Shawanee warrior of distinction, who 
was killed at the battle of Kenawa, while 
Tecumseh was still a child. His mother 
is variously stated to have been a Shaw- 
anee, a Creek and a Cherokee. -In his 
youth, Tecumseh was remaricable for 
temperance and integrity ; but he did not 
at first display the viuor which afterwards 
distinguished him. He first fought in an 
engagement with the Kentucky troops, 
on the banks of the Mud river, in the 
heat of which he fled from the field. 
But he soon retrieved his reputation, and, 
at the age of twenty-five, was regarded 
as one of the boldest of the Indian war- 
riors. His enmity against the whites was 
constant and bitter, in all the terrible in- 
cursions of the savages, by which the first 
settlers of Kentucl^ were harassed, he 
was conspicuous; but he rarely appro- 
priated to his own use any of the nooty 
thus obtained ; the love of glory, and 
the desire of sating his vengeance on the 
whites, being his predominant passions. 
At length, in conjunction with his broth- 
er, the famous prophet Elskatawa, he 
succeeded in effecting, to a considerable 
extent, a union of the savages, and pro- 
ducing so stronff a fermentation among 
them as to render it. necessary for the 
government of the U. States to take deci- 
sive ineasures. Accordingly, general Har- 
rison, the governor of Ohio, commenced 
offensive operations, and, Nov. 7, 1811, de- 
feated the forces under the command of the 
prophet, in the well-known battle of Tip- 
pecanoe. At the time of the action, Te- 
cumseh was absent in the south, whither 
be had gone for the purpose of prose- 
cuting his plans of union. Soon after his 
return, in 1812, he Joined the British, then 
at war with the U, States, and received 
the rank of brigadier-genenl in the royal 
army. He was extremely useful to his 
idlies in raising and retauung the Indian 
forces. During the first months of the 



war, he was principally occupied in re- 
cruiting ; but he was also pr^nt at the 
two sieges of fort Meigs, and, May 5, 
1812, commanded the cooperating sav- 
age force on the south-east side of the 
river. His career, however, was soon cut 
short In tibe decisive batde of the Mo- 
ravian towns, he led the right wing of 
the allied army ; and whilst all were ^ng 
around him, he continued to press on with 
a chosen band of followers, until he fell ; 
by whose hand has never been satisfiic- ' 
torily ascertained. Colonel Richard M. 
Johnson, who commanded the m6unted 
infantry, against which he was rushing 
at the time, has been commonly desig- 
nated as the author of his deatli, but with- 
out adequate proof. — ^Tecumseh was a 
remariuLble man, fitted forattaining great- 
ness both in peace and war. His. elo- 
quence was vivid and powerful. He was 
sagacious in contriving and accomplish- 
ing his objects, and, by his addross, ob- 
tained an unlimited influence over hief 
savage brethren. Throughout life he 
was exemplary in his habits of temper- 
ance, and adherence to truth. He was 
disinterested, generous, hospitable and 
humane. He married at a mature age, 
in consequence of the persuRsions of his 
fiiends, and lefl one child. In pei^son, he 
was about five feet ten inches high, with 
handsome features, a symmetrical and 
powerful frame, and an air of dignity and 
defiance. 

Te Deum Laudamus, or, still more ab- 
breviated, Te Deum (Thee, God, we 
praise), is the beginning of the hymn or 
song of thanksgiving usually ascribed to 
St Augustine and St Ambrose. It is 
sung on particular occasions, as on the 
news of victories and on high festival 
days, in Catholic and also in many Prot- 
estant churchea Among the modem 
composers of this hymn are Hasse, Nau- 
mann, Haydn, Danzi and Schicht 

Teeth {densy a tooth ; quasi edens, firona 
edo, to eat) ; small bones fibsed in the cd- 
veoli of the upper and under jaw. In 
early infancy, nature designs us fer the 
softest aliment, so that the gums alone are 
then sufilicient for the purpose of mandu- 
cation ; but, as we advance in life, aiid 
require a different food, she provides us 
with teeth. These are the hardest and 
whitest of our bones, and, at fiiU maturi- 
ty, we usually find thirty-two in both 
iaws, viz. sixteen above, and as many be- 
low. Their number varies, indeed, in 
different subjects ; but it is seldom seen to 
exceed thirty-two, and it will very rarely 
be found to be leas than twenty-eight 



TEETH. 



Each tooth may be divided into two parts, 
Yiz. its body, or that part which appears 
aboTO the guma^ and its faoe, or root, 
which Is fixed into the socket The 
boundary between these two, close to the 
edge of the gum, where there is usually 
a small circular depression, is called the 
neck of the tooth. Erery tooth is com- 
posed of its cortex, or enamel, and its in- 
ternal bony substances. The enamel, or, 
as it is sometimes called, the vitreous part 
of the tooth, is a very hard and compact 
flubstaiDce, of a white color, and peculiar 
to the teeth. It is found only upon the 
body of the tooth, covering the outside 
of the bony or internal subsfiance. When 
broken, it appears fibrous or striated, and 
aJl the stri^ are directed fit>m the circum- 
ference to the centre of the tooth. The 
bony part of a tooth resembles other 
bones m its structure, but is much harder 
than the most compact part of bones 
in generaL It composes the inner part 
of the body, and the whole of the root of 
the tooth, f^h tooth has an inner cav- 
ity, supplied with blood-vessels and 
nerves, which pass through the small hole 
in the root In old people this hole 
sometimes closes, and me tooth becomes 
then insensible. The teeth are invested 
with periosteum from their fangs to a lit- 
tle beycmd their bony sockets, where it is 
attached to the gums. This membrane 
seems to be common to the tooth which it 
encloses, and to the sockets which it lines. 
The three classes into which the teeth 
are commonly divided, are incisors, 
canine, and molars, or ffrinder& The 
incisors are the four teeth m the fore part 
of each jaw; they derive their name 
finom their use in dividing and cutting the 
food in the manner of a wedge, and have 
each of them two surfaces, which meet in 
a sharp edge. The canine or euspidaU 
(eye-teeth) are the longest of all the teeth, 
deriving their name from their resem- 
blance to a -dog's tusk. There is one of 
these teeth on each side of the incisors, 
so that there are two in each jaw. Mr. 
Hunter remarks, that we may trace in 
them a similarity in shape, situation and 
use, fn»n the most imperfect carnivorous 
animal — ^which we believe to be the hu- 
man species — to the lion, which is the 
most perfectly carnivorous. The molars, 
or ffnnders, of which there are ten in 
each jaw, are so called, because, fix>m 
theur size and figure, theyare calculated 
for grinding the food. The canine and 
incisors have onhrone fimg ; but the three 
Jsst flprinders in the under jaw have con- 
■tanuy two fongs, and the same teeth in 



the upper jaw, three ian^ Sometimes 
these rangs are divided mto'two points 
near their base. The grinders likewise 
difiler from each other in appearance. 
The last grinder is shorter and smaller 
than the rest, and fix>m its coming through 
the gums later than the rest, and some- 
times not appearing. till late in life, is 
called ti§$dam4ooOu The variation in 
the number of teeth usually depends on 
these wisdom-teeth. The danger to 
which children are exposed during the 
time of dentition, arises m>m the pressure 
of the teeth in the gum, so as to irritate it, 
and excite pain and infiammation. The 
effect of this irritation is, that the gum 
wastes, and becomes gradually thinner at 
this part, till, at length, the tooth pro- 
trudes. In such cases, therefoce, we 
may, with great propriety, assist nature 
by cutting the gum. These teeth are 
twenty in number, and are called tempo- 
rory or miik teeth, because they are all 
shed between the age of seven and four- 
teen, and are suppUed by others of a 
firmer texture, with lai^ ^gs, which 
remain till they become afiected by dis- 
ease, or fall out in old age, and are there- 
fore called the permanent, or advU teeth. 
Beades these twenty teeth, which suc- 
ceed the temporary ones, there are twelve 
others to be added to make up the number 
Uiirty-two. These twelve are three grind- 
ers on each side in both jaws ; and in order 
to make room for this addition, we find 
the jaws grow as the teeth grow, so that 
they appear as completelv filled with 
twenty teeth, as they are afterwards with 
thirty-two. Hence, in childreii, the fiice 
is flatter and rounder than in adults. 
The detUes sapienLuBj or wisdom-teeth, 
do not pass through the gum till be- 
tween the age of twenty and thirty. 
They have, in some instances, been cut 
at the age of forty, fifty, sixty, and even 
eighty years ; and sometimes do not ap- 
pear at alL Sometimes, likewise, a third 
set of teeth appears, about the age of sixty 
or seventy. The teeth are subject to a 
variety of accidents. Sometimes the 
gums become so aflTected as to occasion 
them to ftU out ; and the teeth themselves 
are f^equendy rendered carious by causes 
which have not hitherto been satisfactori- 
ly explained. The disease usually begins 
on that side of tbe tooth which is not ex- 
posed to pressure, and graduallvadvaiices 
till an opening is made into the savity : 
as soon as the cavity is exposed, the tooih 
becomes liable to considerable pain, fit>m 
the air coming into contact with the nerve. 
The enamel of the teeth, as we have al- 



166 



TEETH. 



ready said, is very hard, but liable to be 
cracked by the preaBure of very hard aub- 
Btancea, or by exposure to great heat or 
cold, and, more peculiarly, by sudden 
changes from one to the other. The 
bony substance below, being thus ex- 
posed, begins to decay ; the nerve and 
blood-vessels are at length laid bare, and 
tooth-ache ensues. lUieumatipm, gout, 
aud venereal disorders, exert a very preju- 
dicial influence on the teeth. To preserve 
the teeth, we must guard against too hot 
or too cold drinks ; violent cnanges of tem- 
perature ; biting of very hard substances, 
as in crackinff nuts, also biting off threads, 
and untying knots with the teeth, as the 
former injures the enamel, the latter 
tends to loosen the teeth in their sockets. 
Acids^of all sorts, particularly the stronger 
ones, mjure the enameL Therefore, all 
tooth- washes which contain them are 
eventually prejudicial to the teeth, al- 
though the immediate efiect is to clean 
and whiten them. Rough-pointed sub- 
stances also injure the enamel, so that we 
should avoid the use of metallic tooth- 
picks, aud tootff powder made of pumice 
stone, coral, cream of tartar, &c. People 
who eat much meat aud little bread, or 
have a bad digestion, or smoke tobacco, 
find that a deposit of earthy particles col- 
lects around the teeth, and forms tartar, 
particularly about the parts which are least 
exposed to the action of the food— the 
lower and inner parts, near the gums. 
The gums gradually separate from the 
teeth ; the consequence is, that these 
decay, and the breath is rendered of- 
fensive. To avoid these effects, the 
teeth should be daily cleaned with tepid 
water and a hard brush. A proper pow- 
der should also be occasionally applied 
to them. Where tartar has been formed, 
it should be removed by the dentist, and 
its return carefully guarded against. De- 
cay can often be checked by the removal 
of the parts which have turned black, and 
filling the cavity with gold, so that the 
teeth ma^ be preserved for many years 
or for life. Every one should have his 
teeth examined at intervals of a few 
months, to detect incipient decay. Arti- 
ficial teeth are oflen inserted to remedy, 
as fiu- as possible, the loss of the natural 
ones. These were formerly taken from 
the corpses of healthy men (though this 
point or healthiness was oflen far too litde 
attended to) : they are now, more general- 
ly, prepared from the teeth of the walrus or 
sea-cow, from ivory, from porcelain, &>c. 
Artificial teeth are either secured in the 
■tumps of natural ones^ by means of a 



gold or silver support, or, where oaA 
stumps do not exist, they are ftstened to 
neighborinff teeth by gold or silk thread. 
The porcemin teeth have an advantage 
over the other kinds, which lose their 
color, and acquire a disagreeable smell, in 
the course of time. Their hardness 
may, perhaps, however, make them inju- 
rious to the contiguous natural teetb. 
Besides the accidental means bv which 
the teeth are affected, old age seldom laib 
to bring with it sure and natural causes 
for their removal The alveoli fill up, 
and the teeth, consequently, &11 out 
The gums then no longer meet in the 
fore part of the mouth, the chin projects 
forwards, and, the fiice being rendered 
much shorter, the whole physiognomy 
appean considerably altered. The great 
variety in the structure of the human 
teeth, fits us for a variety of food, and, 
when compared with the teeth given to 
other animals, may, in some measure, 
enable us to explain the nature of the 
aliment for which man is intended 
by nature. Thus, in ruminating ani- 
mals, we find incisora only in the 
lower jaw, for cutting the grass, and mo- 
lara for grinding it; in sraminivorous 
animals, we see molara luone; and in 
carnivorous animals, canine teeth for 
catching at their prey, and incisora and 
molara for cutting and dividing it. But 
as man is not designed to catdi and kill 
his prey with his teeth, we observe that 
our canine are shaped difierently from the 
fangs of beasts of pray, in whom we find 
them either longer than the rest of the 
teeth, or curved. The incisors, likewise, 
are sharper in those animals than* in 
man. Nor are the molara in the human 
subject similar to the molara of carnivo- 
rous animals : they are flatter in man 
than in these animals; and in the latter, 
we likewise find them sharper at the 
edges, mora calculated to cut and tear 
the food, and, by their greater strength, 
capable of breakmg the £>nes of animab. 
From these circumstances, therefore, we 
may consider man as partaking of the 
nature of these difierent classes ; as iq>- 
proaching more to the carnivorous than 
to the herbivorous tribe of animals; but, 
upon the whole, formed for a mixed ali- 
ment, and fitted equally to live upon 
flesh and upon vegetables. Those phi- 
losophers, therefore, who would confine 
a man wholly to vegetable food, do not 
seem to have studied nature. As the 
molara are the last teeth that are fiMrraed, 
so they are usually the firrt that fidl out. 
This would seem to prove that we require 



TEETH— TEIGNMOdTIL 



167 



the flune kind of aliment in old age as in 
infancy. Besides the use of the teeth in 
oiasticationy they likewise serve a secon- 
daiy puipose, by assisting in the articula- 
tion of the Yoice. Albin, Hunter, Blake, 
Fox, and many others, have written on 
the teeth.-— See, also, A. Serres, Emoi 9ur 
PAnaionde tt la Phuiolofne des Denti, ou 
JVottoeOe Thknit it la DeniUion (Paris, 
1817). For zoologists, Cuvier's Ik» 
Btnta des Mmmifens (Paris, 1825) is of 
nuich interest 

Tsrus, or Tiflis; a city in Asia, 
capital of CSeorgia; lat 41° 40^ N.; Ion. 
ear WE.; population, about 15,000. It 
was founded in 1063, and is situated on 
the banks of the Kur, at the extremity of 
a defile formed by two ranges of moun- 
taina The streets are narrow, filthy and 
dusr^. Since the conquest of Georgia by 
the Russians, in 1801, Tefiis has been the 
residence of their governor and com- 
mander-in-chief. The city contaius a 
larse caravansary, an hospital, an arsenal, 
and a Catholic church, a number of Ar- 
meman and Greek churches, several of 
them fine buildings. The bouses are 
buih of brick, mmsled with stones and 
mud, with doors and windows exceeding- 
ly small. Many of the dwellings are 
mere mud huts. Tefiis has been long 
celebrated for its baths, which are situ- 
ated at one extremity of the bazar. 
They are ten in number, and are the 
daily resort of both sexes, as places of 
luxury and amusement 

TEOSRifSEE ; a village, castle and 
royal lordship (63 square miles, with 
3200 inhabitants)! 33 miles distant fit»m 
Munich, on the lake of Tegem. It is a ' 
very romantic spot, surrounded by high 
mountains, and often visited by the royal 
fiunily. A remarkable illumination took 

Kiace on the mountains, in the reign of 
laximilian I, when the names of some 
of his princely guests were presented by 
nighty m characters of fire, on the sides of 
the heights. The fires were kept up by 
immense piles of wood, arranged by 
geometrical calculation, and were so huve 
that half an hour was required to wuk 
from the bottom to the top of a single 
letter. Near Tegemsee, fine marble is 
found. Naphtha is also collected here. 

Tseiriii, Isaiah, bishop of Wexice^ in 
Srotelandf knight of the order of the 
North Star, one of the most celebrated 
fiving poets of Sweden, was bom in the 
provmce of Wermeland, in 1782. In 
1812, he was appointed professor of 
Greek literature at the university of 
Lund, an^ in 1824, was created bishop 



of Wexioe. Among his poems, most of 
which have appeuvd in the Iduna, a 
periodical edited by Tegn^r, in conjunc-^ 
tion with his friend Geijer, professor at 
Upsal, are the Sage {Den Fise\ a didactic 
lyrical poem ; Svea (Sweden), a patriotic 
poem ; VotttMDt&ftarrien, an idyl ; FSrUhiofs- 
iSSoufo, which is drawn from old northern 
baUads (the two latter have been trans- 
lated into German) ; and wlxe^, a narrative 
poem, abounding in beautifiil passages. 
A lively, though not deep sensibility, a 
rich vein of wit, and an active and fertile 
imagination, which is sometimes so pro- 
fuse of imagery as to dazzle rather tnan 
illustrate, are the characteristics of his 
muse. 

TsHSRAif, or Tbhraun ; a city of Per- 
sia, in Irak Agemi; lat 35''40'N.; Ion. 
50° 52^ E.; population, in the winter, 
about 60,000. During the two last reigns, 
it has been the remdence of the sovereicn. 
Its situation is low and unhealthy. On 
the south are the ruins of the immense 
and ancient citv of Rai, and on the north 
and east, the lofty mountain ranges of 
Elburz and Demavend. It is four miles 
in circuit, surrounded by a strong wall, 
built of bricks baked in the sun, flanked 
bv numerous towers, with a broad dry 
ditch, with a glacis between it and the 
walL It has six gates, seven mosques, 
three colleges, and numerous baths and 
caravansaries. The houses are built of 
unbumt brick, and the city has a mud- 
like appearance. It contains no edifice 
of importance except the ark^ which com- 
bines the aharacter of a citadel with a 
royal palace,and has considerable strength. 
During the summer months, it is very 
unhealthy ; and in that season the king 
pitches his tents in the plains of Suhania, 
or Unjan, and most of the inhabitants 
follow the royal camp ; so that Teheran 
cannot then contain more than 10,000 
persons. 

Tehuantepec ; a seaport of Mexico, 
in the state of Oaxaca, on the Pacific 
ocean, at the mouth of the Chimalapa ; 
lat ie° W N. ; Ion. 94<' 58' W. It is situ- 
ated on a large gulf. The port is impeded 
by a dangerous shoal. The isthmus of 
Tehuantepec, which separates the Pacific 
ocean fi^m the gulf of Mexico, is 125 
miles across. Examinations nuide in 
1830, for the purpose of ascertaining the 
practicability of cuttmg a navigable canal 
across the isthmus, gave unfevorable re- 
sults. 

Teionmouth, John Shore, lord, a na- 
tive of Teignmouth, in Devonshire, bom 
in 1751, was sent eariy to India, as a 



168 



TEIGNMOUTH— TELEGRAPH. 



writer in the service of the East India 
company, where he roee to the chair, in 
Bengal He was intimate with Mr. Hast- 
ings, and, under his government, filted 
sevco^ important offices. In 1793, he 
succeeded to be governor of Bengal, but 
only remained in that situation till his 
successor arrived from Enffland. On 
the death of his friend sir W. Jones, he 
was elected president of the Asiatic socie- 
ty, in whicti capacity he delivered a 
eulogy on his predecessor, which was 
printed in the TTansactions of the society, 
as are several others of Mr. Shore's papers. 
In 1793, he was made a baronet, and, 
some time after his return, in 1797, he 
was created a peer of Ireland, by the title 
of baron Teignmouth. He has given to 
the world Memoirs of the Life, Writings 
and Correspondence of Sir W. Jones (4to., 
18011 and the Works of Sir W. Jones 
(1807, 5 vols., 4ta, and aiterwards in 10 
vols., 8vo.). Lord Teignmouth instituted 
the British and foreign Bible society, of 
which he is president. He has published, 
on that subject, a Letter to the Reverend 
Christopher Wordsworth (8vo., 1810). 
His attention has also been much engaged 
on the subject of the following publica- 
tion:— Considerations on communicating 
to the InhabitantB of India the Knowl- 
edge of Christianity (1811). His loitl- 
ship is an active member of the African 
institution. 

Teksli, or T6k6lt, Emmerich, count 
of, a Hungarian noble, celebrated for his 
o£R>rt8 to deliver his country from the do- 
nunion of Austria, was the son of Ste- 
phen, count Tokoly, a noble Lutheran, 
who, after the execution of several Hun- 
garians for a conspiracv against Austria, 
placed himself at the head of the mal- 
contents. General Heister was sent 
against him, and besieged him in his 
castle. The count died during the siege, 
but had taken such steps as enabled his 
son, then fifteen years of age, to escape. 
Emmerich fled *to Transylvania, where 
his courage and good conduct gained him 
the favor of the prince, who gave him the 
command of a body of troops despatched to 
aid the Hungarian malcontents. TheHun- 
{[arians chose him, in 1678, commander- 
m-chie^ and T6k61y, determined to allow 
himself no rest until he had freed his 
country from the German yoke, lnx>ke 
into Upper Hungary, at the hoBul of a con- 
tinually increasmg body of fbrcee, cap- 
tured several fortresses and the mining 
towns, devastated Moravia, and, assisted 
fav France and the Porte, penetrated into 
Upper Austria. The emperor consented • 



to redress several grievances at the diet 
of Edenbur^ (1681); but Tokoly persisted 
in his opposition, and put himself under 
the protection of the sultan Mohammed 
IV, oy whom he was declared king of 
Hungary. A war between the emperor 
and Sie Porte wem the consequence, in 
which the Tuits advanced (1683) as far 
as Vienna, but were totally defeated be- 
fore that ci^. The grand-vizier wished 
to lay the whole blame of the defeat upon 
T6kdly ; but the latter hastened to Adnan- 
ople, and vindicated his conduct so com- 
pletely to the sultan, that the grand- vizier 
was stranded, and Tok61y received as- 
surances of support The count continu- 
ed the v^, but without success, lost sev- 
eral decisive battles, and was therefore ar- 
rested by the Turks. His army now dis- 
persed ; and when Tokdly was set at lib- 
erty, as innocent of the charges brought 
against him, he found himself destitute of 
followers, and unable to effect any thing 
of importance. Fortune, however, once 
more smiled upon him, and he was desig- 
nated by the Porte to be prince of Tran- 
sylvania. He penetrated into that country, 
routed the imperial general Heusler, and 
vras elected prince by the Transylvanians ; 
but Louis, margrave of Baden, compelled 
him to retire. Thus alternately exposed 
to the caprices of fbrtune and of the 
Porte, he was once more carried in chains 
to Adrianople, and soon after named 
prince of Widdin. He returned to Tur- 
key after the peace of Cariowitz (1G99), 
and ended his unquiet life near Nicome- 
dia, in Asia Minor, in 1705. T6k6ly was 
a man of lofty courage, of ^reat sagacity 
and foresight, and of an imperturibable 
presence of mind. 

Telamon. (See Argonauts,) 
Teleoraph (from n/Xe, at a distance, 
and ypa<p<a, to write) ; the name ^ven to 
apiece of mechanism for the rapid com- 
munication of intelligence by signals. 
(See S^ncds, and Cfuippe.) The most 
simple contrivance of this sort consists of 
an upright post of moderate height, with 
two movable arms fixed on a common 
pivot, each of whicl^ may be exhibited in 
various positions, eachposition indicating 
a word or sentence, "rhe universal tele- 
graph, invented by colonel Pasley in 1822, 
has. two arms, each of which can exhibit 
seven positions, with an indicator or 
mariL on one side of the post, ft)r the pur^ 
pose of distingiiishing the positions more 
accurately. This machmeJs capable of 
indicating only twenty-eight different 
combinations, which are, howe^r, f9und 



to 



ic commumca- 



TELEGRAPH— TELESCOPE, 



109 



tioQ, whether by the alphabetical method, 
or in reference to a telegraphic dictionary 
of words and sentences. Several tele- 
graphic dictionaries have been composed. 
A series of telegra{>h8 are placed at inter- 
vals, and infbnnation is tnus communi- 
cated with great rapidity. Twenty-s^ven 
telegraphs convey information from Paris 
U> Calais in three minutes; twenty-two 
from Paris to Lisle in two minutes ; forty- 
six from Strasburg to Paris in six and a 
half minutes, and eighty from Paris to 
Brest in ten minutes. At the time of the 
French expedition to Algiers, nocmmal 
telegraphs were erected, with lanterns of 
powertul magnifying fflasses, and strong 
reflectors, and Uffhted with gas.— See 
Parker's Telegraph Vocabulary (Boston, 
1832). A ponable telegraph, which may 
be used by niffht and by day, has recently 
been invented in France, and has receiv- 
ed the name of Airographt, 

Teixmachus ; a son of Ulysses and Pe- 
nelope. He was still in the cradle when 
his rather went, with the rest of the Greeks, 
to the Trojan war. At the end of this 
celebrated war, Telemachus, anxious to 
see his &ther, went to seek him ; and, os 
the place of his residence, and the cause 
of his long absence, were then unknown, 
he visited the court of Menelaus and Nes- 
tor to obtain information. He afterwards 
returned to Ithaca, where the suitors of 
his mother Penelope had confi^ired to 
murder him ; but he avoided their snares, 
and, by means of Mmerva, he discovered 
his father, who had arrived in the island 
two days before him, and was then in the 
house of Eumffius. With this faithful 
servant and Ulysses, Telemachus concert- 
ed how to denver his mother from the 
importunities of her suitors ; and it was 
eflected with great success. After the 
death of his father, Telemachus went to 
the island of ^Eea, where he married 
Circe, or, according to some, Cassiphone, 
the daughter of Circe, by whom he had 
a son called Latinus. He some time after 
had the misfbrtune to kill his mother-in- 
law Circe, and fled to Italv, where he 
founded Clusium. Telemachus was ac- 
companied in his visit to Nestor and Men- 
elaus by the goddess of wisdom, under 
the form of Mentor. It is said that when 
a child, Telemachus &11 into the sea, and 
that a dolphin brought him safe to shore, 
after he Imd remained some time under 
water. From this cbrcumstance Ulysses 
had the fiffure of a dolphin en£[raved on 
the seal which he wore on his ring. (See 
FtnOon.) 

Telbhahh, Q]o, Philip; one of the 

VOL. ZII. 15 



greatest and most voluminous musical 
composers, who flourished in Germany 
during the former portion of the last cen- 
tury. He was bom at Hildesheim, in 
1681. In 1740, his overtures, on the mod- 
el of those of LuUi, amounted to six hun- 
dred. I'he list of his printed works, 
which appeared in Walther's Musical 
Lexicon in 1732,extended to twenty-nine ; 
and fifteen more are specifled in Gerber's 
Continuation of Waltner; but double the 
number of those printed were long curcu- 
lated in manuscript from the muac shops 
of Leipsic and Hamburg. His later com- 
positions are said to be pleasing, graceful 
and refined. Telemann. who lived to a 
great age, drew up a well-written account 
of his own life, in the earlier part of which 
he was the fellow-student and intimate 
acquaintance of Handel. He died in 
17d7, at Hamburg. 

Teleoloot (mm nXo;, the end, aim, 
and Uyoiy science) ; the doctrine of final 
causes. It treats of the wise and benevo- 
lent ends shown in the structure of indi- 
vidual creatures, and in their connexion, 
and in the connexion and consequences 
of events, fit>m which it deduces the ex- 
istence and character of the Creator. 
Delightful as it is to trace the proofe of 
wisdom and benevolence in the creation 
around us, we should be careful not to 
narrow the purposes of God to our own 
notions, not to be illiberal towards those 
wh6 differ fit>m us, nor to conceive that 
the earth was made solely for the use of 
man — a very confined, but too common 
opinion. 

Telescope (from niXe, at a distance, and 
cKon£w, to see) ; an optical instrument, em- 
ployed for viewing distant objects, by in- 
creasing the apparent angle under which 
^ey are seen without its assistance,whence 
the eflect on the mind of an increase in 
size, or, as commonly termed, b magnified 
representation, (See Optics,) The tele- 
scope is perhaps one or the most impor< 
tant inventions of science, as it unfolds to 
our view the wonders of the heavens, and 
enables us to obtain the data fi)r astro- 
nomical and nautical purposes. As the 
use of the instrument depends upon the 
proportionate distance of the glasses, and 
this distance requires to be changed to 
suit the nearness or remoteness of the 
object, and the vision of the observer, the 
tube of the telescope is so contrived as to 
admit of being lengAened and shortened, 
according to circumstances. The inven- 
tion of the telescope is ascribed to differ- 
ent persons, among whom are John Bap- 
tista Porta, Jansen of Middleburg, and 



170 



TELESCOPE. 



GkJileL The time of its first construc- 
tion is considered to have been about 
,1590; but, in 1608 and 1609, we find 
these instruments for sale at very hiffh 
prices by Dutch opticians; and in the 
latter year, Galilei constructed one v^rith- 
out havinff seen those of the Dutch, by 
fitting a plano-convex and a plano-con- 
cave lens in a tube of lead. The sim- 
plest construction of the telescope consists 
merely of two convex lenses,, so com- 
bined as to increase the apparent an^^le 
under which the object is seen. The 
lenses are so placed that the distance be- 
tween them may be equal to the sum of 
their focal distances. The Yens nearest 
the eye is called the eye-glass, and that at 
the other extremity of the mbe the object- 
gUiss. Objects seen through this tele- 
scope are inverted, and on that account 
it is inapplicable to land observation ; but 
at sea it is occasionally used at night and 
in hazy weather, when there is little light, 
and is, therefore, sometimes cajled the 
night tdeseope. The astronomical tele- 
scope is constructed in this manner, as 
the inversion of the object is immaterial 
in celestial observations. The common 
day telescope, or spy-glass, is an instrument 
of the same sort, with the addition of two, 
or even three or four other glasses, for the 
purpose of presenting the object in an 
erect position, increasing the field of vis- 
ion, and diminishing the aberration 
caused by the dissipation of the rays. 
But the aberration and chromatic error 
of telescopes were not completely obvi- 
ated until the invention of the reflecting 
and achromatic telescopes, which, when 
accurately constructed, present the object 
to the vision free firom all distortion or 
chromatic dispersion. The reflecting tele- 
scope was invented by father Mersenne, a 
Frenchman, in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. Concave mirrors have 
the property of uniting the rays of light 
which proceed fi-om any object, so as to 
form an image of that object at a certain 
point before the mirror. (See JMirrors.) 
If the distance of the object is so great, 
that the rays proceeding from it strike 
upon the mirror parallel to each otiier 
(which is the case with the heavenly bod- 
ies), the distance of the image is equal to 
half tlie radius of the sphere, of which 
the mirror is an arc, and the point where 
it is formed is called the^cti^ of the mir- 
ror. (See Burning Mirror.) This prop- 
erty of the concave mirror has caused it 
to be used in the observation of the heav- 
enly bodies; and the instrument con- 
structed with such a mirror, is called a 



reflecting telescope. The simplest con- 
structions of tnis kind were those in 
which the image, formed in the focus 
of the mirror, was used directly, and a 
convex eye-fflass vras employed to mag- 
nify the angle under which it was seen ; 
and this, in foct, still continues to be 
tlie principle on which reflecting tele- 
scopes are constructed. But as this con- 
struction is attended with some difficulties 
in practice, Newton, and, since him, Cas- 
segrain, Gregory, Hadley, Short, and the 
Herschels, have introduced some modifi- 
cations in it. Newton, by means of a 
second reflection from a plane mirror, in- 
clined at a certain angle, threw the image 
of the object into such a position in the 
tube of the telescope, that it could be 
easily examined from the side of the tube, 
through a plano-convex eye-glass, in whose 
focus it was situated. In me Gregorian 
telescope there is a large mirror with a 
small hole in its centre ; opposite to this 
is placed a second small mirror in the 
axis of the larger one, and at a distauce 
fit)m it a little more than the sum of their 
focal distances. By means of this con- 
struction the image formed by this double 
reflection is viewed through one or more 
eye-fflasses, fixed in the direction of the 
openmg, and, therefore, the observer is 
station^ in a line with the object ; while, 
in the JVeiDtonian telescope, he is at right 
angles to it. The Cassegrainian is con- 
structed in the same way as the Grego- 
rian, with the exception of having a small 
convex instead of a concave speculum. 
Herschel gave the mirror such a position 
that its focus should fall directly under 
the edge of the Upper aperture, so that 
the observer, in viewing the image, should 
not intercept the light: this he called a 
front-vieto telescope. It is plain that tlie 
size of the mirror, and, consequently, its 
focal distance, have an efiect upon the 
magnitude of tlie image ; and modem 
astronomers have, therefore, employed 
some instruments of this kind of great 
bn Ik. HerschePs gigantic telescope, erect- 
ed at Slough, near Windsor, was com- 
pleted August 2d, 1789 ; and on the same 
day the sixth satellite of Saturn was dis- 
covered. The diameter of the polished 
surface of the speculum was forty-eight 
inches, and its focal distance forty foeL 
It weighed 2118 pounds, and was placed 
in one end of an iron tube four feet ten 
inches in diameter. The other end vrsa 
elevated towards the object, and had at- 
tached to it an eye-glass, in the focus of 
the speculum, as above mentioned* The 
observer was mounted in a gallery, mov- 



TELESCOPE— TELL. 



171 



able with the lostrument, and having bis 
back to the object The light obtained 
frona so large a surftce was truly surpris- 
ing, and enabled objects, otherwise invisi- 
ble, to become extremely interesting. (A 
fun description of this instrument, iltus- 
trated with eighteen plates, maybe found 
in the Transactions of the Royal Society 
for 1795.) The frame of this instrument 
having become much decayed, it has been 
taken down, and another, of twenty feet 
focus and eighteen inches diameter, 
erected in its place (1822], by the distin- 
guished J. F. W. Herschel, son of sir 
William. The largest front-view tele- 
scope, at present in England, is that erect- 
ed at the royal observatory at Green- 
wich, by. Mr. Ramage, in' 1820. The 
diameter of the reflector is fifteen feet, 
and its focus is twenty-five feet Schro- 
terhad an excellent telescope of this kind 
at Lilienthal, of twenty-five feet focus, by 
which the Milky Way was separated into 
innumerable small stars. Schrader, at 
Kiel, had a similar instrument of twenty- 
five feet focus, at the close of the last 
century. Another improvement has been 
recently introduced in the refiectinff tele- 
scope, by making the speculum of plat- 
ina, so mat it will not suffer firom rust 
Having noticed some of the most valua- 
ble modifications of the r^fUdmg tele- 
scopes, we now return to the refmcHng 
one. The most important improvement 
in this instrument consists in the forma- 
tion of the object-glasses free fi'om the 
errors of chromatic and spherical aberra- 
tion, whence they have been denqpinated 
achromatic (a, without ; ypwfia, color) teU" 
scopes, or, more propeny, aplanatie (a, 
without; irXavoj, error) telescopes. These 
are now made in such perfection, that 
they have, in some degree, superseded the 
refiectinff telescopes ; and the optical insti- 
tute at Benedictbeuem (q. v.) provides 
observatories with such exceOent dioptri- 
cal instruments, that the catoptric are lit- 
tle used. DoUond (q. v. ) first made achro- 
matic telescopes ; Kamsden (q. v.), Reich- 
enbach (q. v.), &C., have made die best 
They are formed by employing a double 
object-glass, composed of two lenses of 
different reflective powers, which will 
mutually correct each other, and thus 
give a pencil of white hght endrely color- 
less. Triple object-glasses are aJso used: 
one of the largest ever constructed was 
erected at the observatory of Dorpat, in 
1824, and was made by Fraunhofer. (q.v.) 
The diameter of the object-glass has a 
clear aperture of nine and six - tenths 
inches, and a focal distance of fifteen feet; 



but he afterwards constructed another, 
with a diameter of twelve Paris inches, 
and a focus of eighteen feet Mr. TuUy 
has also made one in England, of which 
the aperture of the object-glass is six 
eight-tenth inches, and the focal length 
twelve feet It is now in possession of 
doctor FesoBOD, {See Arirxmamical TVuiu- 
actionSf vol. ii.) 
Telescope Carp. (See Gdd-Fish.) 
Tell, William, a peasant of Btirgeln, 
near Altor^ celebrated for his resistance 
to the tyranny of the Austrian governor 
Gessler or Gdssler. Switzerland consist- 
ed of a great number of secular and ec- 
clesiastical districts, belonging partly to 
the hereditary dominions of the house of 
Hapsburff, and partly to the German em- 
pire. Albert I, emperor of Germany, a 
grasping prince, eager to make territorial 
acquisitions, wished to unite the Forest 
Towns with his hereditary estates, and 
proposed to them to renounce their con- 
nexion with the empire, and to submit 
themselves to him as duke of Austria. 
They rejected his ofiers,and were in con- 
sequence so ill treated and oppressed by 
the imperial governors, that, in 1307, Un, 
Schweitz and Underwalden formed a 
league, under the influence of three brave 
men, Walter Ffirst (Tell's fiither-in-law'|, 
Arnold of Melchthal, and Werner Staui- 
facher. Tell was also one of this league. 
Gessler now pushed his msolence so far 
as to require the Swiss to uncover their 
heads before his hat (as an emblem of tlie 
Austrian sovereignty), and condemned 
Tell, who refused to comply with this 
mandate, to shoot an apple m>m the head 
of his own son. Tell was successful in 
his attempt, but confessed that a second 
arrow, which he bore about his person, 
was intended, in case he had fiufed, for 
the punishment of the tyrant, and was 
therefore retained prisoner. While he 
was crossing the lake of the Four Cantons, 
or lake of Lucerne, in the same boat with 
Gessler, a violent storm threatened die 
destrucdon of the skifiT. Tell, as the most 
vigorous and skilful helmsman, was set 
free ; and he conducted the boat success- 
fully to the shore, but seized the oppor- 
tunity to spring upon a rock, pushmg off 
the barque. He had fortunately taken his 
bow with him ; and when the governor 
finally escaped the storm, and reached the 
shore, Tell shot him dead, on the road to 
Kfkssnacht The death of Gessler Was a sig- 
nal for a general rising, and a most obsti- 
nate war between the Swiss and Austria, 
which was not brought to a close until 
1499. (See SwitzedantL) Tell was pies- 



172 



TELL— TELLURIUM. 



ent at the battle of Morgarten (q. v.), and 
is supposed to have lost his life in an in- 
undation in 1350. Such is the story of 
William Tell, which, attested by chapels, 
by the designation of the rock on which 
he leaped, by paintinss and other circum- 
stances, has been cafied in doubt bv ma- 
ny, but is sanctioned by John von M(iller. 
&UC0 Granunaticus relates a similar story 
of a Danish long, Harold, and a certain 
Tholko; but the tradition might have 
been transmitted from Germany to the 
north by means of the Hanse towns. — 
See JEIagen's Mtrihem Heroic Romancea, 
in German (Breslau, 1814). There is one 
circumstance which may be considered 
sufficient to attest the truth of the main 
points of Tell's history. After the ex- 
pulsion of the governors, and the demoli- 
tion of their cutties, it became customary 
among the Swiss to make pilgrimages to 
the place where Tell had leaped ashore ; 
and in 1388, thir^ years after his'death, 
the canton of Un erected a chapel ^called 
TdPs duLpd) on the rock upon which he 
had sprung, and caused a eulogy to be 
pronounced every year in memory of 
him. In the same year the spot was vis- 
ited by 114 persons, who had been ac- 
quainted with Tell. All the old chroni- 
cles iagree on this point; and Schiller, in 
his tragedy of William Tell, has accu- 
rately copied the accounts of Tschudi 
and Miiller. — See Balthasarand Halter's 
Defence of fftUiam TeU (1772, new ed., 
1^), and Hisely's DisserUOio de Chd. 
Tellw (Grdningen, 1824). 

Tellier, Francois Michel le. (See 
Louvois,) 

TELtiER, Michael le, a distinffuished 
Jesuit, was bom in 1643, near P^re, in 
Lower Normandy. He studied in the 
Jesuits' college at Caen, and entered the 
society at the age of eighteen. In 1709, 
he was chosen confessor to Louis XIV. 
He was a bitter enemy of the Jansenists ; 
and his first act was the demolition of the 
celebrated house of the Port Royal. He 
then forced upon the nation the bull Uni- 
genitus. (q. v.) His violence was the 
cause of much of the odium which the 
Jesuits soon after experienced, and paved 
the way ibr the abolition of their society. 
On the death of Louis, he was exiled, first 
to Amiens, and afterwards to LaFl^che, 
where he died, in 1719. . 

Tellurish. (&eeMagjieti8m,Ammal.) 

Tellurium ; the name of a metal dis- 
covered in 1782, and named by Klaproth 
from the earth in 1798. We shall first de- 
scribe its ores. There are four : — 1. JVa- 
Hve tellurium. It is of a tin-white color, 
passing into lead-gray, with a shining, 



metallic lustre. It occurs in minute hex-, 
aeonal crystals, possessed of regular 
cleavages ; but their direction, owing ti> 
the minuteness of the crystals, has not 
been detected- It occurs also in crystal- 
line grains, either aggregated, solitary, or 
disseminated. It yields to the knife, and 
is brittle ; specific gravity 5.7—6.1. Ex- 
posed to the blow-pipe, it melts before ig- 
nition, and, on increasing the heat, it bums 
with a greenish flame, and is almost en- 
tirely volatilized in a dense white vapor, 
with a pungent,, acrid odor, like that of 
horse-rai^ish. It consists of tellurium 
92.55, iron 7i2, gold 0.25. It has been 
found chiefly in Facebay, in Transylva- 
nia.— v2. Graphic telluriuM, or graphic 
gold. It is of a steel-gray color, generally 
splendent, but sometimes slightly tarnish- 
ed externally. It occurs crystallized in 
the form of a right rhombic prism of 107^ 
44'. The ciysttds are commonly so ar- 
ranged as to give to the whole row the 
appearance of aline ofPersepolitan char- 
acters ; specific gravity 5.7. Before the 
blow-pipe, on charcoal, it fuses into a 
dark-gray metallic globule, which finally 
is briSiant and malleable. It consists of 
tellurium GQ, gold 30, and silver 10. It 
has been found only at Oflenbanya, in 
Transylvania, in veins in porphyiy. — 3- 
Yellow tellurium. It is of a silver-white, 
passing into yellow and gray of diflTerent 
shades. It occurs in very small but well 
defined crystals, of which the primary 
form is a nght riiombic prism of 105^ 30^. 
It possesses a bright metallic lustre. It 
is sofl, and somewhat sectile ; roecific 
gravity 10.6. It consists of tellurium 
44.75,'gold 26.75, lead 19J5, silver 8.5, sul- 
phur 0.5. It has been found only at Na^- 
yag, in Transylvania. — 4. Black tellun- 
um. It is of a color between iron-black 
and dark lead-gray. It is found crystal- 
lized in small tabular crystals, of which 
the primary form appears to be a ri^ht 
square prism. It yields to the knife with 
ease, and in thin laminee is flexible; 
specific gravity 8.9. It consists of 

Tellurium, 32JJ 

Lead, 54 

Gold, 9 

Silver, 0.5 

Copper, 1.3 

Sulphur, 3. 

It has been found only at Nagyag, in Tran- 
sylvaniaT The pure metal has the fol- 
lowing properties: — ^It has a silver-white 
color, and a good degree of brilliancy. 
Its texture is' laminated like antimony ; 
specific gravity 6.115. It is vexy brittle, 
and may be eauly reduced to powder. 



TELLURIUM-TEMPELHOFF. 



173 



It melts when raised to a temperature 
higher than the flising point of lead. If 
the heat be increased a little, it boiJs and 
evaporates, and attaches itself in brilliant 
drops to die upper part of the retort in 
which the experunent is made. It is, 
therefore, next to mercury and arsenic, 
the most volatile of all the metals. When 
cooled slowly, it crystallizes. TeUurium 
combines with only one proportion of 
oxygen, and forms a compound possessing 
acid properties. But, as it also possesses 
alkalme properties, it is called oxM^e oftd- 
htrwm. It is formed when teUurium is 
burnt in a crucible, or before the bIow> 
pipe: the white smoke evolved is the 
substance in question.* It is also obtained 
by dissolving the metal in nitro-muriatic 
acid, and diluting the solution with a 
great quantity of water. A white pow- 
der falls, which is the oxide. It is ea- 
sily melted by heat into a straw-color- 
ed mass of a radiated texture. It is 
composed of metal 100, and of oxygen 
24^. ' Tellurium bums spontaneously 
when brought into contact with chlorine 
gas. The cMoride of tellurium is white 
and semi-transparent. When heated, it 
rises in vapor, and crystallizes. Iodine 
combines very readily vnth tellurium, 
when the two substances are brought into 
contact. Tellurium has the property of 
combining with hydrogen, and offorming 
a gaseous substance, to which the name 
otUUureUd hydrogen is applied. It is 
formed by mixing together oxide of tel- 
lurium, potash, and charcoal, and expos- 
ing the mixture to the action of a red 
heaL It is transparent and colorless, and 
possesses a strong smell, resembling sul- 
phureted hydrogen. It bums with a blu- 
ish flame, and oxide of tellurium is de- 
posited. It is soluble in water, and gives 
that liquid a claret color. Tellurium ap- 
pears to enter into combination with car- 
bon. The compound is a black powder. 
It may be combined with sulphur by 
fusion. 

Temeswar ; formerly capital of the 
fiannat of Temeswar, which now forms a 
part of the kingdom of Hungary, now 
capital of the county of the same name 
in the circle beyond the Theiss, in Upper 
Hungary. It is simated on the river Be- 
ga, in a manhy and unhealthy district, is 
a royal free city, the residence of the im- 
perial commander of the Bannat military 
distiict, and the see of a Greek bishop. 
Since 1718, when the Turks ceded the 
whole of the Bannat by the peace of 
Paasarowitz (q.v.), the town has been 
much improved in a{^>earance, and ex- 



tended; and the fortifications have also 
been strengthened, so that it is now one 
of the most important fortresses of the 
Austrian empire. It contains 11,000 in- 
habitants, chiefly Germans and Servians, 
or Rascians (q. v.), who are engaged in 
manufiictures, and carry on a bruk trade. 

Tempe, Vale op ; a beautiful and cel- 
ebrated valley of ThesBaly,on the Peneus, 
not far from its mouth, having mount 
Olympus on the north, and mount Ossa 
on the south. It is about five miles lonff, 
and of unequal breadth. It was much 
celebrated by the ancient poets; but mod- 
em travellers were long perplexed to find 
in so rugged and terrific a spot as the de- 
file of l^mpe, where it is crossed by the 
great road, the object of their unqualified 
panegyric. The ^t is, that the vale of 
Tempe is distinct fi^m the gorge or defile, 
being situated a little to the south-west. 
*'The scenery of this beautiful valley,** 
says a traveller, *« fully gratified our ex- 
pectations. In some places it is sylvan, 
calm and harmonious, and the sound of 
the water of the Peneus accords with the 
grace of the surrounding landscape ; in 
others, it is savage, temfic and abrupt ; 
and tlie river roars with violence, darken- 
ed by the frowns of stupendous preci- 
pices." The woods which once appear 
to have adomed this celebrated region, 
have been much diminished in the ser- 
vice of the neighboring cotton worics ; but 
the mountains on each side are tmly sub- 
lime. In the centre of this romantic se- 
clusion stands Ambelakia, a town inhab- 
ited by Greeks, with some Germans, who 
have establiished considerable cotton man- 
ufactures. 

Tempelhoff, 'George Frederic von ; 
a German ofi^cer, and writer on military 
tactics, born in 1737. Afler having stud- 
ied at Frankfort on the Oder, and at HaUe, 
he entered into a Pmssian regiment of 
infantry as a corporal, and, in that capaci- 
ty, served in Jk>hemia, in 1757. He after- 
wards entered into the artillery, and dis- 
tinguished himself at the battles of Hoch- 
kirchen, Kunnersdorf, Torgau, &c., and 
at the sieges of Breslau, Ohnfitz, Dresden, 
and Schweidnitz. At the close of the 
second campaign, he was made a lieuten- 
ant ; and, after the peace of 1763, he con- 
tinued his studies at Berlin, and published 
some mathematical works, and also the 
Pmssian Bombardier (1781, 8vo.), in 
which he reduced the doctrine of projec- 
tiles to scientific principles. He after- 
wards published the Elements of Military 
Tactics, developing the manosuvres and 
warlike operations of Frederic II. In 



174 



TEMPELHOFF— TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 



1790, be was promoted to a colonelcy ; 
and, in the beginning of the revolutionary 
war with France, he had the command 
of all the Prussian artillery, and, in 1795, 
became chief of the third regiment of 
that corps. He died at Berlin, July 13, 
1607. Tempelhoff published some im- 
portant works besides those mentioned 
above, of which the best known is his 
History of the Seven Years' War in Ger- 
many, between the King of Prussia and 
the Empress Queen, &c. (1781^—1801, 6 
vols., 4to.), of which an English translation 
was made by general Lloyd. 

Tempeiulhents ; those individual pe- 
culiaxities of orgaiiization, by which the 
manner of acting, feeling and tbinkinf 
of each person is permanently affected. 
The differences of sex, race, nation, fimuly, 
and individual organization, operate upon 
the character of every individual from the 
moment of his birth ; and the last men- 
tioned is by no means the least important. 
The ancients distinguished four tempera- 
ments — ^the choleric or bilious, the pmeg- 
inatic, the melancholic, and the sanguine- 
ous, which derived their names from the 
supposed excess of one or other of the 
pnncipal fluids of the human body — ^bile 
(xo^v), phlegm, black bile (/McAatv?, black, 
and x^^^)i ^^ blood (saiuniis). Modem 
writers have added the athletic tempera- 
ment and the nervous temperament. 
The bilious or choleric temperament is 
accompanied with great susceptibility of 
feeling, quickness of perception, and vig- 
or of action, and therefore indicates an 
elevated state of the or^^anization : rapidity 
and strength, a lively ima^ation, violent 
passions, quickness of decision, combined 
with perseverance and inflexibility of pur- 
pose, with a tendency to ambition, pride, 
and an^r, but also to magnanimi^ and 

generosity of sentiment, characterize the 
iliousman. These moral characteristics 
ar^ combined with a form more remarkable 
for fimmess than grace, a daric or sallow 
complexion, sparkling eyes, and great 
muscular force. " These men," says an 
ingenious writer (Am. Quarterly Rev. for 
Blarch, 1829), ** are urged by a constant 
restlessness to action ; a habitual sentiment 
of disquietude allows them no peace but in 
the mmult of business; the hours of 
crowded life are the only ones they value ; 
they are to be found wherever hardiness 
of resolution, prompt decision, and per- 
manence of enterprise, are required." 
The phlegmatic, lymphatic or cold-blood- 
ed temperament is the reverse of that last 
described : with Httle propensity to action, 
and little sensibility; no great bodily 



strength or dexteri^ ; rather a heavy look ; 
die feelings calm ; the understanding clear 
in a certain range, but never soaring into 
new regions, or penetrating deeply be- 
neath the mysteries of the universe ; and 
a disposition to repose or to moderate 
exertion, — the phlegmatic man is fiiee flnom 
excesses, and nis virtues and vices are 
stamped with mediocri^. The sanguui- 
eous temperament indicates a lively 8u»- 
ceptibiht>', with htde proneness to action ; 
promptneaSiVirithout perseverance : a ready 
fancy ; Uttie deptii of feeUng, or thought ; 
changeable, but not violent feelings and 
passions; and a tendency to voluptuous- 
ness, levity, fickleness of purpose, and 
fondness of admiration. The sanguineous 
are distinguished for beauty and grace, and 
the whole organization is characterized by 
the vigor and fiicility of its functions : they 
are the witty, the elegant, the gay, the or- 
naments of society. The melancholic tem- 
perament is characterized by littie susce])- 
tibility, but great energy of action, reser\e, 
firmness ofpurpose, perseverance, deep re- 
flection, constancy of feeling, and an in- 
clination to gloominess, to ascetic prac- 
tices, and to misanthropy. The athletie 
temperament possesses, *in some degree, 
the qualities or the sanguineous ; but it is 
distinffuisfaed bv superior strength and 
size of body, indicating the excess of the 
muscular force over the sensitive. The 
athletic man has less playfuhiess «f mind, 
less activity of spirit, little elevation of 
purpose or fixedness of character ; he b 
good natured, but if excited, ferocious. 
The nervous temperament admits of the 
most various ^lodifications ; it is charac- 
terized by the predominance of the sensi- 
tive part of the sjrstem, and the powerful 
action of the nerves. The mind is active 
and volatile, though not fix>m fickleness, 
but from the rapidity of its associations, 
the (quickness of its resolutions, and the 
readiness of its combinations. The tem- 
peraments are rarely found unmixed, as 
we have described them ; but one or the 
other is usually predominant Each has 
its advantages and pleasures, attended 
^vith some corresponding drawback. (See 
Kant's Jhdhropoiogyy or Schulze's^fviMm- 
pology^ both in German.) 

TxMPERATrcE Societies. The remark- 
able success of these institutions in coun- 
teracting a vice of ffreat seductiveness, 
and of the most ruinous tendency, de- 
mands for their history and present con- 
dition a somewhat extended notice. The 
mental excitement produced by the re- 
ception of certain vegetable subotsiices 
into the system is, in its fint stage, m 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 



. 175 



agreeable, that we cazmot be surpriaed at 
&ading some of them in use as far back, 
and as extensively, as our accounts of pri- 
Tate mauners reach. The fermented 
juice of fruits, as of the apjple and grape, 
the intoxicating property of which latter is 
mentioned by Mosee (GJen. ix, 21), proba- 
bly was the most ancient, and is now the 
most common vehicle of the stimulating 
principle. The later Asiatics have found 
it in preparations &om the poppy and the 
wild nemp, and the North American In- 
dians in tobacco. The ancient Gei-maiis, 
according to Tacitus's account {De Mar, 
Gemu, xxiii), obtained an intoxicating 
drink from wheat and barley ; but the art 
of bre>ving, as at present practised, ap- 
pears not to have been known in England 
oefore the end of the fifteenth century. 
Distillation, which furnishes far the most 
powerful agents of this kind, was invented 
oy the alchemists in the course of their 
experiments in search of the elixir of life. 
The first known distinct mention of it 
{EncycloptSdie M^ikodiquCy articles Arts . et 
Mitiers, DisiiUateury LiquoriHej as quoted 
in SuUi^'an's Address, Boston, 1^32] occurs 
in the thirteenth century. Aniaud de 
Villeneuve, a chemist and physician, who 
died about the year 1300, writes : " Who 
would believe that one can draw from 
wine, by chemical process, that which has 
not tiie color of wine, nor the ordinary 
effects of wine ? This water of wine is 
called by some the water of lift (eau de 
vie, brandy) ; and it well deserves^ the 
name, since it is truly a water of immor- 
taliQr. Already its virtues begin to be 
known. It prolongs one's life ; it dissi- 
pates superfluous and vicious humors ; it 
revives toe heart, and perpetuates youth." 
Towards the end of the sixteenth century, 
the use of distilled spirits was introduced 
into England. Camden mentions them as 
having been adopted, in 1581, into the diet 
of the Enslish soldiers in their campaigns 
in the NeUierlauds. A very heavy excise 
tax and dut^ on importations has not pre- 
vented the mcrease of their consumption 
in Great Britain till it has reached the 
amount of 40,000,000 of gallons annually. 
There is no evidence of their extensive 
use in North America during the first 
century afler the settlement of the colo- 
nies. The exposures of the French war, 
and much more the hardships and disor- 
ders of the revolution, naturally tended 
to difiuse it. The men now upon the 
stage remember, from their childhood till 
within the last ten years, to have seen 
distilled spirits, in some form, a universal 
pnnrision for the table at the principal re- 



past, throughout this country. The richer 
sort drank French and Spanish brand^' ; 
the poorer. West India, and the poorest, 
New England rum. In the Southern 
States, whiskey was the &vorite liquor ; 
and the somewhat less common articles 
of foreign and domestic gin, apple 
brandy and peach brandy, macte a variety 
which reconunended itself to the variety 
of individual tastes. Commonly at meals, 
and at other times by laborers, particular- 
ly in the middle of the forenoon and after- 
noon, these substancetLwere taken simply 
diluted with more or less water. On oth- 
er occasions, they made a part of more or 
less artificial compounds, in which fruit 
of various kinds, egj^ spices, herbs and 
sugar were leading ingredients. A fash- 
ion at the south was to take a draught of 
whiskey flavored with mint soon afler 
waking; and so conducive to health was 
this nostrum esteemed, that neither sex, 
and scarcely any age, was exempt from its 
application. At eleven o'clock, while 
mixtures, under \'arious pecuhar names, — 
sling, toddy, flip, &c., — solicited the appe- 
tite at the bar of the common tippling 
shop, the office of professional men, and 
the counting room, dismissed their occu- 
pants for a half hour to regale themselves 
at a neighbor's, or a co&e-house, with 
punch, hot or iced, according to the sea- 
son ; and females and valetudinarians 
courted an appetite with medicated rum 
disguised under the chaste name of Hux- 
ham's tincture^ or SUmghton's elixir. The 
dinner hour arrived, according to the dif- 
ferent customs of dififerent districts of the 
country, whiskey and water, curiously 
flavored with am>les, or brandy and water, 
introduced the feast ; whiskey, or brandy, 
with water, helped it through, and whis- 
key or brandy, without water, often se- 
cured its safe digestion, not again to be 
used in any more fonnal manner than for 
the relief of occasional thirst, or for the 
entertainment of a fiiend, until the last 
appeal should be made to them to secure 
a sound night's sleep. Rum seasoned 
with cherries protected against the cold ; 
rum made astringent with peach-nuts 
concluded the repast at the confectioner's ; 
rum made nutritious with milk prepared . 
for the maternal ofiice; and, under the 
Greek name o{ paregoric, rum doubiv 
poisoned with opium quieted the infimts 
cries. No doubt there were numbers 
who did not use ardent spirits ; but it was 
not because they were not perpetually in 
their way. They were an establiuied 
article of diet, cdmost as much as lM«ad, 
and, with very many, they were in much 



176 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 



more frequent use. The friend who did 
not testify his welcome with them, and 
the master who did not provide buunti- 
fuUy of Jhem for his servants, were held 
niggardly ; and there was no social* meet- 
ing, not even of the most formal or sa- 
cred kind, where it was considered indec- 
orous, scarcely any where it was not 
thought necessary, to |Nt>duce them. The 
consequence was, that what the great 
majority used without scruple, large 
numbers indulged in widiout restraint. 
Sots were common, of both sexes, various 
ages, and all conditions. And though no 
statistics of the vice were yet embodied, it 
was quite plain that it was constantly 
making large numbers bankrupt in 
property, character, and prospects, and 
inflicting upon the communitv a vast 
amount of physical and mental ill in their 
worst forms. The evil was too obvious 
and dreadful not to be the subject of 
much anxious observation ; but endeavors 
to restrain it had hitherto taken no more 
effective shape than that of individual 
influence applied to individual cases. 
The idea of concentrating public senti- 
ment upon it, in some form to produce 
more important results, seems to have 
been first developed, if not conceived, by 
some members of an ecclesiastical body, 
called the Greneral Association of Massa- 
chusetts Proper. At a meeting of this 
association, in 1811, a conunittee, of wliich 
reverend doctor Worcester, of Salem, was 
chairman, was appointed to draught the 
constitution of a society whose object 
should be "To check the progress of in- 
temperance, viewed by the association as 
an alarming and growing evil.'' Such a 
society was formed, consinting of about 
120 members, in diflerent parts of the 
state. It held its first meeting in 1813, 
and elected that eminent statesman, the 
late honorable Samuel Dexter, for its 
president The first attempt of the soci- 
ety was naturaUy to collect fiicts towards 
a precise exhibition of the nature and 
magnitude of the existing evil, Avith the 
view of drawing public attention to it, and 
of directing endeavors for its removal. 
The reports presented, fiwm year to year, 
embraced statements and calculations 
which were found to make out a case of 
the most appalling nature, such. as to 
amaze even those whose solicitude on 
^e subject had been greatest. In the 
year 1810, the federal returns showed 
SSvl99,382 ^lons of spirits of different 
kinds to have been distilled in the U. 
States, which quantity, to ascertain the 
consumption (no account, of course, being 



made of what may have escaped the 
knowledge of the custom-house and the 
marshals), was to be increased by 8,000,000 
of gallons imported, and dinunished by 
133,823 exported. The amount thus as- 
certained, namely, 33,365,559 galJons, 
was distributed among a population of 
7,239,903 (white and black), returned in 
the census of the same year. This gives 
an average of more than four gallons and 
a half for the year to every man, woman 
and child in the U. States. The society 
continued to collect and present, fix>m 
year to year, statistical statements of this 
kind ; and the curiositv and alarm excited 
by them led to similar observations in 
different quarters, the most considerable 
of which we shall presently mention. 
Some further particulars of the deplorable 
state of things, as successively brought to 
light,, or made probable, we will here 
set do^^u, premising that, so far from the 
earliest rough statements and calculations 
appearing, on further investigation, to 
have been exaggerated, it was rather 
found that the authors of these had 
shrunk witli incredulity from the conclu- 
sions which their reasonings seemed to 
authorize, and the facts continually grew 
more alarming as they were more exactly 
ascertained. In 1814, it was suggested, 
in a circular of the Massachusetts society, 
that not less than 6000 citizens of the IJ. 
States might die annually victims of in- 
temperance. In 1830, from much more 
fiill data, the number was estimated at 
above 37,000. Facts were thought to justi- 
fy the inference, in this latter year, that 
7^000,000 of gallons of distilled spirits 
were consumed in the country' (not far 
from six gallons, on an average, or a 
half a gill a day to each individual), and 
that the number of confirmed drunkards 
(apart from those in some sta^ of prog- 
ress towards the fixed habit) fell not much 
short of 400,000. From computations 
founded on fiicts collected in particular 
districts, there appeared reason to believe 
that intemperance was responsible for 
three <juarters or four fiflhs of the crimes 
committed in the country, for at least 
three quarters of the pauperism existing, 
and for fully one third of the mental de- 
rangement. According to a calculation 
of less satisfactory character, but not des- 
titute of probability, the annual waste for 
distilled spuits, reckoning the cost to the 
consumer (at two thirds of a dollar the 
gallon), the loss of the labor of drunkards 
and prisoners, and the direct cost of tfaair 
crimes and pauperism, amounted to a 
sum which, vested in an annuity for 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 



177 



twenty years, at six per cent^ siinple in- 
terest, would purcllase all the lands, 
houses and slaves in the U. States. The 
Massachusetts society persevered to invite 
the public attention to the subject of in- 
, temperance in reports, and, with one or 
two exceptions, in addresses fix>m distm- 
guished individuals of its number at the 
annual^ meeting, continuing, till the year 
1836^ the most conspicuous agent in 
the enterprise of reformation, while, a 
year after its formation, a similar state 
institution, with numerous branches, was 
organized in Connecticut, measures of 
like character were set on foot in Ver- 
mont, and an indirect influence from itself 
was also exerted within its own proposed 
limits by auxiliary societies, wnich, ac- 
cording to the report of 1818, had multi- 
plied at thai time to tlie number of more 
than forty. At the same time, as was to 
be expected, individuals, by writing and 
by personal influence^ were doins an im- 
portant part in the same work. £ai-ly in 
the year 1826, a new impulse was given 
to the movement by the formation, in 
Boston, on a more extensive plan, of the 
American Socim for the Promotion of 
Temperance. ITie Massachusetts society 
had now accomplished, perhaps, the most 
useful part of all to which it was compe- 
tent. It had succeeded in fixing attention 
to its object in a part of the country 
where effective combination for further 
operations might be the most easily or- 
ganized. By die facts which, with much 
labor, it had collected and promulgated, 
both in its own documents and in publica- 
tions of the most material impiortance, 
which it had called out from private 
hands, it had both furnished guidance to 
further efforts of the same kind, and de- 
monstrated their necessity ; and, by the 
controlling influence of the names* which 
stood for vouchers of the wisdom of its 
design, it had abashed the derision, and 
shaken the incredulity with which its first 
annunciation had been met. The Massa- 
chusetts socie^ had been in great part 
conducted b^ individuals belonging to a 
class of religionists, the Unitarians, whose 
influence, as such, was not great beyond 
a limited circle in New England, and 
who did not sufficiently command the 
sympathy of other denominations to be 
able to produce a combination of Christian 

* Its presidents, during this period, were Sam- 
uel Dexter, formerly secretary of the treasury of 
the U. States ; Nathan Dane, author .of the ordi- 
nance of 1787, which saved the territory north- 
west of the Ohio from the curse of slavery ', and 
Isaac Parker, chief-justice of the commonwealth. 



action. At the time above mentioned,the en- 
terprise was energetically taken up by oth- 
er hands, in all respects nighly competent 
to advance it, and, in that to which.aUusion 
has just been made, possessing altogeth- 
er superior advantages. Percei\'ing the 
power which, in the use of means within 
their control, might be brought, under ex- 
isting circumstances, to act upon the pub- 
lic mind, some judicious and philanthrop- 
ic individuals, of the different denomina- 
tions accustomed to exert a joint influence 
for general objects, held a meeting, at 
which they passed resolutions expressing 
their sense of the expediency of making, 
on the part of the Christian public, more 
systematic and vi^rous efforts to suppress 
intemperance, and appointed a committee 
to devise means to that end. At an ad- 
journed meeting, the constitution of a 
new society was adopted, and fifteen 
individuals elected to compose it, with 
such associates as might oe thencefor- 
ward chosen by themselves. The first 
annual report announced the formation 
of 30, and the second of 220, auxiliary as- 
sociations, five of which latter were state 
institutions. The number of auxiliary as- 
sociations .was increased, in 1829, to more 
than 1000, no state in the Union now be- 
ing without one, and 11 of them bearing 
the names of their states respectively. 
The report of this year also announces it 
to have come to the knowled^ of the so- 
ciety, that i^ore than 700 habitual drunk- 
ards had been reformed by its influence, 
and that 50 distilleries had been closed. 
A decUne in the sales of distilled spirits is 
represented to have generally taken place, 
varying, in different parts reported, from 
one quarter to nine tenths of the whole 
amount; and 400 dealers in them were 
known to have renounced the traffic for 
reasons of conscience. The time for the 
annual meeting having been altered, the 
next report was presented in the month 
of May, 1831.. More dian 2200 societies, 
embracing 170,000 members, were now 
in correspondence with the parent society, 
and, from less certain data, it was inferred 
that the whole number of societies exist- 
ing was not less tlian 3000, and that of 
their membei-s 300,000. More than 1000 
distilleries had been stopped — a tenth 
part, as was believed, of all which had been 
m operation. Since the last meeting, 150 
vessels had sailed from one port, that of 
Boston, without any provision of spirits. 
The number of members of the parent 
society now amounted to 200, dispersed 
throuffh thirteen states. The report pre- 
sented in May, 1832, has not been made 



178 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 



public at the time of printing this notice. 
From extracts contained in the Journal 
of Humanity, a newspaper published un- 
der the society's direcuon since 1829, it 
appears that, from the sources of informa- 
tion accessible to its government, they 
gather that tliere are now 4000 auxiliary 
associations in the U. States, numbering 
600,000 members ; *^ that more than 4000 
merchants have ceased to traffic in ardent 
spirits ; and that more than 4000 drunk- 
ards have ceased to use intoxicating 
drinks. There is also reason to believe," 
the report proceeds, ^'that more than 
20,000 persons are now sober, who, had it 
not been for the temperance reformation, 
would, before now, have been sots ; and 
that 20,000 families are now in ease and 
comfort, without a drunkard in them, or 
one who is becoming a drunkard, who 
would otherwise have been in poverty, or 
cursed with a drunken inmate ; and that 
50,000 children are released from the 
blasting influence of drunken parents ; 
and 100,000 more from that parental in- 
fluence which tended to make them 
drunkards." « More than 1,000,000 of per- 
sons in the U. States," says another publi- 
cation of the society of this year, " now 
abstain flt>m the use of ardent spirits." 
The means by which the society has pro- 
duced these results, apart from the contem- 
poraneous labors, in writing, and by more 
personal endeavors, of a aceat number of 
mdividuals, connected and not connected 
with it, have been the calling of attention 
to the subject, and the diffusing of infor- 
mation upon it, by the circulation of tracts 
and the addresses of travelling agents, and 
then collecting such as have been influ- 
enced by tlie representations made, into 
auxiliary associations, embracing a lar^r 
ormore limited neighborhood, thus making 
such individuals distinctly responsible for 
personal, and, as opportunity should 
Jtermit, more public cooperation with 
Its objects. Such associations have in- 
cluded females and children, it being 
thought of the highest importance thus to 
secure tlie influence of the former class, 
and the forming habits of the latter. The 
basis on which these associations have 
been formed, at least from an early peri- 
od, has been that of an engagement, on 
the part of each member, to abstain from 
the use of distUled spirits, except for me- 
dicinal purposes, and to forbear to pro- 
vide them for the entertainment of friends 
or the supply of dependants. The prin- 
ciple of tne necessily of abstinence from 
the use of distilled spirits, in order to the 
prevention extensively of their fiital abuse 



— a principle to which the researches on 
the subject from the first had more and 
more directly tended, and which had« for 
instance, bc^n distinctly argued in the 
address before the Massachusetts Society 
for the Suppression of Intemperance, at 
their meeting in the spring of 1826— was 
first, as far as appears, n^e the matter 
of an article of mutual agreement by an 
association formed at Andover in Septem- 
ber of that year. At the second annual 
meeting of the American temperance so- 
ciety ja 1829, a resolution was adopted, 
declaring it to be the duty of every pro- 
fessor of relififion to exert his influence 
towards abolishing the use of ardent spir- 
its; and the form of a constitution for aux- 
iliary societies, appended to the report of 
that year, includes provision for a mutual 
pledge similar to that of the Andover as- 
sociatioUb The efforts of the society have 
of late been strenuously directed towards 
a change in the current opinions respect- 
ing the moral lawfulness of traflicking in 
them as an article of luxury or diet. At 
the annual meeting, in New York, in 

1829, and again at Boston, in 1831, reso- 
lutions were passed, condemning the 
trade as inconsistent with the character 
of a Christian; and this argument is un- 
derstood to be largely maintained in the 
last report, hitherto unpublished. In dif- 
ferent places churches have also assumed 
this ground, and accordingly reflise to ad- 
mit persons engaged in the trade to a par- 
ticipation in tlie ordinances of religion. 
The reformation, of which the example 
was thus set, found its way, in good time, 
to Europe. In the latter part of 1829 or 

1830, the first temperance society in tlie 
old world was formed at New Ross, in 
Ireland, and, before the close of this latter 
year, there were societies in Ireland anfi 
Scotland, numbering more than 14,000 
members. Applicaaons were also made 
from Switzerland and Sweden for the so- 
ciety's publications, with a \iew to make 
them the basis of similar movements in 
those countries. In June, 1831, a general 
society was formed in London under the 
name of the British and Foreign Temper- 
ance Society. Details of the success of 
these undeitakmgs have not yet been fur- 
nished. The following is a statement 
from the custom-house returns of the 
amount of ardent spirits imported into the 
U. States in the respective years named. 
There are now no returns to govermnent 
of the amount manu&ctured. 

Inl824, 5,285,047 ga]k>n& 

1825, 4,114,046 « 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES— TEMPERATURE. 



179 



In 1836, 3,323,380 gaUons. 

1827, 3,465,302 «* 

1828, 4,445,692 " 

1829, 2,462,308 « 

1830, 1,095,400 « 

Tkmferatitiie ; a definite degree of 
sensible heat, as measured by the ther- 
mometer. Thus we say a h%gh Umpera^ 
turtj and a low temperature^ to denote a 
manifest intensity of heat or cold. Ac- 
cording to Blot, temperatures are the dif- 
ferent energies of caloric in different cir- 
cumstances. Different parts of the earth's 
surface are exposed, as is well known, to 
different degrees cf heat, depending upon 
the latitude and local circumstances. In 
l^gypi it never freezes, and in some parts 
of^Siberia it never thaws. In the former 
country, the average state of the ther- 
mometer is about 72°. The following 
table exhibits a general view of the vari- 
ation of heat resulting from difference of 
latitude: — 

Latitude. Places. M. Temp. 

8e°30' . . . Wadso, Lapland . . 36° 
50 56 ... St. Petersburg .... 40 

48 51 ... Paris 54 

41 54 . . , Rome 61 

30 03 . . . Cairo 73 

20 00 . . . Ocean 79 

00 00 . . . Ocean 81 

The annual variation of heat is inconsid- 
erable between the tropics, and becomes 
greater and greater as we approach the 
poles. This arises from the combination 
of two causes, namely, the greater or less 
direcmess of the sun's rays, and the du- 
ration of their action, or the length of 
time from sunrise to sunset. These two 
causes act togetlier in the same place; 
that is, the rays of the sun are most di- 
rect always when the days are longest, or 
at the solstice. But while (the season 
being the same) the rays become more 
and more oblique, and conseauentiv more 
feeble as we increase our latitude, the 
days become loneer, and the latter very 
nearly makes up for the deficiency of the 
former, so tliat the greatest heat in all lat- 
itudes is nearly the same. On the other 
iiand, the two causes of cold conspire. 
At the same time tliat the rays of the sun 
fall more obliquely, as we increase our 
latitude, the days become shorter and 
shorter at the cold season; and accord- 
ingly the dififerent parallels are exposed 
to very unequal decrees of cold : while 
tropical regions exhibit a variation of onl^ 
a few decrees, the highest habitable lad- 
mdes uiMergo a change amounting to 



140^. Both heat and cold continue to in- 
crease long after the causes producing 
diem have passed their maximum state. 
Thus the greatest cold is ordinarily about 
the last of January, and the greatest heat 
about the last of July. The sun is gen- 
erally considered the only original source 
of heat Its rays are sent to the earth 
just as the rays of a conmion fire are 
thrown upon a body placed before it; 
and, after oeing heated to a certain point, 
the quantity lost by radiation equals the 
quantity received, and the mean tempera- 
ture remains the same, subject only to 
certain fluctuations depending upon the 
season and other temporary and local 
causes. According to this view oj^the 
subject, the heat that belongs to the mte- 
rior of the earth has found its way there 
from the surface, and is derived from the 
same general source, the sun; and in 
support of this position is urged tlie well- 
known fact, that, below eighty or one 
hundred feet, the constant temperature, 
with only a few exceptions, is found to be 
the mean of that at the surface in all parts 
of the earth. But how are we to explain 
the remarkable cases in which the heat 
has been found to increase, instead of 
decreasing, as we descend.^ We are 
told that in the instance of mines, so 
often quoted to prove an independent 
central fire, the extraordinary heat, ap- 
parently increasing as we descend, may 
be satis&ctorily accoimted for in a simpler 
way :— 1. It may be partly received fi-om the 

rrsons employed in working the mines. 
The lights that are required in these 
dark regions afford another source of 
heat. 3. But the chief cause is suppos- 
ed to be the condensation of die air, 
which is well known to produce a high 
degi-ee of heat. The condensation, more- 
over, becoming greater and greater ac- 
cording to the depth, the heat ought, on 
this account, to uicrease as we descend ; 
and as a constant supply of fresh air from 
above is required to maintain tiie lights, 
as well as for the purposes of respiraUon, 
at the rate of about a gallon a minute for 
each common-sized light and for each 
workman, it is not surprising tlmt the 
temperature of deep mines should lie 
found to exceed that of the surface in tho 
same latitude. This explanation of the 
phenomenon seems to derive confirmation 
from the circumstance that the high ten4- 
perature observed is said to belong only 
to those mines that are actually woriced, 
and that it ceases when they are aban- 
doned.* If we except these cases, and 
* See Edinburgh Review, No. ciii, p. 50, &c. 



180 



TEMPERATURE. 



that of volcanoes and hot springs, the 
temperature of the interior of the earth 
seems to be the mean of that at the sur- 
face ; and hence it is inferred that it is de- 
rived from the same source. The diur- 
nal variation of heat, so considerable at 
the surfiice, is not to be perceived at the 
depth of a few feet, although here there 
is a gradual change that becomes sensible 
at intervals of a month. At the depth of 
diirty or forty feet, the fluctuation is sdll 
less, and takes place more slowly. Yet 
at this distance from the surface there is 
a small annual variation ; and the time of 
midsummer, or greatest heat, is ordinarily 
about the last of October, and that of 
midwinter, or greatest cold, is about the 
last of April. These times, however, are 
liable to vary a month or more, accord- 
ing as the power of the earth to conduct 
heat is increased by unusual moisture or 
diminished by diynefis. But at the depth 
of eighty or a hundred feet, the most sen- 
sible thermometer will hardly exhibit any 
change throughout the year. So, on the 
other hand, if we ascend above the earth's 
surface, we approach more and more to a 
region of umfonn temperature, but of a 
temperature much below the former. 
The tops of very high mountains are 
well known to be covered with perpetual 
snow, even in the tropical climates. The 
same, or rather a still greater degree of 
cold, is ibund to prevail at the same 
heignt, when we make the ascent by 
means of a balloop. The tops of high 
mountains are coid, therefore, because 
ihey are in a cold region, and constantly 
swept by currents of cold air. But what 
makes the air cold at this height ? It is 
comparatively cold, pardy because it is 
removed far from the surface of the earth, 
where the heat is developed, but princi- 
pally because it is rarefiecl, and the heat it 
contains is diffused over a larger space. 
Take a portion of air near the surface of 
the earth, and at the temperature of 79° 
of Fahrenheit, for instance, and remove it 
to the height of about two and a half miles, 
and it will expand, on account of the di- 
minished pressure, to double the bulk, and 
the temperature will be reduced about 
50°. It will accordingly be below the 
freezing point of water. This height va- 
ries in different latitudes and at different 
seasons. It increases as we approach 
the equator, and diminishes as we go 
towards the poles. It is higher also, at 
any given place, in summer than in win- 
ter. It is, moreover, higher when the 
surface of the ground below is elevated 
like the table land of Mexico. At a mean 



the cold increases at the rate of about 1^ 
for every 300 feet of elevation. In addi- 
tion to tne above, it ought to be mention- 
ed that the tops of mountains part with 
the heat they receive from the sun more 
readily on account of the radiation taking 
place more freely in a rarer medium, and 
where there are few objects to send the 
rays back again. The question has been 
much discussed, whether the winters in 
the temperate latitudes have become 
milder or not There is abundant evi- 
dence, it seems to us, in &vor of the al- 
leged change: Rivers which used to be 
frozen over so as to support armies, and 
which were expected to be covered in 
the winter season with a natural bridge 
of ice, as a common occurrence, now 
very rarely afford such facilities to travel- 
lers. The directions for making hay and 
Stabling cattle, lefl us by the Roman win- 
ters on husbandry, are of little use in 
modem Italy, where, for the most part, 
there is no suspension of vegetation, tind 
where the cattle graze in the fields all 
winter. The associations with the fire- 
side, annually reforred to as familiar to 
every one, can be little understood now in 
a country where there is ordinarily no 
provision for warming the houses, and no 
occasion for artificial neat as a means of 
comfort The ancient cukom of sus- 
pending warlike operations during the 
season of winter, even in the more south- 
em parts of Europe, has been little known 
in campaigns of recent date ; not because 
the soldier of our times is inured to great- 
er hardships, but because there is lime or 
no suffering from this cause. In the 
northem parts of our own country, also, 
the lapse of two centuries has produced 
a sensible melioration. When New Eng- 
land was first settled, the winter set m 
regularly at a particular time, continued 
ab^ut three months without interruption, 
and broke up regularly, in the manner it 
now does in some parts of Canada and 
Russia. The quantity of snow is evi- 
dently diminished, tlie cold season is more 
fluctuating, and the transition fi-om au- 
mmn to winter, and from winter to spring, 
less sudden and complete. The period 
of sleighing is so much reduced and so 
precarious as to be of little importance 
compared with what it was. Tne Hud- 
son is now open about a month later than 
it used to be. We are not, however, to 
conclude that so great a melioration has 
taken place as migl^t at first be inferred 
from this &ct Tne change, whatever it 
be, seems to belong to the autumn and 
early part of winter. The spring, we are 



TEMPERATURE. 



181 



jndmed to believe, is even more cold and 
backward than it used to be. The sup- 
posed mitigation of winter has usually 
been ascribed to the extirpation of foi-ests, 
and the consequent exposure of the 
ground to the more direct and full influ- 
ence of the solar rays ; and diere can be 
little doubt that a country does actually 
become warmer by being cleared and 
cultivated. The favorable change expe- 
rienced in the New England and the Mid- 
dle States may, it is thought, be referred 
tt> this circmnstance. But the alter- 
ation that IB observed in the similar 
latitudes of Europe can hardly be ac- 
counted for in this way. It is doubt- 
ful whether Italy is more clear of 
woods, or better cultivated, now than it 
was in the Au^stan age. No port of tlie 
world, it is believed, has been cultivated 
longer or better than some parts of Chi- 
na ; and yet that country is expose<l to a 
degree of cold much greater tnan is ex- 
perienced in the corresponding latitudes 
of Europe. The science of astronomy 
mokes us acquainted with phenomena 
that have a bearing upon this subiect 
The figure of the earth's orbit round the 
sun is such that we are sometimes nearer 
to this great source of heat by 3,000,000 
of mUes, or one thirtieth of the whole dis- 
tance, than at others. Now it so happens 
that we have been drawing nearer and 
nearer to the sun, every winter, for sev- 
eral thousand years. We now actually 
reach the point of nearest approach about 
the fiist or January, and depart farthest 
from the sun about the first of July. 
Whatever benefit, therefore, is derived 
from a diminution of the sun's distance, 
goes to diminish the severity of winter ; 
and this cause has been 0{)crating for a 
long period, and with a power gradually 
but slowly increasing. It hos, at len/^h, 
arrived at its maximum, and is beginning 
to decline. In a little more than ten 
thousand years, this state of things will be 
reversed, and the earth will be at the 
greatest distance from the sun in the mid- 
dle of winter, and at the least distance in 
the middle of summer. We are speak- 
ing, it will be obsen'ed, with relerence to 
tlie northern hemisphere of the earth. 
The condition alluded to, to take place 
nfter the lapse of ten thousand years, is 
Qircady^lfilled with regard to the soiith- 
iTn f tortious of our globe, since their winter 
happens at the time of our summer. Ifow 
fir the excessive cold which is known to 
j)rovail about cape Horn and otlier high 
southern latitudes may be imputed to this, 
we are not able to say. There is no doubt 

VOL. XII. 16 



that the ice has accumulated to a much 
greater degree and extended much fardier 
about the south pole than about the north. 
Commodore Byron, who was on the coast 
of Patagonia Dec. 15, answering to the 
middle of June with us, compares the 
climate to that of the middle of winter in 
England. Sir Joseph Banks landed at 
Terra del Fuego, in lat 50°, Jan. 1 7, about 
the middle of summer in that hemisphere; 
and he relates that two of his attendants 
died in one night from the cold, and the 
whole party was in great danger of per- 
ishing. This was in a lower ktitude by 
neai'ly 2^ than that of London. Captain 
Cook, in his voyage towards the south 
pole, expressed his surprise that an island 
of no greater extent than seventy leagues 
in circumference, between the latitudes 
of 54° and 55°, and situated like the 
northern parts of Ireland, should, in the 
very height of summer, be covered many 
fathoms deep with frozen snow. The 
study of the stars has made us acquainted 
with another fact connected with the va- 
riable temperature of w^inler. The ob- 
lique position of the earth's axis with re- 
spect to the path round the sun, or what is 
technically called the obliquity of the eclip- 
iicy is the well known cause of the sea- 
sons. Now this very obliquity, whi<;h 
makes the difference ns to temperature be- 
tween summer and winter, has been grow- 
ing less and less for the last 2000 years, and 
has actually diminished about one eightieth 
port, and must have been attended with a 
corresponding reduction of the extremes 
of heat and cold. It still remains for us 
to inquire how it happens that the ex- 
tremes of heat and cold in the U. States 
are so much more intense than they are 
in Europe under the same parallels. The 
thermometer, in New England, fidls to 
zero about as oflen as it falls to the freez- 
ing point in the same latitude on the other 
side of the Atlantic. The extreme heat 
of summer also is greater by 8° or 10°. 
This remarkable difference m the two 
counti'ies, as to climate, evidently arises 
from their being situated on different sides 
of the ocean, taken in connexion with 
the prevalence of westerly winds. With 
us, a west wind is a land wind, and conse- 
quently a cold wind in winter and a warm 
wind in summer. The reverse happens 
on the opposite shore of tlie Atlantic. 
There, the same westerly cun-ent of air, 
coming from the water, is a mild wind in 
winter, and a cool, refreshing breeze in 
summer. The ocesn is not subiect to so 
great extremes of heat and cold as the 
same extent of continent When the 



182 



TEMPERATURE— TEMPLARS. 



BUii'ii mys fall upon the solid land, they 

Cenetrate to only a small depth, and the 
eat is much more accumulated at the 
surface. So, also, during our lone, cold 
nights, this thin sUratum of heated earth 
is more rapidly cooled down than the im- 
mense mass of the ocean through which 
the heat is diffused to a fiu* greater depth. 
At a sufficient distance mm land, the 
temperature of the sea, in the temperate 
latitudes, is seldom below 45° or above 70^ ; 
that is, the ocean is exposed to an annual 
change of only 25^ or 30°, while the con- 
tinent, in the same latitude, is subject to a 
variation of IJ^ or more. We are con- 
firmed in the cause here assigned for the 
excessive severity of our climate, by find- 
ing that the parts of China, situated like 
the Atlantic states, have a similar climate ; 
and that the western coast of this conti- 
nent, without the benefit of much cultiva- 
tion, enjoys the same mild temperature 
that belongs to places similarly situated in 
the western parts of Europe. The prin- 
cinal causes of the unfavorable character 
or our climate seem, therefore, to be of a 
permanent nature; and, although it is 
somewhat meliorated, and may, m time 
to come, be still more so, yet we are 
probably never destined to enjoy, in New 
iSn^land, the fine seasons and delicious 
fruits of the corresponding latitudes of 
Europe. — For more information on the 
natural history of the weather, see the 
Ameriam Almanac for 1832, from which 
this article is taken. 

Tehpesta, or Cavalier Tempesta, 
the surname of Peter Molyn (called also 
Petnis Mulier or de Mulieribus), a cele- 
brated Dutch painter of marine pieces, was 
bom at Harlem, in 1637, and acquired great 
celebrity at Rome. His delineations of 
storms at sea are forcible and true, and 
have been much more admired than his 
landscapes. Little is known of the cir- 
cumstances of his life. He died in prison 
at Milan, in 1701, where he was confined 
on suspicion of having murdered his 
wife. He must not be confounded with 
Aniomo TempestOf a Florentine painter 
and engraver, bom 1556, and died 1630, 
whose best productions are battle-pieces 
and hunts. 

Templars ; a celebrated order of 
knights, which, like the order of St John 
and the Teutonic order, had its origin in 
the crusades. Hu^h do Pajens, G<^frey 
de St Uldemar, and seven other knights, 
established it in 1119, for the protection 
of the pilffrims on the roads in Pal- 
estine. Subsequently, its object became 
the defence of the Christian fiiith, and of 



the holy sepulchre against the Saraoens 
The knights took the vows of chastity, of 
obedience, and of poverty, like regular 
canons, and lived at first on the charity 
of the Christian lords in Palestine. King 
Baldwin II of Jerusalem gave them an 
abode in this city, on the east of the site 
of the Jewish temple ; hence they receiv- 
ed the name of TtmplarM, Pope Hono- 
rius II confirmed the order, in 1127, at 
the council of Troyes, and imposed on 
them rules drawn firom those of toe Bene- 
dictine monks, to which were added the 
precepts of St. Bernard de Clairvaux, 
who warmly recommended this order* 
The fame of their exploits procured 
them not only numerous members, but 
also rich donations in houset^, lands and 
money. The different classes of this 
order were, knights, souires, and servi- 
tors, to which were added, in 1172, some 
spiritual members, who officiated as 
priests, chaplains, and clerks. All wore 
a badge of the order — a girdle of linen 
thread, to denote their vows of chastity ; 
the clerical members had white, the ser- 
vitors gray or black gowns ; the knights 
wore, besides their armor, simple white 
cloaks, adorned with octangular blood- 
red crosses, to signify that they were to 
shed their blood in the service of the 
church. From the class of the knights, 
who were required to be of approved no- 
bility, and who were the actual lords of 
the possessions of the order, the officers 
were chosen by the assembled chapters, 
viz. marshab and bannerets, as leaders in 
war; drapiers, as inspectors over their 
wardrobe; priors, as superiors of single 
preceptories or priories; abbots, com- 
manders, and grand priors, as rulers over 
provinces (similar to the provincials of 
the monastic order); and the grand 
master, as chief of the whole order. The 
latter had the rank of a prince, and con- 
sidered himself equal to the sovereigns 
of Euro|)e ; since tl\e order, like the 
Jesuits in later times, by virtue of the 
papal charters, acknowledged the pope 
alone as its protector, being independent 
of any other ecclesiastical or secular ju- 
risdiction, and free even from the efTects 
of interdicts, governing itself, and admin- 
istering its estates according to its own 
pleasure, the occupants and vassals of 
which had to pay them tithes. Uniting 
the privileges of a religious order lyith 
great military power, and always pre- 
pared for service by sea and land, it could 
use its possessions to more advantage than 
other corporations, and also make con- 
quests on its own account ; in addition to 



TEMPLARS. 



183 



which it received rich doDations and be- 
queate fiom the supeiBtitioD of the age. 
The principal part of the posseasions of 
the order were in FVance : most of the 
knights were also French, and the grand 
maater was uauaUy of that nation. In 
1244, the order poeaeaaed 9000 considera- 
ble baihwicka, conunanderies, priories 
and preceptories, independent of the ju- 
riadiction of the aovereigns of the coun- 
tries in which they were situated. Its 
members were devoted to the order with 
body and aoul, and their entrance into it 
severed all their other ties. No one had 
any private property. The order support- 
ed alL The arrogance objected to diem 
by bishops and princes is easily account- 
ed for by their power and wealth, as is 
also the luxury in which they eventually 
indulfred. The crusaders complained 
that the order allowed its worldly inter- 
ests to prevent it from affording a cordial 
support to the holy vvara ; and the empe- 
ror Fredoric II accused them of treason, 
of fiivoring the Saracens, and of friendly 
connexions with these enemies of Chris- 
tianity. Thouf^h accounts differ on this 
point, it is certain that, durinz the gradu- 
al decline of the Christian kingdom of 
Jerusalem, the Templars endeavored to 
aecare thdr own possessions in that coun- 
try by means or treades with the Sara- 
cena Nevertheless, they were obliged, 
in 1291, vrith the last defenders of that 
kingdom, to leave the Holy Land entire- 
ly ; and they transferred their chief seat, 
which had been in Jerusalem, to the 
island of Cyprus. There the grand mas- 
ter resided, with a select body of officers, 
knights and brethren, who exercised 
themselves in warfare by sea against the 
Saracens. James Bernard Molay, of 
Burgundy, the last successor of the first 
grand master, Hugh, endeavored in vain 
to reform the degenerate spirit of the 
order. Most of the knights cared more 
for their worldly possessions than for the 
holy sepulchre. The aspirations of 
many of them for political influence, par- 
ticularly in France; the mystery which 
hung over the internal administration of 
the order, and which linked together the 
initiated; but especially its power and 
weahb,--drew upon it the suspicions and 
the jealousy of princes. Rumors were 
spread respecting ambitious plans for the 
overthrow of all the thrones of Europe, 
and for the establishment of a republic 
of the nobilit^r ; also respecting opmions 
at variance vrith the Catholic raith being 
fostered in the bosom of the order. In 
the quarrels between Philip the Fair and 



pope Boniface VIII, the order took part 
against the kiu^. In consequence of this, 
Clement V, Philip's friend, under the pre- 
text of consultations for a new crurade, 
and for a union of the knights Templan 
vrith the knights of St Jolm, summoned. 
Id 1306, the grand master Molav, vrith 
sixty knights, to France. After their ar- 
rival, these and all the other knights 
present were suddenly arrested, Oct. 13, 
1307, bv the king's soldiers. Philip seized 
upon the estates of the order, removed 
his court into the temple (the residence 
of the grand master in Paris), and order- 
ed the trial of the knights to be com- 
menced without delay, by his confessor, 
William of Paris, inquisitor, and arch- 
bishop of Sens. He endeavored to justi- 
fy this arbitrary procedure by the horri- 
ble crimes and herenes of which the 
order had been accused. Historical rec- 
ords rcOTesent the accusera as some ex- 
pelled Templars, who calumniated the or- 
der at the instigation of its enemies. The 
charge of apostasy firom the Catholic 
foith could not be substantiated. The 
other allegations, such as that they wor- 
shipped the devil, practised sorcery, adored 
an idol called Baphomdy contemned the 
aacrament, neglected confession, and prac- 
tised unnatural vices, were, according to 
the general opinion of historians down to 
the present day, malicious misrepresenta- 
tions or absurd calumnies. A ffold box 
of relics, which the Templara used to kiss, 
according to the custom of Catholics, was 
what gave origin to the story of the Bapho- 
met; and because, in an ace previous 
to the general reception of Uie doctrine 
of transub8tantiation,they practised the an- 
cient manner of celebrating the mass 
(viz. vrithout the elevation of the host)) this 
was called contempt of the sacrament : 
their confessing exclusively to their own 
clerical membera was the ground of the 
charge, that they received absolution from 
their temporal superiors ; and the friend- 
ship by which they were united, gave 
rise to the imputation of unnatural prac- 
tices. In those times of general persecu- 
tion against heretics, every one, whose 
ruin was resolved upon, and who could 
not be attacked in any other way, was 
accused of heresy. Accordingly, Philip 
being determmed, before any inquisition 
had taken place, to destroy the order, for 
whose wealth he thirsted, the inquisitora 
employed, who were entirely devoted to 
him, and, for the greater part, Domini- 
cans, enemies of the order, used this 
means to excite the public opinion ajgainsi 
them. By means of the most horrid tor- 



184 



TEMPLARS— TEMPLE. 



tures, confesBioiiB of crimes ' which had 
never been committed were extorted 
from the prisoners. Ctvercome by long 
captivity and torment, man^ Templars 
confessed whatever their inquisitors wish- 
ed, since a persevering <jenial of the 
crimes with which they were charsed 
was punished with death. Clement V at 
first opposed this arbitrary treatment of 
an order which was amenable only^ to the 
church; but Philip soon prevailed on 
him to join in its suppression. Two car- 
dinals were sent to take part in the exam- 
inations at Paris, and other clergymen 
were united to the courts of inquisition in 
the provinces, in order to impart a more 
legal appearance to the procedure. 
Thouffh little was, in fact, proved agamst 
the Templars, the archbishop of Sens 
dared, in 1310, to bum alive fifty-four 
knights, who had denied every crime of 
which they were accused. In other dio- 
ceses of France, these victims of tyranny 
and avarice were treated in a similar way. 
The other princes of Europe were also 
exhorted by the pope to persecute the 
Templars. Charles of Sicily and Pro- 
vence imitated the example of Philip, and 
shared the booty with the pope. In Eng- 
land, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Germany, 
the Templars were arrested, but almost 
universally acquitted. The inquisitions 
at Salamanca and at Mentz (1310) also re- 
sulted in the iustification of the order. 
Nevertheless, tne pope, at the council of 
Vienne, in Dauphmy, solemnly abolished 
the order by a bull of March 2, 1312, not 
in the legal way, but by papal authority 
{per provisumis poHus^ guam condemna- 
tumia viamy The members of the order, 
according to this bull, were to be punish- 
ed with mildness, when they confessed 
the crimes imputed to them; but those 
who persevered in denying them were to 
be condemned to death. Among the 
latter were the grand master Molay, and 
Guide, the grand prior of Normandy, 
who were burnt alive at Paris, March 13, 
1314, after they had cited, according to 
tradition, Philip and Clement to appear 
before the judgment-seat of God within 
a year. The pope, in fact, died April 19 
in the same year, and the king Novem- 
ber 29. The estates of the order were 
conferred, by the council of Vienne, upon 
the knights of St John, and its treasures 
in money and precious stones were as- 
signed for a new crusade. But in France 
the greatest part fell to the crown, and 
the pope kept considerable sums for him- 
self. In Spain and Portugal, some new 
military orders were fouj^ed, and en- 



dowed with the estates of the Temphm 
In other countries, the knights of St. 
John acquired the rich inheritance of 
their rivals. The Templars maintained 
themselves longest in Germany, where 
they were treated with justice and mild- 
ness. At St6rlitz, some were found as 
late as 1319. The members who were 
discharged from their vows, entered the 
order of St John. The original docu- 
ments of the process against the Templars 
in France, published 'm 1792 by Molden- 
hawer, prove the infamous and arintrary 
conduct of the French courts in this 
case. Von Hammer, in the fSmdgmhen 
des Orientay Myaterwm Baphomtti rtnda- 
tunij has lately revived the accusation of 
apostaey, idolatry, and unnatural vices, 
against the kni^ts Templars, represent- 
ing them as Gnostics and Ophites ; but 
Ravnouard (Jovamal du Scmims, March, 
18i9) has shown how unfounded is this 
accusation, and has proved that by Baph- 
omet (q. v.) nothing but Mohammed is 
to be understood. Compare also Ray- 
nouard's Monum, histor, reiatifs h la Can- 
demruOion dea Chtvaliara du TVnusle 
(Paris, 1813). Silvestre de Sacy has 
proved likewise (Magaz. enofdop^ 1806, 
volume vi.),that Baphomet si^ines noth- 
ing Uit Mohammed. Accordmg to Willi. 
Feid. Wilcke's GtaddMe dea Taipei' 
henmcrdena aua den Qtieflen — ^Historr of 
the Order of the Tenmlars, drawn nom 
the Sources (Leipsic, 1826, seq., 2 vols.)— 
the spirit of the order had degenerated 
into a Mohanmiedan Gnosticism, which 
led to its ruin. Wilcke asserts the guilt 
of the order. It continued in Porm^ 
under the name of the order qf Ckrui, 
In Paris arose the society of the New 
Templajs. Bishop Miinter has puUiahed 
the statutes of the order from a manu- 
script in old French. 

Temple (Latin, templum), in architec- 
ture ; an edifice destined for the perform- 
ance of public worship. Various ety- 
mologies have been suggested for the 
Latin wbrd templvmu Some derive it 
from tlie Greek r<^cvo(, the meaning of 
which was a sacred enclosure or temple 
(from rr/ivw, I cut ofi^ or separate), a temple 
being a place abstracted and set apart from 
other uses; others from the okl Latin 
verb templari (to contemplate). The an- 
cient augurs undoubtedly applied the 
name Umpla to those parts of the heavens 
which were marked out for observation 
of the flights of birds. Temples were, 
originally, all open; and hence, indeed, 
most likely, came their name. These 
structures are among the roost ancient 



temple; 



185 



inoDuiDeDtB. The¥ were the fimtbuih, and 
the most notioeabie of public edifices. As 
soon as a nation bad acquired any degree 
of civilizatioD, they consecrated particular 
spots to the worship of their deities. In 
the earliest instances, thev contented them- 
eehres with erectin|^ attars of earth or 
ashes in the open air, and sometimes re- 
sorted, for the purposes of worship, to the 
depths of solitary woods. At length they 
acquired the practice of building cells or 
chapeis, withm the enclosure of which 
they placed the images of their divinities^ 
and assembled tc oner up their supplica- 
tions, thanksgivings and sacrifices. These 
were chiefiy formed like their own dwell- 
ings. The Troglodites adored their gods 
in grottoes ; the people who lived in cab- 
ins erected temples like cabins in shape. 
Clemens Alezandrinus and Eusebius re- 
fethe origin of temples to sepulchres; 
and this notion has been latterly illus- 
trated and confirmed, from a variety of 
testimonies, by Mr. Fanner, in his Treatise 
on the Worship of Human Spirits, p. 373, 
&C. Herodotus and Strabo contend that 
the I^ptians were the first who erected 
temples to the gods; and the one first 
erected in Greece is attributed, by Apol- 
lonins, to Deucalion, [^^rgarund, lib. iii.) 
The temple of Castor was built upon the 
tomb of that hero. At the time when 
the Greeks surpassed all other people in 
the arts introduced among them from 
Phoenicia, Syria and Egypt, they devoted 
much time, care and expense to the build- 
ing of temples. No country has sur- 
passed, or perhaps equalled them, in this 
respect: the Romans alone successfuUv 
rivalled them, and they took the Greek 
structures for models. In every city of 
Greece, as well as in its environs, and in 
the open country, was a considerable 
number of sacred temples. The ruins of 
this description, now existing, greatly ex- 
ceed those of any other kind of building, 
owing to the fiict that the best materials 
and Uie utmost attention were uniformly 
employed upon the Grecian and Roman 
temples, llie particular divinity who 
was held to preside in chief over each 
several town, nad always the most elegant 
and costly temple therein especially dedi- 
cated to him or her. The temples con- 
structed in the provinces chiefly apper- 
tained to the gods of the countxy, or to 
those common to the several communi- 
ties. In the inunediate vicinity of these 
edifices, the people held, at fixed seasons, 
assemblies for the purpose of sacrificing 
to the gods; they also celebrated theu- 
lestivals on the same spot, and deliberated 
16* 



respecting the affitirs of the entire nation. 
The most ancient Grecian temples were 
not of great extent ; some of ttiem were 
very snudl. The cdla was barelv large 
enough to contain the statue of the pre- 
siding deity of the temple, and, occasion- 
ally, an altar in addition. Even in suc- 
ceeding ages, this observation holds good 
in a great degree. Their object, in fiict, 
did not render extent necesBsrv ; since the 
priests alone entered the eeuoy and the 
people assembled without the walls. 
Exceptions, indeed, were made, in the 
examples of those dedicated to the tute- 
lary divinities of towns, of those of the 
supreme gods, and of those appropriated 
to the common use of various communi- 
ties. This increased extent was chiefiy 
displayed in the porticoes surroundinff the 
ceilcu Accordinff to Yitruvius, the situa- 
tions of the temples were regulated chiefly 
by the nature and characteristics of tlie 
various divinities. Thus the temples of 
Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, who were 
considered, b^ the inhabitants of many 
cities, as their protecting deities, were 
erected on spots sufp.ciently elevated to 
end)le them to overlook the whole town, 
or, at least, the principal part of it Mi- 
nerva, the tutelaiT deity of Athens, had 
her seat on the Acropolis, (q. v.) The 
temples of Mercury were, ordinarily, in 
the forum. Those of Apollo and Bac- 
chus were beside the theatres. The tem- 
ple of Hercules was commonly near the 
gvmnasium, the amphitheatre, or circus. 
Those of Mors, of Venus and of Vulcan 
were generally without the walls of the 
city, but near the gates. The temples of 
Esculapius were uniformly in the nei^- 
borhood of the towns, on some elevated 
and desirable Fpot, where the pure air 
might be inhaled by the invalids who 
came to invoke the aid of the god of 
health. In the cities, the houses of the 
inhabitants clustered round the temples. 
The form most generally given to tem- 
ples was that of a long square; some- 
times, however, they were circular. 
Hiose of the former shape commonly 
had a depth or length double their 
breadth, and their ceU<B had ordinarily", at 
the exterior, porticoes which someUines 
adorned only the fii^ade of the anterior, 
sometimes that also of the posterior, and 
was occasionally carried round all fi>ur 
sides. Over the entablature of the col- 
umns, at both the fronts, was a pediment. 
The principal facades of the temples were 
always ornamented with an even number 
of columns, while the sides liad gener- 
ally an uneven number. The circular 



M 



TEMPLE. 



form was by no means common. Those 
temples were eeneraliy covered with 
a cupola, the height of which about 
equalled the serai-diameter of the entire 
ediiice. The most celebrated instance of 
the circular temple is the paniheon of 
Rome. It has some peculiarities not 
common to its class. (See Pantheon.) 
Several of the very ancient Etruscan 
temples have an oblong shape, or one ap- 
proaching to a perfect square. In several 
of the ancient buildings of tliis character 
were stair-cases, bv means of which peo- 
ple mounted to tlie roof These were 
constructed within the walls, by the side 
of the entrance fronting the MUi^ and, 
that they might occupyless space, were 
made winding. The Egyptian temples 
had a species of openings or windows. 
The stame of the divinity to whom the 
structure was dedicated was, as may be 
supposed, the most venerated object of 
the temple, and the most prominent orna- 
ment of the cdla. It was, in almost ev- 
ery instance, executed by a distinguished 
artist, even when destined only for a small 
building. In the earliest instances, these 
statues were*of fwra eott<ij and were com- 
monly painted red ; othera were of wood. 
In succeeding times, as the fine arts ad- 
vance iron and bronze were occasion- 
ally substituted, but still more frequently 
marble. (See Sculpture^ and SkUue,) The 
primitive bronze statues were not cast in 
one single jet, but in separate pieces, af- 
terwards joined toother. Beades the 
statue of the presidmg deity, there were 
generally others, either in the ceUa or pro- 
naoSj oV both, some of which had a spe- 
cial relation to the principal figure, whilst 
others served merely for ornament The 
altar, on which the sacrifices were offered, 
was plr.ced before the statue of the di- 
vinity, a little less elevated than it, and 
turned towards the east. (See AUar,) 
Sometimes single cells contained altars 
raised to sundry deities. To tlie sacred 
architecture of the Greeks, as exhibited 
in their various temples, we are indebted 
for the purest and best canons of archi- 
tecture that the world has ever seen. 
The Egyptian temples were remarkable 
for the number and disposition of the 
columns, contained in several enclosures 
within the walls. The little ccUa ap- 
peared like a kind of stable, or lodging, 
for the sacred animal to whom, as it may 
be, the building was consecrated. This 
was never entered but by the priests. 
The porticoes were magnificent in size, 
proportions, and oflen in style. Obelisks 
and colossal statues were ordinarily placed 



before the entrance. These were some- 
times precef led by alleys of qihinxes, or 
of lions, of inmienae size. Near the gates 
two masses of a pyramidal ibnn were 
erected: these were often covered with 
hieroglyphic hassi-rHitoL A corbel, 
scooped out in the shape of a gOTge, was 
the only substitute for the entablature^ 
whether to tlie gate itself, or to the two 
lofty masses adjoining. No pediment or 
shape of roof interfered with the hori- 
zontal line of the platform above, with 
which tlie temples were covered, and on 
which it is probable that the priests passed 
the nights m making astronomical obser- 
vations, f See Arckutctvn^ vol. i, p* 339 ; 
also Denaerahy HxaroglypkicSy Elqphantmey 
and Thebes,) The Indian temples, or 
pagodas, are sometimes of immense size. 
(See Pagodoy Elora, and SaUeUe; alsci 
the article Architedwrt, For Christian 
temples and churches, see Architecture^ 
CcUhedraly and Masonry.) The firat He- 
brew temple was built by Solomon on 
mount Moriah, in Jerusalem, with the 
help of a Phoenician architect It was 
an oblong stone building, sixty cubits in 
length, twenty in width, and thirty in 
height. On three sides were corridors, 
rising above each other to the height of 
three stories, and containing rooms, in 
which were preserved the holy utensib 
and treasures. The fourth or front side 
was open, and was ornamented with a 
portico, ten cubits in width, supported by 
two brazen pillars, Jachin and Boaz (sta- 
bility and strength). The interior was 
divided into the most holy place, or ora- 
cle, twenty cubits long, which contained 
the ark of the covenant, and was sepa- 
rated, by a curtain or veil, from the sanc- 
tuary, or holy place, in which were the 
golden candlesticks, the table of the show- 
bread, and the altar of incense. The walls 
of both apartments, and the roof and ceil- 
ing of the most holy place, were overlaid 
vrith wood woric, skilfully carved. None 
but the high priest was permitted to enter 
the latter, and only the priests, devoted 
to the temple senice, the former. The 
temple was surrounded by an inner 
court, which contained tlie altar of burnt- 
offering, the brazen sea and lavers, and 
such instruments and utensils as were 
used in the sacrifices, which, as well as 
the prayers, were offered here. Colon- 
nades, with bnizen ^ates, separated tliis 
court of the priests from tlie outer court, 
which was likewise surrounded by a wall. 
See Hht's Ttmpd Solom&nis (Berlin, 
1809). This temple was destroyed by the 
Assyrians, and, after the return from die 



TEMPLE. 



187 



Bobyloniiih captivity (see Hdnran\ a 
second temple, of the same form, but 
much inferior in splendor, was erected. 
Herod the Great rebuilt it of a larger size, 
surrounding it with four courts, rising 
above each other like terraces. The 
lower court was 500 cubits square, on 
three sides surrounded by a double, and 
on the fourth by a triple row of columns, 
and was callea the court of the CkntiUs, 
because individuals of all nations were 
admitted into it indiscriminately. A high 
wall separated the court of the women, 
135 cubits square, in which the Jewish 
females assembled to perfbrm their devo- 
tiohs, from the court of the Gentiles. 
From the court of the women fifteen 
steps led to the court of the temple, which 
was enclosed by a colonnade, and divided 
by trellis-work into the court of the 
Jewish men and the court of the priests. 
In the middle of this enclosure stood the 
temple of white marble, richly gilt, 100 
cubits long and wide, and 60 cubits high, 
with a porch 100 cubits wide, and three 
galleries, like the first temple, which it 
resemMed in the interior, except that die 
most holy was empty, and the height of 
Herod*8 temple was double the heieht of 
Solomon's. Rooms, appropriated tor dill 
ferent purposes, filled the upper story 
above the roof of the inner temple. The 
fame of this magnificent temple, which 
was destroyed by the Romans, and its 
religious significance with Jews and 
Chnstians, still render it more interesting 
to us than any other building of antiquity. 
To the Jew, it is even now a subject of 
sorrow and regret ; to the architect, a key 
to the history of the old Oriental architec- 
mre; to the free-mason, the most im- 
portant symbol of his ritual. 

Temple, sir William, an eminent 
statesman, the son of sir John Temple, 
was bom in London, in 1628. At the 
age of seventeen, he was entered . of 
Emanuel college, Cambridge, under the 
tuition of Cudworth, and, in his twenty- 
fifth year, commenced his travels, and 
iWBsea six years in France, Holland, 
Flanders, and Germany. He returned 
in 1654, and, not choosing to accept any 
ofiice under Cromwell, occupied himself 
in the study of history and philosophy. 
On the restoration, he was chosen a 
member of the Irish convention, when he 
acted with great independence; and, in 
1661, he was returned representative for 
the county of Carlow. The following 
year, he was nominated one of the com- 
missioners from the Irish parliament to 
the king, and removed to, London. De- 



clining all employment out of the line of 
diplomacy, he was disregarded until the 
breaking out of the Dutdi war, when he 
was employed in a secret mission to the 
bishop of Munsfer. This he executed so 
much to the satisfiiction of the ministere, 
that, in the foUowing year, he was ap- 
pointed resident at Brussels, and received 
the patent of a baronetcy. In conjunc- 
tion witli De Witt, he concluded the treaty 
between England, Holland, and Sweden 
(February, 1668), with a view to oblige 
France to restore her conquests in the 
Netherlands. He also attended, as am- 
bassador extraordinary, and mediator, 
when peace was concluded between 
France and Spain, at Aix-la-Chapellc, 
and, snbscquently residing at the Hague 
as ambassador, cultivated a close inti- 
macy with De Witt, and became fSunihar 
with tlie prince of Orange, afterwards 
William III, then only in his eighteenth 
year. A change of politics at home led 
to the recall of Temple, in 1669, who, 
refusing to assist in the intended breach 
with Holland, retired from uublic busi- 
ness to Sheen, and eroployea himself in 
vmting his Observations on the United 
Provinces, ainl part .of his Miscellanies. 
In 1674, sir William Temple was again 
aml)as8ador to the states-general, in order 
to negotiate a general pacification. Pre- 
viously to its termination in the treaty of 
Nimeguen (in 1678), he was instrumental 
in promoting the marriage of the prince 
of Orange with Mary, eldest daughter of 
the duke of York, which took place in 
1677. In 1679, he was recalled from the 
Hague, and oftereil tlie poet of secretary 
of state, which he declined. As a states- 
man, he was opposed to the exclusion of 
the duke of York. Disgusted by Charles's 
dissolution of the parliament in 1681, 
witliout the advice of his council, he de- 
clined the ofier of being again returned 
for the imiversity, and retired from pub- 
lic life altogether. In the reign of James 
II, he estranged himself entirely fi'om 
politics ; but when the revolution was 
concluded, he waited on the new mon- 
arch, to introduce his son, and was again 
requested to accept ilie office of secretary 
of state, which he once more declined. 
His sou was afterwards appointed secretary 
at war, but, in a fit of melancholy, threw 
himself into the Thnmep, which only 
extorted from his father a maxim of the 
Stoic philosophy, that " a wise man 
might dispose of hiinsi?If, and render life 
as short as he pleased." About this time, 
sir William took Swift (q. v.) to live with 
him : he was likewise occasionally visited 



188 



TEMPLE— TENARUS. 



by king William. He died at Moor paik, 
Surrey, in January, 1700, in his sevent^- 
flecond year. Sir William Temple merits 
a high rank both as a statesman and a 
patriot His Memoirs are important as re- 
gards the histoiy of the times, as are like- 
wise his Letters, published by Swift, after 
his death. All his works, which have 
been published collectively (in 2 vols., 4to., 
and 4 vols., Bvo., 1814), displaiy a great 
acquaintance both with men and books, 
conveyed in a stvle negligent and incor- 
rect, but agreeable, and much resembling 
that of easy and polite conversation. 
Temple, Lord. (See JunUu.) 
Temple. (See ^i^ of Court) 
Temple-Bar, between Fleet street and 
the Strand, London. This handsome 
{pite is the only one of the city bounda- 
ries now remaining. It was imilt after 
the great fire, by sir C. Wren, and is 
composed of Portland stone, of rustic 
worK below, and of the Corinthian order. 
Over the gateway, on the east side, are 
statues of queen Elizabeth and James I ; 
and on the west side, of Charles I and II. 
The heads of persons executed for high 
treason were formerly exhibited on this 
gate. Here, also, on particular occasions^ 
the corporation of London receives the 
ro3'al family, the herald's proclamations, 
or any distmguiahed visitors. When the 
king comes in state, the lord mayor here 
delivers to him the sword of state, which 
is returned, and then rides, bareheaded, 
immediately before him. 

Temple, Palace or the [vcHais du 
temple) ; an edifice in Paris, built in 1222, 
for a residence of the TemplarB,whence its 
name. On the suppression of the order 
(in 1312), it was given to the knights of 
Malta ; and, after the destruction of the 
Bastile, the tower was converted into a 
prison of state. (See Templara,) Louis 
XVI (q. V.) was confined here, with his 
family* previous to his execution. The 
palace of the grand prior is now convert- 
ed into a Benedictine convent, instituted by 
the princess of Bourbon-Cond^, in 1816. 
Tempo (Italian for time) signifies, in 
music, the decree of quickness with 
which a musicd piece is to be executed. 
This depends, of course, chiefly upon 
the character of the piece. Generally 
speaking, there are five principal desrees, 
designated by the following terms: largo, 
adagio, aruiante, aUegro and orcgto ; and 
the mtermediate degrees are described by 
additions. But it may be better to divide 
the tempo into three chief movements — 
slow, moderate, and qitick — ^which again 
hsve several gradations, designated by 



the following ludian words: 1. in the 
slow movements— 2ai^, lento, rra»e, 
adagio, larghetto ; 2. in the moderate 
movement — andante, andantino, moderato, 
tempo giugto, allegretto, &c.; 3. in the 
quick movement — aU^^ (sometimes, 
also, aUabreve), vivace, ]nre9to, prestiaaimo. 
If the degrees thus designated are to be 
modified still more, the following words 
are added to increase the rapidity — asaai, 
moUo, or di moUo /me ; and to lessen it, the 
words poco, or un poco, non tanto, non 
trojppo meno, &c. ; for instance, largo, or 
adagio aaaai, or di moUo, signifies very 
slow, as slow as possible ; aUeero, or 
mvaee asaai, or moUo, is quicker than die 
mere aUegro or vivaee ; presto asaai, 
very quioi; fiirtber, adagio non trap- 
po, or poeo adagio, is somewhat slower ; 
un poeo allegro, somewhat less quick ; m- 
vace non torSo, not too lively, &c Often, 
d^e predominating time is interrupted, hi 
some passages slackening (raUentando, ri- 
tardando\ or quickening ^accderando, 
atringenao, piu atretto), or it is left to the 
performer's pleasure (a piacere), in which 
case, those who acconqpany often have to 
guide themselves by the leading perform- 
er, which is called eoUa parte. If a more 
distinct time or the former time is to be 
resumed, the phrase a ten^, or tempo 
primo, is used. Several machines have 
neen invented, by which the time of a 
piece or a passage can be accurately deter- 
mined. (See Time.) The best measures 
of time, however, are taste, correct feeling, 
experience and judgment 

Tempo Rubato (Italian, rohbed time), 
delayed time, signifies a species of ex- 
pressive penormance, peirticularly of 
slow pieces, in which something is taken 
fi!t>m the duration of some notes of the 
principal voice, and the time, thereftMre, is 
not strictly observed ; but in the general 
performance, and in the lower voices, the 
time is accurately observed. This ten^^ 
rubato accelerates some passages and re-' 
tards others ; but the unity or the whole 
does not suffer. The tempo rubato re- 

r'res much practice and fine taste, and 
uld not occur too frequently. 
Ten Jurisdictions, League op the. 
(See Chiaona.) 
Tenaille. (See Outworka.) 
Tenarus ; a town of the Peloponne- 
sus, on the promontory of Tenarum (see 
Matapan), near which was a cavern 
whicfi was conmdered as the entrance to 
the habitation of Pluto. Through this 
cavern Hercules dra|^|;ed up Cerberus 
from the infernal re^ons, and Orpheus 
led his wife Eurydice back to eordi. 



TENARUS^TENI£R& 



ia9 



This ftble fj^ve lise to the practice of 
evoking spints from the world of shades, 
and of restoring spectres to tbeb resting 
places, by the performance of certain 
mystic ceremonies at the mouth of the 
cave. Hence the infernal regions are 
sometimes called Tknarus. There was a 
temple of Neptune on the promontory, 
which had the character of an asylum. 
The green marble of Tcnarus (verd 
antique ; see Marblt) was much prized bv 
the ancients; and the purple snail, which 
yielded the Laoedsemonian purple, the 
best produced in Eurojpe, was found here. 

Teivch (cmrinus tmea); a European 
fiiesh water nsh, belonging to the carp 
ftmily. It is distinguished Ivy the dimin- 
utive size of the scales. The bodv is 
short and thick, the head large, and the 
lips thick; the length is generally less 
than a foot, but individuab are sometimes 
taken weighing five or six pounds. It is 
fond of still and muddy waters, and is 
taken both with net and line. The desh 
is white, soft, insipid, and difficult of 
#Hgestion. 

Txfa>02T. (See MubcU,) 

Tsifsnos ; a small island near the coast 
of Asia, not &r from the Dardanelles ; 
Ion. 26° E.; lat 39° 53^ N.; population, 
7000, about two thirds Turks, and one 
third Greeks; square miles, 35. The 
Greeks, when they feigned to abandon 
die siege of Troy, lay concealed behind 
this jsluid. Tenedos is rocky, but fertile, 
and produces the finest wine in the Archi- 
pelago. Its position near the mouth of 
the Hellespont has always made it impor- 
tant. Vessels bound to Constantinople 
find shelter in its ports, or safe anchorage 
in the road, during contrary vnnds, and 
in foul weather. The principal town is 
of the same name, and has a population 
of about 5000, with a harbor and ciuidel. 
The harbor has been enclosed in a mole, 
of which no port now appears above 
water ; but loose stones are piled on the 
foundations to break the waves. 

Tenebiffe ; one of the Canary islands, 
(q. v.) The chief town is Santa Cruz. 
As a natural object, it is chiefiy remarka- 
ble for its summit, called the Peak of 
Ttneriffe^ of the sloping sides of which 
the isuind consists. Its commercial im- 
portance depends chiefly on its wine, of 
which from 10,000 to 15,000 pipes are 
annually exported: though inferior to 
Madeira, yet it is in considerable demand. 
Tenerifle also exports orchilla weed, row 
wood, &C. The climate, on the coast, is 
hot ; but at the elevation of 2000 feet^ it 
is cool and agreeable. The cultivated 



parts are fertile, and produce orange, 
myrtle, cypress, date, ana chesmut trees, 
vines, wheat, cocoa, cofiee, sugar-cane» 
&c. The elevation of the Peak is about 
12,250 feet In ascending it, the first 
eminence is called Monte Verde : beyond 
this is the Mountain of Pines ; after 
passing which, the traveller reaches a 
plain called, by the natives, Mmdon de 
TVigo^ on which the Peak stands. It is 
a mountainous platform, rising more than 
7000 feet above the level of the plain. 
The Piton or sugEur-loaf summit is very 
steep, and can be ascended only on the 
east and south-east sides. At the eleva- 
tion of 9786 feet is a platform of pumice 
stones, bordered by two currents of lava : 
beyond it the acclivity is very steep, the 
currents of lava bemg covered with 
masses of scoriae. Towards the summit, 
nothing but pumice stone is to be seen. 
The crater is of an elliptical form, about 
1200 feet in circuit, but has long since 
ceas